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Vol. IL 






PART in. 




General Zoological Features of the Keotropioal K gi (p B)— Duit t Ch rao 
ters of Neotropical Mammalia {p. 6)— Of Ne trop al B li (p )— N«ot peal 
Eeptiles (p. 9t— Fresli-water Fishes (p. 12)— I set (p 13)— Col ptera (i 16) 
—Land Shells (p. 10)— Marine Shells (p. 20)— B ili S b reg (p 21)— 
Its Mammalia (p. S3}-ltsBiid3 {p. 24)-l3l d fTpcalSthAmea 
Galapflgos (p. 29}— Chilian Sub-region (p 3>— B d (p 88}— B [til sail 
Amphibia (p. 40>—J'resh-water Fishes (p. 42)— Lep 1 pteia (p 43)— C 1 ptei-t 
(p. 54)- Islands of South Temperate Am (p 48)— M n b ^ 

(p. 51)— Mammalia and Birds (p. fi2)— Reptil and F hes (p 54)— I ts 
(p. 55)— Relations of the MedoanSiib-regio t th N th dS thAm n 
Continents (p. 57)— Islands of the Mexicsn '^ I g (p 59)— Th A till n 
Sub-region (p. 60)— Its Mammalia (p. 62)— It B rd (p 64)- T hi f tl 
Resident Land Birds of the Antilles (p. 68j— Rptl (p 7 1— Insect (p 73) 
—Land Shells (p. 76)— P tH t fth A tiH (p 78)— S m ly f th 
Past History of tbB Keot poalPinntp 80)— T bl I Pml fA ml 
inhabiting the Neotrop al E gi n (p 85)— T bl II G ra f T ire tn 1 
Mammalia and Birds of th Neotrop cal Eegi (p 91) 1—113 




Zoological Characteriaties of the Kenietic Kegion (p. 115)— List of Typical No- 
arctic Geuera of Land Birds (p 118)— Summary of NearctieVertebrata (p. 120) 
—Insects (p. 123) — Terrestrial and Elnviatilo Mollusea (p. 124)— The Califor- 
nian Sub-region (p. 127)—- The Rocky Mountain Sub-region (p. 129) — The 
Alleghany Sub-region (p. 131) -The Bermndaa (p. 134)— The Cauadian Snh- 
region (p. 135)— Greenland (p. ISSj^Table I; Families of Animals inhabiting 
the Nearctic Region (p. 140)— Table II. Genera of Terrestrial Mammalia and 
Birds of the Nearctic Region (p, 145) , 114 — 168 



Intkodttotion o . . 1C7— 169 



Primates (p. 170)— General Eemarks on the Distciliutbn of Primates (p. 179) — 
Chiroptera (p. 181) — Remarks on llie Distribution of Chiraptera (p. 186) — 
Inaectivora (p, 186) — General Remarks on the Distribution of Inaectivora 
(p. 191)— Carnivora (p. 192) — General Remariffl on the Distributioii of the 
CamiYora (p. 204)— Cetacea (p, 207)— Sirenia (p, 210)— Ungulata (p. 211)— 
General Remarks on the Diatribntion of the Ungulata (p. 226) — Proboaoidea 
(p. 227)— -Hyraooidea (p. 228)— Kodeatia (p. 229)— General Esmarka on the 
Distribution of the Rodenlia (p. 243) — Edentata (p. 244) — General Remai'ks 
on the Diatrihntion of the Edentata (p. 247)— Marsupialia (p. 248) - General 
■ Kemarkson the Distribution of Marsupialia (p. 353) — Monotremata (p. 253) 






'asscreB (p. 356)— General Kemarks on the Distriljntion of the Passeres (p. 299)— 
Pioaria:(p. 302)— General Eemarks on tteDistribntion of the Picariis {p. 323) 
— Psittaoi (p. 324)— General Eamarks on the Distribntion of the Fsittaei 
(p. 329)— Columhte (p. 331)— General Remarks on tho DistribulJon of the 
Colnmbte (p. 835)— Gallinto {p. 387) — General Remarks on the Dietribution of 
Gallins (p. 3i4)— OpiBthoeomi (p. 345)— Accipitrea (p. 845)— General Ea- 
raarks on the Distribution of the Accipitres (p. B61|— Grails (p. 361)^J3eneral 
Remarks on the Dialribution of the Grallfs (p. 362)— Anseres (p. 363)— Geiieral 
Remarks on the Diatribution of the AnsereB {p. 367)— Struthioces (p. 368) — 
Stmthions Birds recently Extinct (p. 369)— General Remarks on the Distri- 
bution of the Struthionea (p. 370) 255—371 



Ophdimp 872) General Eemarka on the Distribntion of Ophidia (p. 386)— 
La ertil a (p 388) Gene at Eomi ks on the Dietribntion of Lraceltilia (p, 403) 
Ehynoo ephal na (p 405)- Crocodilia (p. 405)— General Eemarks on the 
D stnb t on of Cro od I a (p 406)— Chelonia (p. 407)— Remarks on the Dis- 
tJihution of Chelonia (p. 410) Amphibia, Pseudophidia (p. 411)— Urodela 
(p. ill)— Anura (p. 414)— General Remarks on the Distribution of Amphibia 
(p. 422) 372-423 



Acanthopterygii (p. 424)— Aeanthoptery^i Pharyogngnathi (p, 437)— Anaoan- 
thini (p. 439)— Pbysostomi (p. 441)— LophobraupMi (p. 4E6)— Pleotognathi 
(p. 457) Birenoidei (p. 458)-Ganoidei (p. 458)— Uhondropterygii (p. 460)— 
Cyolostoraata (p. 463)- Leptocardii (p. 464)- Eemarka on the Distribution of 
Fishes (p. 464) 424—467 




Lepidoptera (p. 470) — General Remarks on tlie Distribation of the Diuinal Lepi- 
doptara eod Sphingidaa (p. 483)— Coleoptera (p. 436)— Cicindelidse (p, 486)— 
Caiabidffi (p. 488)— Lueanidfo (p, 492) — Cetomidie (p, 494)- Buprestidie 
(p. 495) — ^Longieornii (p. 498) — General Obaervations on tbe Distribution of 
Coleoptera (p. 502) *. ----- 


Cephalopoda (p 605) — Oasteropodi (p 507) — Pulmonifera (p. fiI2) — General 
Observatoni on the Distribution of Land Mollugoa (p, 522)— Pteropoda 
(p 581)— Brachiopoda (p 5J2)— Coni-hifera (p. 683)— General Remarks on the 
Distnbution ot Marine Molluaca (p. 687) 504—539 



Mammalia (p. 540)— Lines of Migration of the Mammalia |p. 544) — Birda (p. 54B) 
Reptiles (p. 547)^Amphibia (p. 548) — Fresh-water Fishes (p. 649)— Insects 
(p. 550)— Teiresttial MoUnsca (p. 561)--ConcIusioD (p. 553) . 540—553 

Qeneral Ikdbx 



1. Map of the Keotropical Kegion 3 

2. Plate XIV. A Brazilian Forest with Characteristic Mammalia . , 24 

S, Plato XV. A Scene on tJie Upper Amazon, with some Characteristic 

Birda 28 

i. Plate XVI. The Chilian Andes, vrifh Charaeteristio Animals . , 40 

5. Plate XVn. A Scene ill Cuba, with Charaeteristio Animala , . 67 

8, Map of the Nearctio Kegion 115 

7. Hate XVIII. Scene in California with some Characteristic Birds . . 123 

8. Plate XIX The North American Prairieswith Characteristic Mammalia 130 

9. Plate XS. A Canadian Forest with Characteristic Mammalia . 136 





PART in. (continued.) 







This region, eompreliending not only South America but Tropical 
North America and the Antilles, may be compared as to extent 
with the Ethiopian region ; but it is distinguished from all the 
other great zoological divisions of the globe, by the smaR pro- 
portion of its surface occupied by deserts, by the large proportion 
of its lowlands, and by the altogether unec[ual]ed extent and 
luximauce of its tropical forests. It further possesses a grand 
mountain range, rivalling the Himalayas in altitude and far 
surpassing them in extent, and which, being wholly situated 
within the region and running through eighty degrees of latitude, 
offers a variety of conditions and an extent of mountain slopes, 
of lofty plateaus and of deep valleys, which no other tropical re- 
gion can approach. It has a further advantage in a southward 
prolongation far into the temperate zone, equivalent to a still 
greater extension of its lofty plateaus ; and this has, no doubt, 
aided the development of the peculiar alpine forms of life which 
abound in the southern Andes. The climate of this region is 
exceptionally favourable. Owing to the lofty mountain range 
situated along its western margin, the moiature-laden trade winds 
from the Atlantic have free access to the interior. A sufficient 
proportion of this moisture reaches the higher slopes of the Andes, 
where its condensation gives rise to innumerable streams, which 
cut deep ravines and carry down such an amount of sediment, 
that they have formed the vast plains of the Amazon, of Para^ 



guay, and of the Orinooko out of what were once, no doubt, arms 
of the sea, separating the large islands of Guiana, Brazil, and the 
Andes. From these concuri'ent favourable conditions, there has 
resulted that inexhaustible variety of generic and specific forms 
with a somewhat limited range of family and ordinal types, 
which characterise neotropical zoology to a degree nowhere else 
to be met with. 

Together with this variety and richness, there is a remarkable 
uniformity of animal life over all the tropical continental portions 
of the region, so that its division into sub-regions is a matter 
of some difBculty. There is, however, no doubt about separating 
the West Indian islands as, forming a well-marked subdivision- 
eharaeteriged, not only by that poverty of forms which is a 
general feature of ancient insular groups, hut also by a number 
of peculiar generic types, some of which are c[uite foieign to the 
remainder of the region. We must exclude, however the island-i 
of Trinidad, Tobago, and a few other small islands near the cox-it 
which zoologically form a part of the main land. Again, the 
South Temperate portion of the continent, together with the high 
plateaus of the Andes to near the equator, form a well-marked 
subdivision, characterised by a peculiar fauna, very distinct both 
positively and negatively from that of the tropical lowland dis- 
tricts. The rest of Tropical South America is so homogeneous in 
its forms of life that it cannot be conveniently subdivided for the 
purposes of a work like the present. There are, no doubt, con- 
siderable differences in various parts ofite vastarea, due partly to 
its havii^ been once separated into three or more islands, in part 
to existing diversities of physical conditions ; and more exact 
knowledge may enable ns to form several pravinces or perhaps 
additional sub-regions. A large proportion of the genera, how- 
ever, when sufficiently numerous in species, range over almost 
the whole extent of this sub-region wherever the conditions are 
favourable. Even the Andes do not seem to form such a barrier 
as has been supposed. North of the equator, where its western 
slopes are moist and forest-clad, most of the genera are found on 
both sides. To the south of this line its western valleys are arid 
and its lower plains almost deserts ; and thus the s. 



number of groups to whicli verdant forests are essential, can be 
traced to the unsuitable conditions ratber tban to the existence 
of the mountain barrier. All Tropical South America, therefore, 
is here considered to form but one sub-region. 

The portion of North America that lies witbin tbe tropics, 
closely, r^embles the last sub-region in general zoological features. 
It possesses hardly iny po itive distinctions but therp aie several 
of a negative chiiacter many impoitant gioups bein^ wholly 
confined to South America On the othei hind miuj genera 
range into Mexico and Guatemali iiom the north which never 
reach South 4meiica &o thit it i^ convenient to sepirate this 
district as a sub-region wbiuh foimn to seme extent a transition 
to the Neanjtic region. 

General Zoological Featuies of thb Not opii,aI Rtjion — Eich- 
ness combined with isolation is the predommant ftiture of 
Neotropical zojlogy and no other region can approach it in 
the number of its pecuhir fimily ani geneiic tjpes It has 
eight families of Mimmaha absolutely confined to it besides 
several others which are rire el&e'where These conai'^t of two 
families of monkeys, CebidEB and Hapahda, both abounding in 
genera and species ; the PhyllostomidEe, or blood-sucking bats ; 
Chinchillidte and Gaviid® among rodents ; besides the greater 
part of the OctodontidEe, Echimyid^e and Cercolabid^, Among 
edentata, it has Bradypodidte, or sloths, DasypodidEC, or armadillos, 
and Myrmecophagidffi, or auteaters, constituting nearly the entire 
order ; while Procyonidas, belonging to tlie carnivora, and Didel- 
phyidie, a famUy of marsupials, only extend into the Nearetie 
region. It has also many peculiar groups of carnivora and of 
Muridfe, making a total of full a hundred genera confined to the 
region. Hardly less retoarkahle is the absence of many wide- 
spread groups. With tbe exception of one genus in the West 
Indian islands and a Sor&i; which teaches Guatemala and Costa 
Eica, the Inaectivora are wholly wanting ; as is also the extensive 
and wide-spread family of tbe Viverridse. It lias no oxen or 
sheep, and indeed no foi'm of ruminant except deer and llamas ; 
neither do its vast foreata and grassy plains support a single form 
of non-ruminant ungulate, except tbe tapir and tbe peccary. 



Birds. — In Ijjrds, the Neotropical region is even richer and more 
isolated. It possesses no leas than 23 families wholly confined 
within its limits, with 7 others which only extend into the Nearc- 
tic region. The names of the peculiar famUies are : Ccerebid^, or 
sugar-birds ; Phytotomid^e, or plant-cuttera ; Pipridie, or mana- 
kins ; Cotii^dffi, or chatterers ; Jonnicariidie, or ant-thrushes ; 
DendrocolaptidaB, or tree-creepers ; Pteroptochidfe ; Ehamphas- 
tidse, or toucans ; Bucconidse, or puff-birds ; Galbnlidfe, or jaca- 
mas; Todidie, or todies; Momotidte, or motmots; Steatomithidte. 
the guachato, or oil-hird; Cracidte, or cuiaasowa; Tinamidfe, or 
tinamous ; Opisthocomidfe, thehoazin ; Thinocoridce ; CariamidEe; 
Araipidfe ; Psophiidfe, or trumpeters ; Eurypygid^e, or sun-bitterns ; 
and Palamedeidte, or horned-screamers. The seven which it 
possesses in common with North America are ; Vireooidte, or 
greenlets ; MniotiltidEe, or wood- warblers ; Tanagridse, or tana- 
gers ; Icteridte, or hang-nests ; Tyrannidas, or tyrant-shrikes ; 
TrochihdEe, or hiunming-birds ; and Conuridte, or macaws. Most 
of these families abound in genera and species, and many are of 
immense extent ; such as TrocbilidEe, with 116 genera, and nearly 
400 species ; TyrannidEe, with more than 60 genera and nearly 
300 species ; Tanagridfe, with 43 genera and 300 species ; Den- 
drocolaptidffi with 43 genera and more than 200 species ; and 
many other very large groups. There are nearly 600 genera 
peculiar to the Neotropical region ; but in using this number as 
a basis of comparison with other regions we must remember, that 
owing to several ornithologists having made the birds of South 
America a special study, they have perhaps been more minutely 
subdivided than in the case of otlier entire tropical regions. 

Distinctive Charad&i's of Neotropical MaTrvmalia. — It is im- 
portant also to consider the kind and amount of difference 
between the various animal forms of this region and of the 
Old World. To begin with the Quadrumana, all the larger 
American monkeys (Cebidse) differ from every Old World group 
in the possession of an additional molar tooth in each jaw ; and 
it is in this group alone that the tail is developed into a prehen- 
sile oi^an of wonderful power, adapting the animals to a purely 
arboreal life. Four of the genera, comprising more than half the 



species, have the prehensile tail, the remainder having this organ 
either short, or lax as in the Old World monkeys. Other dif- 
ferences from Old World apea, are the possession of a broad nasal 
septum, and a less opposahle thumb ; and the absence of cheet- 
pouches, ischial callosities, and a bony ear-tube. The Hapalidse, 
or marmozets, agree with the Cebidfc in all these characters, but 
have others in addition which still more widely separate them from 
the Simiidse ; such as an additional premolar tiooth, acute claws, and 
thumb not at all opposable ; so that the whole group of American 
monkeys are radically different from the remainder of the order. 

The Procyonidfe are a distinct family of Carnivora, which make 
up for the scarcity of Mustelidfe in South America. The Suidse 
are represented by the very distinct genus Dicotyles (Peccsxy) form- 
ing a separate sub-family, and differing from all other genera in 
their dentition, the absence of tail and of one of the toes of the 
liind feet, the possession of a dorsal gland, and only two mamraee. 
The rodents are i-epresented by the Chinchillidai and Caviidse, 
the latter comprising the largest animals in the order. The 
Edentata are almost wholly confined to this region ; and the three 
families of, the sloths (Bradypodidje), armadillos (Dasypodidce), 
and ant-eaters (Myrmecophagidffi), are widely separated in struc- 
ture from any Old World animals. Lastly, we have the opossums 
(DidelphyidEc), a family of mars p al b t ha n 1 a& 

nity to any of the mimerous Atlnfm ftlat d 
We have already arrived at the n lu n tl at tl i of 

marsupials in South America isntd t nyd ttnf 
enoe from Australia, but that th n la t mp t ly 

recent, and that they came from the Old ^\ oild bj waj of North 
America (vol. i., p. 155). But the numerous and deep-seated 
peculiarities of many other of its maminalia, would indicate a 
very remote origin ; and a long-continued isolation of South 
America from the rest of the world is required, in order to account 
for the preservation and development of so many distinct groups 
of comparatively low-type quadrupeds. 

Dislinetive Oharacters of Neotropical Birds, — The birds which 
are especially characteristic of this region, present similar 
distinctive features. In the enormous group of 

Vol. II.— 2 



birds wliich, though comprising nearly three -fourths of the 
entire class, yet presents hardly any well-marked, differences 
of structure by which it can be subdivided — the families confined 
to America are, for the moat part, more closely related to each 
other than to the Old World groups. The ten famihes forming 
the group of " Pormicaroid Passeres," in our arrangement (vol 
i., p. 94), are characterised by the absence of singing muscles in 
thelarynx, and also by an unusual development of the first primary 
qydll ; and seven of this series of families (which are considered 
to be less perfectly developed than the great mass of Old World 
e exclusively American, the three belonging to the 
1 hemisphere being of small extent. Another group of 
ten families— our " Tanagroid Passeres," are characterised by the 
abortion or very rudimentary condition of the first ijuill ; and of 
these, five are exclusively American, and have numerous genera 
and species, while only two are non-American, and these axe of 
small extent. On the other hand the " Turdoid Passeres," con- 
sisting of 23 families and comprising all the true " singing-birds," 
is poorly represented in America; no family being exclusively 
Neoti'opical, and only three being at all fully represented in South 
America, though they comprise the great mass of the Old World 
passeres. These peculiarities, which group together whole series 
of families of American birds, point to early separation and loi^ 
isolation, no less surely than the more remarkable structural 
diveigences presented by the Neotropical nianamalia. 

In the Picarise, we have first, the toucans (Rhamphastidte) ; 
an extraordinary and beautiful family, whose enormous gaily- 
coloured bills and long feathered tongues, separate them widely 
ftom all other birds. The Galbulidte or jacamars, the motmots 
(Momotidte), and the curious little todies (Todidjo) of the 
Antilles, are also isolated groups. But most remarkable of all 
is the wonderful family of the humming-birds, which ranges 
over all America from Tierra del Puego to Sitka, and from the 
level plains of the Amazon to above the snow-line on the Andes ; 
which abounds both in genera, species, and individuals, and is 
yet strictly confined to this continent alone ! How vast must 
have been the time required to develop those beautiful and 



highly specialized forms out of some ancestral swift-like type- 
how complete and loog continued the isolation of theii birth- 
place to have allowed of their modification and adaptation to 
such divergent climates and conditions, yet never to have per- 
mitted them to establish themselves in the other continents. 
No naturalist can study in detail this single fandly of birds, 
without being profoundly impressed with the vast antiq^uity ol 
the South American continent, its long isolation from the rest of 
the land surface of the globe, and the persistence through countless 
ages of all the conditions rec[msite for the development and 
increase of varied forms of animal life. 

Passing on to the parrot tribe, we find the peculiar family of the 
ConuridiB, of which the macaws are the highest development, very 
lai^ely represented. It is in the gallinaceous birds however that 
we again meet with wholly isolated groups. The Cracidse, in- 
cluding the curassows and guans, have no immediate relations 
with any of the Old "World families. Professor Huxley considers 
tbem to approach nearest to (though still very remote from) the 
Au3tralia,n megapodes ; and here, as in the case of the marsu- 
pials, we probably have divergent modifications of an ancient 
t3^e once widely distributed, not a direct communication between 
the southern continents. The Tinamidffi or tinamous, point to a 
atm more remote antic[uity, since their nearest allies are believed 
to be the Struthiones or ostrich tribe, of which a few repre- 
sentatives are scattered widely over the globe. The hoaain of 
Guiana (Opisthocomus) is another isolated form, not only the 
type of a family, but perhaps of an extinct order of birds. Pass- 
ing on to the waders, we have a number of peculiar family types, 
all indicative of antic[ui'fcy and isolation. The Cariama of the 
plains of Brazil, a bird somewhat intermediate between a bustard 
and a hawk, is one of these ; the elegant PsopMa or trumpeter of 
the Amazonian forests ; the beautiful little sun-bittern of the 
river banks {Eurypygci) ; and the horned screamers (Palamedea), 
all form distinct and isolated families of birds, to which the Old 
World offers nothing directly comparable. 

Beptiles. — The Neotropical r^on is very rich in varied forme 
of reptile life, and the species are very abundant. It has six 



altogether peculiar families, and several othe wl h nly rai^e 
into the Kearctic region, as well as a vei) la e n 1 of pecu- 
liar or characteristic genera. As the o d s of i t lea differ 
considerably in their distributional feat they must be con- 

sidered separately. 

The snakes (Ophidia) diifer from all other reptiles, and from 
most other orders of vertebrates, in the wide avei-age distribution 
of the families; so that such an isolated region as the Neotrop- 
ical possesses no peculiar family, nor even one confined to the 
American continent. The families of most restricted mhge are — 
the Scytalidfe, only found elsewhere in the PhiUppine islanda ; 
the Amblycephalidfe, common to the Oriental and Neotropical 
regions ; and the Tortricidfe, most abundant in the Oriental region, 
but. found also in the Austro-Malay islands and Tropical South 
America. Sixteen of the families of snakes occur in the region, 
the Coluhridss, AmblycephalidEe, and Pythonidie, being those 
which are best represented by peculiar forms. There are 25 pecu- 
liar or characteristic genera, the most important beingi?romiciis 
(Cohibridae) ; Boa, Mpicrates, and Ungcdia (PythonidEe) ; Ela^s 
(Elapidte) ; and Cra»pedoceph,alus (Orotalidfe). 

The lizards (Lacerjilia) are generally more restricted in their 
range; hence we find that out of 15 families which inhabit the 
region, 5 are altogether peculiar, and 4 more extend only to N. 
America. The peculiar families are Helodermidte, Anadiad^, 
ChirocoiidEe, Iphisiadfe, and Cei-cosaurid^e ; but it must be noted 
that these all possess but a single genus each, and only two of 
them (ChirocolidK and Cercosauridte) have more than a single 
species. The famihea which range over both South and North 
America are OhirotidK, Chalcidte, Teidse, and Iguanidas; the 
first and second are of small extent, but the other two are very 
large groups, the Teidse possessing 12 generaand near 80 species; 
the Iguanidffi 40 genera and near 150 species ; the greater part of 
which are Neotropical. There are more than 50 peculiar or highly 
characteristic genera of lizards, about 40 of which belong to the 
Teidte and Iguanidse, which thus especially characterize the 
region, The moat" important and, characteristic genera are the 
following : Amdva (Teidffi) ; Gymiwpthalmus (Gymnopthalmid^) ; 



Gdestus and Diploglossus (Seincidfe) ; Sphcerodactylus (Gecko- 
tidte) ; lAocephalns, Liulmmus, Prodotretus, and many smaller 
genera (Iguanidfe). The three extensive Old World families 
Varanidse, Laeertidse, and Agamidte, ate absent from the entire 
American continent 

In the order Crocodilia, America has the peculiar iamily of 
the alligators (AUigatoridEe), as well as several species of true 
crocodiles (Crocodilidte). The Chelonia (tortoises) are repre- 
sented by the families Testudinida: and Chelydidte, both of wide 
range; but there are six pec-uliar genera^ — D&rmatemys andSlaii' 
Totypus belonging to the former family, — Peltoce^luilus, Podo- 
cnemis, Hydromedtisa, and GkpJys, to the latter. Some of the 
Amazon river-turtles of the genus Podocnemt/s rival in size the 
largest species of true marine turtles (Cheloniidfe), and are equally 
good for food. 

Amphibm. — The Neotropical region possesses representatives 
of sixteea families of Amphibia of which four are peculiar ; all 
belonging to Anoura or tail-lees Batiachians. The Cfeciliadse 
or snake-like amphibia, are represented by two pecul' ra 

Siphonopsis and Ekinatrema,. Tailed Batrachians re ilm t 
unknown, only a few species of Spelerpes (Salamandr \ai) nt 
ing Central America, and one extending as far so tl th 

Andes of Bogota in South America. Tail-less Batr 1 n n 
the other hand, are abundant ; there being 14 famil p 

sented, of «'hich 4, — EhinophryndEe, Hylaplesidie, PI t m n 
tidfe, and Pipidfe are peculiar. Kone of these famU nt n 

more than a single genus, and only the second more than a 
single species ; so that it is not these which give a character to 
the South American Amphibia-fauna. The most important and 
best represented families are, Eanidfe (true frogs), with eleven 
genera and more thah 50 species ; Polypedatidte (tree-frogs) 
with seven genera and about 40 species ; Hylidte (tree-frogs) 
with eight genera and nearly 30 species ; EngystomidEe (toads) 
(5 genera), Eombinatoridfe (frogs), (4 genera), Phryniscidse and 
BufonidEe (toads), (each with 2 genera), are also fairly represen- 
ted. All these families are widely distributed, but the Neotropi- 
cal genera are, in almost every case, peculiar. 



Fresh-water fishes. — The great rivers of Tropical America abound 
in fish of many strange forms and peculiar types. Three fami- 
lies, and three sub-family gronps are peculiar, while the number 
of peculiar genera is about 120. The pecuhar families are Poly- 
centridfe, with two genera ; GymnotidEe, a family which includes 
the electric eels, (5 genera) ; and Trygonid^e, the rays, which are 
everywhere marine except in the great rivers of South America, 
where many species are found, belonging to two genera. Of the 
extensive family Silurid^e, three sub-families SUuridse anomalo- 
pterte, S. olisthopterEe, and S. branchiol^e, are confined to this 
region. The larger and more important of the pecuhar genera 
are the following ; Perdlia,, inhabiting Chilian and Percichthys 
South Temperate rivers, belong to the Perch family (Percidte) ; 
Acharrtes, found only in Guiana, belongs to the Candida;, a 
family of wide range iu the tropics ; the Chromid^e, a family of 
exclusively fresh- water fishes found in the tropics of the Ethio- 
pian, Oriental and Keotropical regions, are here represented by 
15 genera, the more important being Acara (17 sp.), He^-os (26 
sp.), GrenicicMa (9 sp.), Satano^ena, (7 sp.). Many of these iishes 
are beautifully marked and colotued. The Silurida) proterop- 
tetse are represented by 14 genera, of which Pimdodm (42 sp.), 
and Plaiystoma (11 sp.), are the most important; the Siluridte 
stenobranehife by 11 genera, the chief being Doras (13 sp.), 
Auckenipierus (9 sp.), and Oxydoras (7 sp.). The Siluridce pro- 
teropodes are represented by 16 genera, many of them being among 
the most singular of fresh-water fishes, clothed in coats of mail, 
and armed with hooks and serrated spines. The following are 
the most important, — Chmtostomus (25 sp.), Loricaria. (17 sp.), 
Pkcostorms (15 sp,) and OaUichthys (11 sp.). The Characinidffi 
are divided between .Tropical America and Tropical Africa, the 
former possessing about 40 genera and 200 species. The Hap- 
lochitonidfe are confined to South America and ■ Australia ; the 
American genus being Saplochiton. The Cyprinodontidte are 
represented by 18 genera, the most important being, Pcecilia (16 
sp.), Gia-ardinus (10 sp.), and Gamlmia (8 sp.) The Osteoglos- 
sidai, found in Australian and African rivers, are represented in 
South America by the peculiar ^rajxMma, the "pirarucu" of the 



Amazon. The ancient Sirenoidei, also found in Australia and 
Africa, have the Lepidosirem, as their American representative. 
Lastly, EllipisuTUB is a genus of rays peculiar to the fresh waters 
of South America. We may expect these numbers to be largely 
increased and many new genera to be added, when the extensive 
collections made by Agassiz in Brazil are described. 

Summary of Neotropical Vertebrates.— Sntammzmg the pre- 
ceding facts, we find that the Neotropical r^ion possesses no 
less than 45 families and more than 900 genera of Yertebrata 
which are altogether peculiar to it ; while it has representatives 
of 168 families out of a total of 330, showing that 162 families 
are altogether absent. It has also representatives of 131 genera 
of Mammalia of which 103 are peculiar to it, a proportion of 4^ ; 
while of 683 genera of land-hu'ds no less than 576 are peculiar, 
being almost exactly |- of the whole. These numbers and pro- 
portions are far higher than in the case of any other region. 

The Neotropical region is so excessively rich in insect 1 
so abounds in peculiar groups, in forms of excLuieite 1 
and in an endless profusion of species, that no adequate idea of 
this branch of its fauna can be conveyed by the mere enumera- 
tion of peculiar and characteristic groups, to which we are here 
compelled to limit ourselves. Our facts and figures wiU, how- 
ever, furnish data for comparison; and wiU thus enable those 
who have some knowledge of the entomology of any other 
country, to form a better notion of the vast wealth of insect life 
in this region, than a more general and picturesque description 
could afford thera. 

Lepidoptera. — The Butterflies of South America surpass those 
of all other i^ons in numbers, variety and beauty ; and we 
find here, not only more peculiar genera and families than else- 
where, hut, what is very remarkable, a fuller representation of 
the whole series of families. Out of the 16 families of butter- 
flies in all parts of the world, 13 are found here, and 3 of these 
are wholly peculiar — Brassolidee, Heliconidse, and Eurygonidte, 
with a fourth, Erycinidte, which only extends into the Nearctic 



region ; so tliat there are 4 families peculiar to America, These, 
four familiea comprise 68 genera and more than 800 species ; 
alone constituting a very important feature in the entomology of 
the region. But in almost all the other familiea there are 
nwmhers of pecuUar genera, amounting in all to about 200, or 
not far short of half the total number of genera in the world — 
(431). We must briefly notice some o£ the pecuharities of the 
several famiUes, as represented in this region. The Danaidte 
consist of 15 genera, all peculiar, and differing widely from the 
generally sombre-tinted forma of the rest of the world. The 
delicate transparent-winged Ithomias of which 160 species are 
described, are the most remarkabla Melitum, Napeogenes, 
Ceratina and Dircenna are more gaily coloured, and are among 
the chief ornaments of the forests. The Satyridte are repre- 
sented by 25 peculiar genera, many of great beauty ; the most 
remarkable and elegant being the genus Matera and its allies, 
whose transparent wings are delicately marked with patches of 
orange, pink, or violet, The genua Morpho is perhaps the 
grandest development of the butterfly type, being of immense 
size and adorned with the most brilliant azure tints, which in 
some spexiies attain a splendour of metallic lustre unsurpassed 
in nature. The Erassolidse are even larger, but are crepuscular 
insects, with rich though sober colouring. The true Helieonii 
are magnificent insects, most elegantly marked with brilliant 
and strongly contrasted tints. The Nymphalidse are repreaented 
by such a variety of goi^eous insects that it is difficult to select 
examples. Prominent are the genera Gatagramma and CalUthea, 
whose exquisite colours and symmetrical markings are unicLue 
and indescribable ; and these are in some cases rivalled by 
Agrias and Frepona, which reproduce their style of coloration 
although not closely alhed to them. The Erycinidfe, consisting 
of 59 genera and 560 species, comprise the most varied and 
beautiful of amaU butterflies ; and it would be useless to attempt 
to indicate the unimaginable coinbinations of form and colour 
they present. It must be sufficient to say that nothing elsewhere 
on the globe at all resembles them. In Lycfenidffi the world- 
wide genus Thecla is wonderfully developed, and the >South 



American species not onlyaurpass allothers in size^and beauty, but 
some of them are so gorgeous on the under surface of their 
wings, as to exceed almost all the combinations of metallic tints 
we meet with in nature. The last family, Hesperidas, is ako 
wonderfully developed here, the species being excessively nu- 
merous, while some of them redeem the character of this generally 
sober family, by their rich and elegant coloration. 

In the only other group of Lepidoptera we can here notice, 
the Spliingina, the Neotropical region possesses some peculiar 
forms. The magnificent diurnal butterfly-like moths, Urania, 
are the most remarkable ; and they are rendered more interesting 
by the occurrence of a species closely resembling them in 
Madagascar. Another family of day-flying moths, the Castniidse, 
is almost ec[ually divided between the Neotropical and Australian 
regions, although the genera are more numerous in the latter. 
The American Castnias are laige, thick-bodied insects, with a 
coarse scaly surface and rich dull colours ; differing widely from 
the glossy and gaily coloured Agaristas, which are typical of the 
family in the East. 

Coleopiera. — This is so vast a subject that, as in the case of the 
regions already treated, we must confine our attention to a few of 
the more important and best known families as representatives 
of the entire order. 

Cicindelidse. — We find here examples of 15 out of the 35 genera 
of these insects ; and 10 of these geneva are peculiar. The most 
important are OxycMla (11 sp.), Hiresia (14 sp.), and Gtmostoma 
(26 sp.). Odonfochila (57 sp^) is the most abundant and cha^ 
racteristic of all, but is not wholly pecuhar, there being a species 
in the Malay archipelago. Tetracha, another large genus, has. 
species in Australia and a few in North America and Europe. 
The small genus Perid&da is divided between Brazil and Mada- 
gascar, — a somewhat similar distribution to that of Urania noticed 
above. One genus, At/rius, is confined to the southern extremity 
of the continent. 

Carabidffi. — Besides a considerable number of cosmopolitan 
or wide-spread genera, this family is represented by more than 
100 genera which ace peculiar to the Neotropical region. The 



most important of these are Agra (150 sp.), Ardisionus (44 sp.), 
Schtzogeniiis (25 sp.), Fdeciiim (24 sp.), Oalophma (22 sp.), ^s- 
pidoglossa (21 ap.), and Lia, Gamptodonotus, 8teno(yrepis, and 
Lachnophorus, mth each more than 12. species. These are all 
tropical ; tut there are also a numter of genera (26) peculiar to 
Chili and South Temperate America. The most important of 
these are Antarctic (29 sp.), all except two or three confined to 
South Temperate America ; ScdodonUs (10 sp.), mostly Chilian ; 
FeronoTiiorpTia (6 sp.) all Chilian; and Tropidoptems (4 sp.), all 
Chihan. Helluomorpha (18 sp.), is confined to North and South 
America ; Galerita, Callida, and Tetragonoderus, are large genera 
which are chiefly South American but with a few species scat- 
tered over the other tropical r^ions. Casnonia . and Lebia are 
cosmopolite, hut moat abundant in South America. Pachytdes is 
mostly South American hut with a few species in W^t Africa; 
■while Ldbodonotits has one species in South America and two in 

Lucanidse. — The Neotropical species of this family almost all 
belong to peculiar genera- Those common to other regions are 
Syndesus, confined to Tropical South America and Australia, and 
Matycerus which is Palfearctic and Nearctic, with one species in 
Brazil The most remarkable genus is undoubtedly Chiasogna- 
ihus, confined to Chili, These are large insects of metallic green 
colours, and armed with enormous serrated mandibles. The 
allied genera, Pholidotus and SphmognatJius,. inhabit Tropical 
South America. Str&ptocerus confined to Chih, is interesting, as 
being allied to the. Australian LampHma. The other genera 
present no remarkable features ; but Sclerognathus and Zeptino- 
ptera are the most extensive. 

Cetoniida. — These magnificent insects are but poorly repre- 
sented in America ; the species being mostly of sombre colours. 
TheiB are 14 genera, 12 of which are peculiar. The most exten- 
sive genus is Gymnetis, which, with its allies Cotinis and Allor- 
Mna, form a group which comprehends two-thirds of the Neotro- 
pical species of the family. The only other genera of importance 
are, Inca (7 sp.), remarkable for tlieir large size, and being the 
only American group in which horns are developed on ,the head ; 



and Tfigonopeltastes (6 sp.), "allied to the European Trichius. The 
non-peculiar genera are, Stelkodesma, of which half the species 
axe African and half tropical American; and Ewphoria, confined, 
to America hoth North and South. 

Euprestidfe. — In this fine group the Keotiopieal region is 
toleratly rich, having examples of 39 genera, 18 of which are 
peculiar to it. Of these, the most extensive are Oonognatha and 
Malecia, ■which have a wide range over most parts of the region ; 
and Badylozodes, confined to the south temperate zone. Of im- 
portant genera which range beyond the region, Bicerca is mainly 
Nearctic' and Paltearctic ; Cinyra has a species in North America 
and one in Australia ; Curls is divided between Chili and 
Australia ; the Australian genus Stigmodera has a species in Chili ; 
Folycesta has a species in Madagascar, two in the Mediterranean 
region, and a few in North America ; Achentsia is divided between 
Australia and Brazil ; Ptodma has one species in south tempe- 
rate America, the rest widely scattered from North America to 
the Philippines ; Aetenodes has a single species in North Ame- 
rica and another in West Africa ; ColobogoBter has two in "West 
Africa, one in Java and one in the Moluccas, The relations of 
South America and Australia as indicated by these insects has 
already been sufiiciently noticed under the latter region. 

Longicornia. — The Neotropical Longieom Coleoptera are over- 
whelming in their numbers and ■ variety, their singularity and 
their beauty. In the recent Catalogue of Gemminger and 
Harold, it is credited with 516 genera, 489 of which are peculiar 
to it ; while it has only 5 genera in common (exclusively) with 
the Nearctic, and 4 (in the same way) with the Australitui region. 
Only the more important genera can be here referred to, under 
the three great families into which these insects are divided. 

The Prionidte are excessively numerous, being grouped in 64 
genera, more than double the number possessed by any other 
region ; and 61 of these are peculiar. The three, common to 
ottiet regions, are, Parandra and MaUodon, which are widely 
distributed ; and Ergates, found also in California and Europe. 
The most remarkable genera are, the magnificently-coloured 
thus and Pyrodes; the lai^e and strangely marked 



and Titanus, the largest insect of the entire 

Of the Cerambycidaj there are 233 genera, exceeding by one- 
half, the number in any other region; and 225 of these are 
peculiar. Only 2 are common to the Neotropical and Nearctic 
regions exclusively, and 3 to the Neotropical and Australian. 
The most extensive genera are the elegant Tbidion (80 sp.) ; 
the richly-coloured Chrysoprasis (47 sp.) ; the prettily-marked 
Trackyderes (53 sp.) ; with Odontocera (25 sp.); Criodon (22 sp.); 
and a host of others of less extent, but often of surpassing 
interest and beauty. The noteworthy genera of wide range ate, 
Oeme and Cyrtomenis, which have each a species in West Africa, 
and HaTtmiatocents, which has one in Australia, 

The Lamiidae have 219 genera, and this is the only tropical 
region in which they do not exceed the Cerambycidte. This 
number is almost exactly the same as that of the Oriental 
genera, but here there are more peculiar groups, 203 against 160 
in the other region. The most extensive genera are Hemilophus 
(80 sp.), Cohhothea (70 sp.), Acanthoderes (56 sp.), Oncoderes 
(48 sp.), Lepturgiis (40 sp.), Hppsioma (32 sp.), and Tceniotes 
(20 sp.). Macropus longimantis, commonly called the hai-lequin 
beetle, is one of the largest and most singalarly-marlced insects 
in the whole family. Leptostylus has a single species in New 
Zealand ; Acanthoderes has one species in Europe, W. Africa, 
and Australia, respectively; Spalacopsis has a species in W. 
Africa ; Pachypeza is common to S, America and the Philip- 
pines ; Mesosa is Oriental and Patearctic, but has one species on 
the Amazon; Apomecyna ranges through the tropics of the 
Eastern Hemisphere, but has two species in S. America ; Acan- 
tTwcinus has one species in Tasmania, and the rest in South 
America, North America, and Europe; Fhma \s wholly Neo- 
tropical, except two species in the Philippine Islands. 

General Ccmdusions as to the Neotropieal Insect-fauna. — 
Looking at the insects of the Neotropical region as a whole, we 
are struck, with the vast amount of specialty they present ; and, 
considering how many causes there are which must lead to the 
J of insects, the number of its groups which are scattered 



over the globe is not nearly so great as we might expect. This 
points to a long period of isolation, during which the various 
forms of life have acted and reacted on each other, leading to such 
a complex yet harmoniously-jbalaneed result as to defy the com- 
petition of the chance immigrants that from time to time must 
have arrived. This ia quite in accordance with the very high 
anticLuity we have shown most inseet-foims to possess ; and 
it is no doubt owing to this antiquity, that such a complete 
diversity of gen&i-ie forma has heen here brought about, without 
any important deviation from the great family types which pre- 
vail over the rest of the globe. 

Land Shells. — The Neotropical region is probably the richest 
on the globe in Terrestrial Mollusca, but this is owing, not to any 
extreme productiveness of the ec^uatorial parts of the continent, 
where almost aU other fonns of life are so lai^ly developed, but 
to the altogether exceptional riches of the West India Islands. 
The most recent estimates show that the Antilles contain more 
species of land shells than aU the rest of the region, and almost 
exactly as many as aU. continental America, north ajid south. 

Mr, Thomas Eland, who has long studied American land shells, 
points out a remarkable difference in the distribution of the 
Operculated and Inoperculated groups, the former being pre- 
dominant on the islands, the latter on the continent. The 
Antilles possess over 600 species of Operculata, to about 150 
on the whole American continent, the genera being as 22 to 14 
Of Inoperculata the Antilles have 740, the Continent 1,250, the 
genera being 18 and 22. The proportions of the two groups in 
each country are, therefore : 

West India lalandg. American Continent; 

Operculata Gen. 22 Sp. 608,.. ... 14 351 

Inopercnlata „ 18 „ T37 , 22 1251 

The extensive family of the Helicidfe is represented by 22 
genera, of which 6 are peculiar. Spiratm is conlined to 
Central America and the ■ Antilles ; Stenopm and Sagda are 
Antillean only; Orthalieits, Macrocerqmm, and BulimulushAve 
a wider range, the last two extending into the southern United 



States. Important and cliaracteiistic genera arfi, Glandina, in 
0,11 tlie tropical parts of the region; Gylmdrella, in Central 
America and the Antilles ; Bulimm, containing many large and 
handsome species in South America,; Stenogyra, widely spread in 
Ihe tropics ; and Stre^ptaads, in Tropical South America. 

Among the Opercukta, the Aciculidfe are mostly Antillean, 
two genera being peculiar there, and one, Truncatella, of wide 
distribution, but most abundant in the West Indian Islands. 
The Cyclostomidfe are represented by 15 genera, 9 being 
peculiar to the region, and 5 of these (belonging, to the sub- 
family Licinidfe) to the Antilles only. Of these peculiar genera 
Cistula and CJwniiropoma are the most important, ranging over 
all the tropical parts of the r^on. Other important genera are 
Cyclotvs and Megalomastoma ; while CydopJiorus also occurs all 
over the region. The Helicinidte are mostly Neotropical, six 
out of the seven genera being found here, and four are pecuKar. 
Stoadoma, is one of the largest genera; and, with Trochatdla 
and Alcadia, is confined to the Antilles, while the wide-spread 
Selidna is most abundant there. 

The Limacidse, or Old World slugs, are absent from the region, 
their place being taken by the allied family, Oncidiadse. 

Marine Shells. — We go out of our usual course to say a few 
words about the marine shells of this region, because their 
distribution on the two sides of the continent is important, as 
an indication of the former separation of North and South 
America, and the connection of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 
It was once thought that no species of shells were common to 
the two sides of the Central American Isthmus, and Dr. Morch 
still holds that opinion; but Dr. Philip Carpenter, who has 
paid special attention to the subject, considers that there are at 
least 35 species absolutely identical, while as many others are 
so close that they may be only varieties. Nearly 70 others are 
distinct but representative species. The genera of marine mol- 
lusca are very largely common to the east and west coasts, 
more than 40 being so named in the lists published by Mr. 
Woodward. The West Indian Islands being a rich shell dis- 
trict, produce a number of peculiar forms, and the west coast of 



South America is, to some extent, peopled by Oriental and Pacific 
genera of shells. On the west coast there is hardly any coral, 
■while on the east it is abundant, showing a diiference of physical 
conditions that must have greatly influenced the development 
of mollusca.' When these various counteracting influences are 
taken into consideration, the identity or close affinity of about 
140 species and 40 genera on the two sides of the Isthmus 
of Panama becomes very important; and, combined with the 
fact of 48 species of fish (or 30 per cent of those known) 
being identical on the adjacent coasts of the two oceans (as 
determined by Dr. Giinther), render it probable that Central 
America has been partially submerged up to comparatively re- 
cent geological times. Yet another proof of this former union 
of two oceans is to be found in the fossil corals of the Antilles 
of the Miocene age, which Dr. Duncan finds to be more allied 
to existing Pacific forms, than to those of the Atlantic or even 
of the Caribbean Sea, 

Neotropical Sub-regions. 
In the concluding part of this work devoted to geogi-aphical 
zoology, the sub-regions are arranged in the order best adapted 
to exhibit them in a tabular form, and to show the affinities of 
the several regions ; but for our present purpose it will be best 
to take first in order that which is the most important and most 
extensive, and which exhibits all the pecuHar characteristics, of 
the region in their fullest development We begin thereibre 
with our second division. 

II. Tropiml Soutk-Amenm, or tlis ISrazilmn tiitb-region. 
This extensive district niay be defined as consisting of all the 
tropical forest-region of South America, including all the open 
plains and pasture lands, suri'ounded by, or intimately associated 
with, the forests. Its central mass consists of the great forest- 
plain of the Amazons, extending from Paranaiba on the north 
coast of Braj;il (long. 42" W.) to Zamora, in the province of 
Loja (lat, 4° S., long. 79° W.), high up in the Andes, on the west ; — 
a distance in a straight line of more than 2,500 English miles. 



along the whole of which there ia (almost certai ly) n 
tinuous virgin forest. Its greatest extent from nortl to so th 
from the mouths of the Orinoobo to the eastern loj. a of tl e 
Andes near La Paz in Bolivia and a little north of Sta C u de 
la Sierra (lat. 18° S.), a distance of ahont 1,900 miles. ."Within this 
area of continuous forests, are included some open " campos," or 
patches of pasture lands, the most important being, — the Campos 
of the Upper Eio Branco on the northern boundary of Brazil ; a 
tract in the interior of British Guiana ; and another on the 
northern bank of the Amazon near its mouth, and extending 
some httle distance on its south bank at Santarem. On the 
northern bank of the Orinooko are the Llanos, or flat open plains, 
partly ilooded in the rainy season ; but much of the interior of 
Venezuela appears to be forest country. The forest again pre- 
vails from Panama to Maraeaybo, and southwards in the Magda- 
lena vaUey ; and on all the western side of the Andes to about 
100 miles south of Guayaquil. On the N.E, coast of Brazil is a 
tract of open country, in some parts of which (as near Ceara) 
rain docs not fall for years together; but south of Cape St. 
Eoque the coast-forests of Brazil commence, extending to lat. 
30° S., clothing all the valleys and hill sid^ as far inland as the 
higher mountain ranges, and even penetrating up the great valleys 
far into the interior. To the south-west the forest country re- 
appears in Paraguay, and extends in patches and partially 
wooded country, tUl it almost reaches the southern extension of 
the Amazonian forests. The interior of Brazil is thus in the 
position of a great island-plateau, rising out of, and surrounded 
by, a lowland region of ever-verdant forest. The Brazilian sub- 
region comprises all this foreat-country and its included open 
tracts, and so far beyond it as there exists sufficient woody 
vegetation to support its peculiar forms of life. It thus ex- 
tends considerably beyond the ti-opic in Paraguay and south 
Brazil ; while the great desert of Chaco, extending from 25° to 
30° S., lat. between the Parana and the Andes, as well as the high 
plateaus of the Andean range, with the strip of sandy desert on 
the Pacific coast as far as to about 6° of south latitude, belong to 
south temperate America, or the sub-region of the Andes. 



Having already given a sketch of the zoological features of 
the Neotropical region as a whole, the greater part of which will 
apply to this suh-region, we must here confine ourselves to an 
indication of the more important groups which, on the one hand, 
are confined to it, and on the other are absent ; together with a 
notice of its special relations to other regions. 

Mammalia. — Many of the most remarkable of the American 
monkeys are limited to this sub-region ; as Lagotkrix, Pitheeia, 
and Brachyurvs, limited to the great Amazonian forests ; Eriodes 
to south-east Brazil ; and Oallithrix to tropical South America. 
All the marmosets (Hapaiidfe) are also confined to this suh-region, 
one only being found at Panama, and perhaps extending a little 
beyond it. Among other peculiar forms, are 8 genera of bats ; 
3 peculiar forms of wild dog; Pieronura, a genus of otters; 
Inia, a peculiar form of dolphin inhiibiting the upper waters of 
the Amazon ; tapirs of the genus Tapirus (a distinct genua being 
found north of Panama) ; 4 genera of Muridte ; Gtenomys, a genus 
of Octodontidte ; the whole family of Echimyidse, or spiny rats, 
(as far as the American continent is concerned) consisting of 8 
genera and 28 species ; Chcetomys, a genus of Cercolabidfe ; the 
capybara {Hydrochcerus) the largest known rodent, belonging to 
theCaviidse; the larger ant-eaters (Jy^rMwcopAre^a) ; sloths of the 
genus Sradypiis ; 2 genera of armadillos (Dasypodidfe) ; and two 
peculiar forms of the opossum family (Didelphyidse). No group 
that is typically Neotropical is absent from this sub-region, 
except such aa are peculiar to other single sub-regions and which 
will be noticed accordingly. The occurrence of a solitary species 
of hare {Lepus hrazU-iensis) in central Brazil and the Andes, is 
remarkable, as it is cut off from all its allies, the genus not being 
known to occur elsewhere on the continent further south than 
Costa Eica. The only important external relation indicated by 
the Mammalia of this sub-region is towards the Ethiopian region, 
2 genera of EehimyidEe, Aulacodes and Petromys, occurring in 
South and South-east- Africa, 

Plate IV. Oharaderistic Neotropical Mammalia:- — Our illustta^ 
tion represents a mountainous forest in Brazil, the part of South 
America where the Neotropical Mammalia are perhaps best 
Vol. It— 3 



developed. The central and moat conspicuous figure is the collared 
ant-eater, i^oMLWudua, tetradactyla), one of the handsomest of the 
family, in its conspicuous liveiy of black and white. To the left 
are a pair of sloths {Arctopiihecits flaccidus) showing the curious 
black spot on the back with which many of the species are marked, 
and which looks hke a hole in the trunk of a tree ; but this mark 
seems to he only found on the male animal. The fur of many of 
the sloths has a greenish tinge, and Dr. Seemann remarked ite 
reaemhiance to the Tillanddausneoides, or " vegetable horsehair," 
which clothes many of the trees in -Central America; and this 
probably conceals them from their enemies, the harpy-eaglea. On 
the right are a pair of opossums {Didelphys asarce), one of them 
swinging by its prehensile tail. Overhead in the foreground are 
a group of howHng monkeys (Mycetes ursinvs) the largest of the 
American Quadrumana, and the noisiest of monkeys. The large 
hollow vessel into which the hyoid bone is transformed, and 
which assists in producing their tremendous howling, is alto- 
gether unique in the animal kingdom. Below them, in the dis- 
tance, are a group of Sapajou monkeys (Cebus sp,) ; while gaudy 
screaming macaws complete the picture of Brazilian forest life. 

Birds.— A very large number of genera of hirda, and some 
entire families, are confined to this sub-region, as will be seen 
by looking over the list of genera at the end of this chapter. 
We can here oidy notice the more important, and summarize the 
results. More than 120 genera of Passeres are thus limited, 
belonging to the following 12 families: SylviidEe (1), Troglo- 
dytidffi (2), Ccerebidse (4), Tanagrid^ (26), TringillidK (8), le- 
teridse (5), Pteroptochidaj (3), Dendrocolaptidaj (12), Formi- 
cariidffi (16), Tyrannid^e (22), Cotingidaj (16), Pipridte (10). Of 
the Pieariffi there are 76 peculiar genera belonging to 9 famOiea, 
viz., Picid« (2), Ehamphastida3 (1), Cueulidfe (1), Bucconidae 
(2), GalhulidEc (5), Momotidte (2), Podargidse (1), Caprimalgidte 
(4) TrochilidEc (58). There are 3 peculiar genera of Psittaci, 8 
of GalliuEe, the only geiius of Opisthocomidte, 3 of Accipitres, 
1 of Kallid^, Psophia and Eurypyga, typra of distinct families, 
and 1 genus of Ardeid^, Palamedeidse, and Anatidie respectively. 
The preceding enumeration shows how very rich this sub-region 




■\:i -:is 




is in peculiar types of all the most characteristic American 
families, such as the Tanagridfe, Tyrannidte, Cotingidte, Formi- 
cariidte, TroehiHdse, and Galbulidte. A considerable proportion 
of the genera of the Chilian and Mexican sub-regions also 
occur here, so that out of about 680 genera of Neotropical laad- 
birds more than 500 are represented in this sub-region. 

Without entering minutely into the distribution of species it 
is difficult to sub-divide this extensive territory with any satis- 
factory result.^ The upland tract between the Amazon and 
Orinooko, which may be termed Guiana, was evidently once an 
island, yet it possesses few marked distinctive features. Brazil, 
which must have formed another great island, has more speciality, 
but the intermediate Amazonian forests form a perfect transition 
between them. The northern portion of the continent west of 
the Orinooko has more character; and there are indications that 
this has received many forms from Central and North America, 
and thus blended two faunas once more distinct than they are 
now. The family of wood-warblers (Mniotiltida;) seems to have 
belonged to this more northern fauna ; for out of 18 genera only 
5 extend south of the ec[uator, while 6 range from Mexicq or 
the Antilles into Columbia, some of these being only winter 
immigrants and no genus being exclusively South American. 
The eastern slopes of the Andes constitute, however, the richest 
and best marked province of this sub-i-egion. At least 12 genera 
of tanagers (Tanagridfe) are found here only, with an immense 
number of Fringillidte, — the former confined to the forests, the 
latter ranging to the upland plains. The ant-thrushes (Pormi- 
eariidce) on the other hand seem more abundant in the lowlands, 
many genei'a being the Amazonian forests. The su- 
perb chatterers (CotingidfeJ also seem to have their head-quarters 
in the forests of Brazil and Guiana, and to have thence spread 

' Messrs. Sclater and Salyin, and Professor iNewton, divide the Neotropical 
Region into six sub-regions, of which our " Brazilian sub-region" comprises 
three— the " Brazilian," the " Araaaonian," and the " Columbian ; '? but, 
after due consideration, it does not seem advisable to adopt this subdiviaion 
in a general work which treats of all tbe classes of terrestrial animals. (See 
p. 27.) 


26 ZOOLOGICAL GE0GEAPH5. [part hi 

into the Amazonifm valley. Giiiiana still boasts such remarkable 
forms as the cardinal chatterer (Fhcenicocercus), the military 
chatterer (Hcematoderm), as. well as Qw&rula, Gynmoderus, and 
Gymnocephaliis ; but the first three pass to the south side of the 
Lower Amazon. Here also belong the cock of the rock (Evpicola), 
which ranges from Guiana to the Andes,, and the marvellous 
umbrella-birds of the Eio N^ro and Upper Amazon {Cepha- 
l&pUruB), which extends across the 'Ecuadorean Andes and into 
Costa Eica. Brazil has Piiloehloris, Casim-nis, Tifuca, Phibaiura, 
and Calyptwa ; while not a single genua of this family, except 
perhaps Seliockcera, is confined to the extensive range of the 
Andes. Almost the same phenomena are presented by the 
allied Pipridte or manakins, the greater part of the genera and 
species occurring in Eastern South America, that is in Brazil, 
Guiana, and the surrounding lowlands rather than in the Andean 
valleys. The same may be said of the jacamars (GalbuIidEc) 
and puff-birds (Bucconidffi) ; but the humming-birds (Trochi- 
lidfe) have their greatest development in the Andean district. 
Brazil and Guiana have each a peculiar genus of parrots; 
Guiana has three peculiar genera of Cracidfe, while the Andes 
north of the equator have two. The Tinamidge on the other 
hand have their metropolis in Brazil, which has two or three 
peculiar genera, while two othei-s seem confined to the Andes 
south of the equator. The elegant trumpeters (Psophiid^) are 
almost restricted to the Amazonian valley. 

Somewhat similar facts occur among the Mammalia. At least 
3 genera of monkeys are confined to the great lowland equa- 
toiial forests and 1 to Brazil; Idieyon (Canidee) and PierojiMw 
(Mustelidffi) belong to Guiana and Brazil; and most of the 
Echimyidfe are found in the same districts. The sloths, ant- 
eaters, and armadillos aU seem more characteristic of the 
eastern districts than of the Andean; while the opossums are 
perhaps equally plentiful in the Andes. 

The preceding facts of distribution lead us to conclude that 
the highlands of Brazil and of Guiana represent very ancient 
lands, dating back to a period long anterior to the elevation of 
the Andean range (which is by no means of great geological anti- 



quity) and perhaps even to the elevation of the continuous land 
which forms the base of the mountains. It was, no doubt, during 
their alow elevation and the consequent loosening of the surface, 
that the vast masses of debris were carried down which filled up 
the sea separating the Andean chain from the great islands of 
Brazil and Guiana, and formed that enormous extent of fertile 
lowland forest, which has created a great continent ; given space 
for the free interaction of the distinct faunas which here met 
together, and thus greatly assisted in the marvellous development 
of animal and vegetable life, which no other continent can match. 
But this development, and the fusion of the various faunas into 
one homogeneous assemblage must have been a work of time ; 
and it is probable that most of the existing continent was dry 
land before the Andes had acquired their present altitude. The 
blending of the originally distinct sub-faunas has been no doubt 
assisted by elevations and depressions of the land or of the ocean, 
which have alternately diminished and increased the land-area. 
This would lead to a crowding together at one time, and a dis- 
persion at others, which would evidently afford opportunity for 
many previously restricted forms to enter fresh areas and become 
adapted to new modes of life. 

From the preceding sketch it will appear, that the great sub- 
region of Tropical South America as here defined, is really formed 
of three originally distinct lands, fused together by the vast 
lowland Amazonian forests. In the class of birds sufdcient mate- 
rials exist for separating these districts ; and that of the Andes 
contains a larger series of peculiar genera than either of the 
other sub-regions here adopted. But there are many objections 
to making such a sub-division here. It is absolutely impossible 
to define even approximate limits to these divisions — to say for 
example where the "Andes" ends and where "Brazil" or 
"Amazonia" or "Guiana" begins; and the unknown border 
lands separating these are so vast, that many groups, now appar- 
ently limited in their distribution, may prove to have a very 
much wider range. In mammalia, reptiles, and insects, it is 
even more difficult to maintain such divisions, so that on the 
whole it seems better to treat the entire area as one sub-region, 



although recognizing the fact of its zoological and geographical 
diversity, as weU aa its vast superiority ovev every other sub- 
icgion in the number and variety of its animal forms. 

The reptiles, fishes, raollusca, and insects of this sub-region 
have been sufBciently discussed in treating of the entire region, 
as by far the larger proportion of them, except in the case of 
land-shells, are found here. 

Plate XV. Characteristic Neotropical Birds. — To illustrate the 
ornithology of South America we place our sceue on one of the 
tributaries of the Upper Amazon, a district where this class of 
animals is the most prominent zoological feature, and where a 
number of the most remarkable and interesting birds are to be 
found. On the left we have the umbrella-bird (Oephaloptems 
omatus), so called from its wonderful crest, which, when ex- 
panded, completely overshadows its head lite an umbrella. It is 
also adorned with a long tassel of plumes hanging from its breast, 
which is formed by a slender, fleshy tube clothed with broad 
feathers. The bird is as large aa a crow, of a glossy blue-black 
colour, and belongs to the same family aa the exquisitely tinted 
blue-and-purple chatterers. Plying towards us are a pair of curl- 
crested toucans (Fleroglossus beauharnaisii), distinguished among 
all other toucans by a crest composed of small black and shining 
barbless plumes, resembling curled whalebone. The general 
plumage is green above, yellow and red beneath, like many of its 
allies. To the right are two of the exquisite little whiskered 
hummers, or " frill-necked coquettes," as they are caUed by Mr. 
Gould, {Zdphomis gouldi). These diminutive birds are adorned 
with green-tipped plumes springing from each side of the throat, 
as well as with beautiful crests, and are among the most elegant 
of the great American family of humming-birds, now numbering 
about 400 known species. Overhead are perched a pair of 
curassows [Orax glohulosa), which represent in America the 
pheasants of the Old World. There are about a dozen species 
of these fine birds, most of which are adorned with handsome 
curled crests. That figured, is distinguished by the yellow cai'- 
uncular sweUings at the base of the bdl. The tall crane-like bird 
near the water is one of the trumpeters, (Fsoplda leuc(xpterd), elegant 


'A" IS , f 




birds with silky plumage peculiar to the Amazon valley. They 
are often kept in houses, where they get very tame and affec- 
tionate ; and they are useful in catching flies and other house 
insects, which they do with great perseverance and dexterity. 

•■ of Tropical South America. 

These are few in numher, and, with one exception, not of 
much interest. Such islands as Trinidad and Sta. Catherina 
form parts of South America, and have no peculiar groups of 
animals. The small islands of Fernando Koronha, Trinidad, 
and Martin Vaz, off the coast of Brazil, are the only Atlantic 
islands somewhat remote from land ; while the Galapagos Archi- 
pelago in the Pacific is the only group whose productions have been 
carefully examined, or which present features of special interest. 

Galapagos Islands. — These are situated on the equator, about 
500 miles from the coast of Ecuador, They consist of the large 
Albemarle island, 70 miles long ; four much smaller (18 to 25 
miles long), named Narborough, James Indefatigable, and Chat- 
ham Islands ; four smaller still (9 to 12 miles long), named 
Abingdon, Eindloes, Hood's, and Ghailes Man Is. All are vol- 
canic, and consist of fields of black basaltic lava, with great 
numbers of extinct cratei-s, a few which lie stiE active. The 
islands vary in height from 1,700 to 'i 000 feet and they all rise 
sufficiently high to enter the region of moist currents of air, so 
that while the lower parts are parched and excessively sterile, 
above 800 or 1,000 feet there is a belt of comparatively green 
and fertile country. 

These islands are known to support 58 species of Vertehrates, 
— 1 quadruped, 52 birds and 5 reptiles, the greater part of which 
are found nowhere else, while a considerable number belong to 
peculiar and very remarkable genera. We must therefore notice 
them in some detail. 

Mammalia. — This class is represented by a mouse belonging 
to the American genus Sespe^-oniys, but slightly different from 
any found on the continent. A true rat {Mvs), slightly dif- 
fering from any European species, also occurs ; and as there can 
be little doubt that this is an escape from a ship, somewhat 



changed under its new conditious of life (the genus Mm not being 
indigenous to the American continent), it is not improbable, as 
Mr. Darwin remarks, that the American mouse may also have 
been imported by man, and have become similarly changed. 

Birds} — Eeeent researches in the islands have increased the 
number of land-birds to tliirty-two, and of wading and aquatic 
birds to twenty-three. All the land birds but two or three are 
peculiar to the islands, and eighteen, or considerably more than 
half, belong to peeuHar genera. Of the waders 4 are peculiar, 
and of the swimmers 2. These are a rail (Porzana spilonota); 
two herons (Butorides plumhea and Nyctieorax pauper) ; a 
flamingo (Ph^nicopiems glifphorkpnchus) ; while the new aquatics 
aie a gull {Lotus fuliginosii^, and a penguin (Sphmiscus mendi- 

The land.birds are much more interesting. All except the 
birds of prey belong to American genera which abound on the 
opposite coast or on that of Chih a little further south, or to 
peculiar genera allied to South American forms. The only species 
not peculiar are, Dolichonyx oryzivorus, a bird of very wide range 
in America and of migratory hahit«, which often visits the Ber- 
mudas 600 miles from North America, — and Asio accipitrinus, an 
owl which is found almost all over the world. The only genera 
not exclusively American are BiUeo and Strix, of each of which 
a peculiar species occurs in the Galapagos, although very closely 
alhed to South American species. There remain 10 genera, all 
either American or peculiar to the Galapagos ; and on these we 
will remark in systematic order. 

1. Mimus, the group of American mocking-thmahes, is re- 
presented by three distinct and well-marked species. 2. Den- 
drceca, an extensive and wide-spread genus of the wood-warblers 
(Mniotiltidie), is represented by one species, which ranges over 
the greater part of the archipelago. The genus is especially 
abundant in Mexico, the Antilles, and the northern parts of 

^ Mr. Salyin, who hns critically examined the ornithological fauna of these 
islands, has kindly corrected my MS. List of the Birds, his valuable paper 
in the Transactions of the Zoological tiocidy not having been published in 
time for me to make use of it. 



tropical America, only one species extending aoutli as far as 
Chili. 3. Certhidea, a peculiar genua originally classed among 
the finches, but which Mr. Sclater, who has made South 
American birds his special study, considers to belong to the 
Gm-ehidm, or sugar-birds, a family which is wholly tropical. 
Two species of this genus inhabit separate islands. 4. Progrte, 
the American martins (Hirundinidse), is represented by a 
peculiar species. 5. Geospiza, a peculiar genus of finches, of 
which no less than eight species occur in the archipelago, but 
not more than four in any one island. 6, Camarhynshus (6 sp.) 
and 7. Cactomis (4 sp.) are two other peculiar genera of finches ; 
some of the species of which are confined to single islands, 
while others inhabit several. 8. Ppwcephalm, a genus of the 
American family of tyrant-flycatchers (Tyrannida;), has one 
peculiar species closely alhed to T. ruUneus, which has a wide 
range in South America. 9. Myiarch%§, another genus of the 
same family which does not range further south than western 
Ecuador, has also a representative species found in several of 
the islands. 10. Zenaida, an American genus of pigeons, has 
a species in James Island and probably in some of the others, 
closely allied to a species from the west coast of America. 

It has been already stated that some of the islands possess 
peculiar species of birds distinct from the allied forms in other 
islands, but unfortunately our knowledge of the different islands 
is so unequal and of some so imperfect, that we can form no 
useful generalizations as to the distribution of birds among the 
islands themselves. The laigest island is the least known; only 
one bird being recorded from it, one of the mocting-thrushes 
found nowhere else. Combining the observations of Mr. Darwin 
with those of Dr. Habel and Prof, Sundevall, we have species 
recorded as occurring in seven of the islands. Albemarle island 
has but one definitely Itnown species ; Chatham and Eindloe 
islands have 11 each; Abingdon and Charles islands 12 each; 
Indefatigable island and James island have each 18 species. This 
shows that birds are very fairly distributed over all the islands, 
one of the smallest and most remote (Abingdon) furnishing as 
many as the much larger Chatham Island, which is also the nearest 



to the mainland. Taking the six islands which seem tolerably 
explored, we find that two of the species {Dendraca aureola and 
Oeospisa. fortis) occur in all of them; two others {Geospisa. 
strmua. and Myiarekus magnirostris) in five ; four (Mimus 
tndanotis, Geosp-ka faliginosa, G. parvula, and Camarhynchus 
^rosthejnelas) in four islands ; five (Oertkidea olivacea, Cadomis 
scandem, Pyroc&'pkalus nanus), and two of the birds of prey, in 
three islands ; nine (Certhided /usea, Progne concolor, Geospiza 
nehvlosa, G. magnirosiris, Camarhynchus psitlaoulus, C. variegaius, 
G. hdbeli and Asio aeavpitnmii) in two islands ; while the remaining 
ten species are confined to one island each These peculiar 
species are distributed among tl c I'^l i U t. follows. James, 
Charles and Abingdon islands, ha^ e 2 eich Emdloes, Chatham, 
and Indefatigable, 1 each. The amount of s\ eciality of James 
Island is perhaps only apparent, owm" to oui ignorance of the 
fauna of the adjacent large Albemarle L.linl the moat remote 
islands north and south, Abingdon an 1 Chaile"!, have no doubt 
in reality most peculiar species is tl ey ippeir to have. The 
scarcity of peculiar species in Chatham Island is remarkable, it 
being large, very isolated, and the nearest to the mainland. 
There is stilt room for exploration in these islands, especially in 
Albemarle, Narborough, and Hood's islands of which we know 

BepUles. — The few reptiles found in these islands are very 
interesting. There are two snakes, a species of the American 
genus Herpetodryas, and another which was at first thought to 
he a Chilian species (Fsammophis TeminincM'i), but which is 
now considered to be distinct. Of lizards there are four at least, 
belonging to as many genera. One is a species of Fhyllodadylus, 
a wide-spread genus of Geekotidte ; the rest belong to the 
American family of the Iguanas, one beii^ a species of the Neo- 
tropical genus LfAocephalvs, the other two very remarkable forms, 
Trachycephalus and Oreocephalus (formerly united in the genus 
AmUyi'hynchus). The first is a land, the second a marine, lizard ; 
both are of large size and very abundant on all the islands ; and 
they are quite distinct from any of the very numerous genera of 
Iguanidte, spread aU over the American continent. The last 



reptile is a land tortoise ( Tesiiido nigra) of immense size, and also 
abundant in all the islands. Its nearest ally is the equally large 
species of the Mascai-ene Islands ; an unusual development due, 
in both cases, to the abaenee of enemies permitting these slow 
but continually growing animals to attain an immense age. It 
is believed that each island has a distinct variety or species of 

Insects. — Almost the only insects known from these islands 
are some Coleoptera, chiefiy collected by Mr. Darwin. They 
consist of a few peculiar species of American or wide ranging 
genera, the moat important being, a Calosoma, Pt^dlus, Solen- 
ophorus, and Notaphus, among the Carabidffi ; an Oryctes among 
the Lamellicomes ; two new genera of obscure Heteromera ; two 
Curculionidffi of wide-spread genera ; a Longicom of the South 
American genus Ebwria ; and two small Phytophaga, — a set of 
species highly suggestive of accidental immigrations at rare and 
distant intervals. 

Land-Shells.— Thase consist of small and obscure species, 
forming two peculiar aub~genera of Bulimulus, a genus greatly 
developed on the whole West coast of America ; and a single 
species of Buliminus, a genus which ranges over all the world 
except America. As in the case of the birds, most of the islands 
have two or thr^ pecuUar species. 

General Conclusions. — These islands are wholly volcanic and 
surrounded by very deep sea; and Mr. Darwin is of opinion, 
not only that the islands have never been more nearly con- 
nected with the mainland than at present, but that they have 
never been connected among themselves. They are situated 
on the Equator, in a sea where gales and storms are almost 
unknown. The main currents are from the south-west, an ex- 
tension of the Peruvian drift along the west coast of South 
America. From their great extent, and their volcanoes being 
now almost extinct, we may assume that they are of consider- 
able antiquity. These facts exactly harmonize with the theory, 
that they have been peopled by rare accidental immigrations 
at very remote intervals. The only peculiar genera consist of 
birds and lizards, which must therefore have been the earliest 



immigrants. We know that small Passerine birds annually reach 
the Bennudas from America, and the Azores from Europe, the 
former travelling over 600, the latter over 1000 miles of ocean. 
These groups of islands are both situated in stormy seas, and the 
immigrants are so numerous that hardly any specific change in the 
resident birds has taken place. The Galapagos receive no such 
annual visitants ; hence, when by some rare accident a few indi- 
viduals of a species did arrive, they remained isolated, probably 
for thousands of generations, and became gradually modified 
throi^h natural selection under completely new conditions of 
existence. Less rare and violent storms would suffice to carry 
some of these to other islands, and thus the archipelago would 
in time become stocked. It would appear probable, that those 
which have undergone most change were the earliest to arrive ; 
80 that we might look upon the three peculiar genera of finches, 
and Oerthidea, the peculiar form of Ccerebidfe, as among the most 
ancient inhabitants of the islands, since they have become so 
modified as to have apparently no near allies on the mainland. 
But other birds may have arrived nearly at the same time, and 
yet not have been much changed. A species of very wide 
range, already adapted to live under very varied conditions and 
to compete with varied forms of life, might not need to become 
modified so much as a bird of more restricted tauge, and more 
specialized constitution. And if, before any considerable change 
had been effected, a second immigration of the same species 
occurred, crossing the breed would tend to bring back the original 
type of form. . While, therefore, we may be sure that birds like 
the finches, which are profoundly modified and adapted to the 
special conditions of the climate and vegetation, are among the 
most ancient of the colonists ; we cannot be sure that the less 
modified form of tyrant-fiy catcher or mocking-thrush, or even 
the unchanged but cosmopolitan owl, were not of coeval date ; 
since even if the parent form on the continent haa been changed, 
successive immigrations may have communicated the same 
change to the colonists. 

The reptiles are somewhat more difficult to account for. We 
know, however, that lizards have some means of c 



the sea, because we find existing species with an enormous 
range. The ancestors of the Amblyrhyniski must have come as 
early, probably, as the earliest birds ; and the same powers of 
dispei-sal have spread them over every island. The two American 
genera of lizards, and the tortoises, are perhaps later immigrants. 
Latest of all were the snakes, which hardly differ from continental 
forms ; but it is not at all improbable that these latter, as well as 
the peculiar American mouse, have been early human importa- 
tions. Snakes are continually found on board native canoes 
whose cabins are thatched with palm leaves ; and a few cen- 
turies would probably suffice to produce some modification of 
a species completely isolated, under conditions widely different 
from those of its native country. Land-shells, being so few and 
small, and almost all modifications of one type, are a clear indi- 
cation of how rare are the conditions which lead to their dispersal 
over a wide extent of ocean ; since two or three individuals, ar- 
riving on two or three occasions only during the whole period 
of the existence of the islands, would suffice to account for the 
present fauna. Insects have arrived much more frequently ; and 
this is in accordance with their habits, their lower specific gravity, 
their power of flight, and theis capacity for resisting for some 
time the effects of salt water. 

We learn, then, from the fauna of these islands, some very im- 
pori^aut facts.. We are taught that tropical land-birds, unless 
blown out of their usual course by storms, rarely or never venture 
out to sea, or if they do so, can seldom pass safely over a distance 
of 500 miles. The immigrants to the Galapagos can hardly have 
averaged a bird in a thousand years. We learn, that of all reptiles 
lizards alone have some tolerably effective mode of transmission 
across the sea ; and this is probably by means of currents, and 
in connection with floating vegetation, Yet their transmission 
is a far rarer event than that of land-birds ; for, whereas three 
female immigrants will account for the lizard population, at least 
eight or ten ancestors are required for the birds. I^nd serpents 
can pass over stiU more rarely, as two such transmissions would 
have sufficed to stock the islands with their snakes ; and it is not 
certain that either of these occurred without the aid of man, 



It is doubtful whether mammals or batrachians have any means 
of passing, independently of man's assistance ; the former having 
but one doubtfully indigenous representative, the latter none at 
all The remarkable absence of all gay or conspicuous flowers 
in these tropical islands, though possessing a zone of fairly 
luxuriant shrubby vegetation, and the dependence of this phe- 
nomenon on the extreme scarcity of insects, has been already 
noticed at Vol. I. p. 461, when treating of a somewhat similar 
peculiarity of the New Zealand fauna and flora. 

I. Souih Temperate America, or the Chilia/n- Sub-region. 

This sub-region may be generally defined aa the temperate 
portion of South America, On the south, it commences with the 
cold damp forests of Tierra del Fuego, and their continuation up 
the west coast to Chiloe and northward to near Santiago. To the 
east we have the barren plains of Patagonia, gradually changing 
towards the north into the more fertile, but still treeless, pampas 
of La Plata._ M'hethet this sub-region should be continued across 
the Eio de la Plata into Uruguay and Entre-rios, is somewhat 
doubtful To the west of the Parana it extends northward over 
the Chaco desert, till we approach the border of the great forests 
near St. Cruz de la Siena. On the plateau of the Andes, how- 
ever, it must be continued still further north, along the " paramos" 
or alpine pastures, till we reach 5° of South latitude. Beyond tliis 
the Andes are very narrow, having no double range with an inter- 
vening plateau ; and although some of the peculiar forms of the tem- 
perate zone pass on to the ecLuator or even beyond it, these are not 
sufficiently numerous to warrant our extending the sub-region to 
include them. Along with the high Andes it seems necessary to in- 
clude the western strip of arid country, which is mostly peopled 
by forms derived from Chih and the south temperate regions. 

Mammalia,.- — -This sub-region is well characterised by the pos- 
session of an entire family of mammalia having Neotropical 
affinities — the Chinchillidfe. It consists of 3 genera — CJdncMlla 
(2 sp.), inhabiting the Andes of Chih and Peru as far as 9° south 
latitude, and at from 8,000 to 12,000 feet altitude ; Lagidium 
(3 sp.), ranging over the Andes of Chili, Peru, and South Ecuador, 



from 11,000 to 16,000 feet altitude; and Lagostomms {1 sp.), the 
"viscacha," conlined to the pampas between the Uruguay and 
Eio Negro. Many important genera are also confined to this sub- 
legion. Amhenia (4 sp.), including the domesticated llamas 
and alpacas, the vicugna which inhabits the Andes of Peru and 
Chili, and the guanaco which ranges over the plains of Patagonia 
and Tierra del Fuego. Although this genus is allied to the Old 
World camels, it is a veiy distinct form, and its introduction from 
North America, where the family appear to have originated, may 
date back to a remote epoch, Vrsus omatm, the " spectacled 
bear " of the Chilian Andes, is a remarkable form, supposed to be 
most allied to. the Malay bear, and probably forming a distinct 
genus, which has been named Tremardos. ronr genera of Octo- 
dontidiS. are also pecuhar to this sub-region, or almost so; Habro- 
eomus (1 sp.) is Chilian ; S^aia,c<ypus (2 sp.) is found in Chili and 
on the east side of the southern Andes ; Oetodon (3 sp.) ranges 
from Chili into Peru and Bolivia; CUnomys (6 sp.) from the 
Straits of Magellan to Bolivia, with one species in South Brazil. 
Dolichotis, one of the Cavies, ranges from Patagonia to Mendoza, 
and on the east coast to 37^° S. latitude. My&potamm (1 sp.), 
the coypu (Echimyidffi), ranges from SS'' to 48° S. latitude on 
the west side of the Andes, and from the frontiers of Peru to 
43." S. on the east side. Rdihrodon and Acodon, genera of 
Muridffi, are also confined to Temperate South America; Toly- 
feutes and Chlatnydopkonts, two genera of armadillos, the latter 
very peculiar in its organization and sometimes placed in a dis- 
tinct family, are found only in La Plata and the highlands of 
Bolivia, and so belong to this eub-region. Otaria, one of the 
" eared seals " (Otariid^), is confined to the coasts of this sub- 
legion and the antarctic islands. Deer of American groups ex- 
tend as far as Chiloe on the west, and the Straits of Magellan on 
the east eo^t. Mice of the South American genera Hesperomys and 
Reithrodon, are abundant down to the Straits of Magellan and 
into Tierra del Fnego, Mr. Darwin having collected more than 20 
distinct species. The following are the genera of Mammalia 
which have been observed on the shores of the Straits of Magel- 
lan, those marked * extending into Tierra del Puego : 



TO (two wolf-like foxes), Felii (the puma), Mephitis 
(skunka), Cenms (deer), ^Auekmia (^anaco), ^Ctenomys (tiicu- 
tucu), *Meiikrud(m and *Hesperomps (American mice). 

Birds. — Three families of Birds are coiifined to this sub-region, 
— Phytotomidte (1 genus, 3 sp.), inhabiting ChUi, La Plata, and 
EoHvia; Chionididte (1 genus, 2 ep.) the "sheath-bills," found 
only at the southern extremity of the continent and in Kerguelen's 
Island, which with the other antarctic lands perhaps comes best 
here ; Thinocoridfe (2 genera, 6 species) an isolated family of 
waders, ranging over the whole sub-region and extending north- 
ward to the equatorial Andes. "Many genera are also peculiar : 
3 of FringilhdEe, and 1 of Icteridte ; 9 of Bendrocolaptidte, 6 of 
Tyrannidie, 3 of Troehilid£e, and 4 of Pteroptochidee, — the last four 
South American families. There is also a peculiar genus of par- 
rots (Senieognathus) in Chili ; two of pigeons {Metriopelia and 
Qymnopelia) confined to the Andes and west coast from Pern to 
Chili; two of Tinamous, Tinamates in the Andes, and Cah- 
dromiis in La Plata; three of Charadriidse, Phwgornis, Pluvia- 
ndlus, and Oreophtlus; and Rhea, the American ostriches, 
inhabiting all Patagonia and the pampas. Perhaps the Caria- 
midte have almost as much right here as in tlie last sub-region, 
inhabiting as they do, the "pampas" of La Plata and the up- 
land "campos" of Brazil; and even among the wide-ranging 
aquatic birds, we have a peculiar genus, Merffanet(d,one of the duck 
family, which is coniined to the temperate plateau of the Andes. 

Against this extensive series of characteristic groups, aU either 
of American type or very distinct forms of Old World families, 
and therefore implying great antiquity, we find, in mammalia 
and biids, very scanty evidence of that direct affinity with the 
north tempei-ate zone, on which some naturalists lay so much 
stress. We cannot point to a single terrestrial genus, which is 
characteristic of the north and reappears in this south temperate 
region without also occurring over much of the intervening 
land. Mustela seems only to have reached Peru ; Lepus is iso- 
lated in Brazil ; true Ursus does not pass south of Mexico. In 
hirds, the northern groups rarely go further south than Mexico 
or the Columbian Andes ; and the only case of discontinuouB 





distribution we can find recorded ia that of tlie genus of ducks, 
Camplolcemiis, which has a species on the east side of Korth Ame- 
rica and another in Chili and the Falkland Islands, but these, 
Professor Newton assures me, do not properly belong to the same 
genus. Out of 30 genera of land-birds collected on the Eio 
Negro in Patagonia, by Mr. Hudson, only four extend beyond the 
American continent, and the same exclusively American character 
applies equally to its southern extremity. No list appears to 
have been yet published of the land-biids of the Straits of 
Magellan and Tierra del Fuego. The following is compiled from 
the observations of Mr. Darwin, the recent voyage of Professor 
Cunningham, and other sources ; and will be useful for com- 

*23. Oampephilus magellanious. 
24. Picus lignarius. 


2. Troglodytes mageHanicu 

3. Chryaomitris barbate. TROOHiLm* 
:^^'^f'"\UU. 26.Ea.tephanu.galerit.. 

6. „ fruticeti. Cok0eid^ 

27. Conurus patagonus. 


28. Oathartes aura, 

29. Sarcorhamphus gryphus. 


30. OircTis macropteras. 

31. Buteo erytkronotns. 

32. GeranoaStus melauolencus. 

33. Accipiter ohilensis. 

34. Oerehneis sparyeriiia. 
36. Milvago alboguiaris, 

36. Polyborua tharua. 

37. Afiio accipitriuus. 

38. Bubo Di^lanicus. 

39. Pholeoptjnx ennicuJaria. 

40. Olaucidium nana. 

41. Sjraium rufipes. 

8. Zonotrichia pileata. 


9, Stumella militaris. 
10. Outffius atorrimus. 


12. Ttenioptera pyrope. 

13. Myiotlieretes rufiventris. 

14. Museiaaxicola montalis. 

15. Ceiitrites niger. 

16. AnteretcB parulns, 

17. Elainea griiseogularis. 

Dbndhocolapti d^. 

18. Upucerfchia dumetoria. 
*19, Cmolodes patagonicus. 

*2!. Osyurus spinicauda. 


*22, Sojtalopua magelknioua. 

Vol. II.— 4 



In tlie above list the speeiea marked * extend to Tierra del 
Fuego, It is a remarkable fact that so many of the species 
helong to genera which are wholly Neotropical, and that the 
specially South American families of Icteridse, Tyrannidie, Den- 
drocolaptidfe, Pteroptoehid^, Troehihdse, and Conuridfe, should 
supply more than one-third of the species ; while the purely 
South American genus Phrygilus, should be represented by four 
species, three of which abound in Tierra del Fuego, 

Plate XYI. A Scene in (he Andes of OMli, with characteristic 
Animals. — The fauna of South Temperate America being most 
fuUy developed in Chili, we place the scene of our illustration 
in that country. In the foreground we have a pair of the 
-beautiful little chinchillas {Chinchilla Ic^nigerra), belonging to a 
family of animals pecuhar to the sub-region. There are only 
two species of this group, both confined to the higher Andes, at 
about 8000 feet elevation. Coming round a projecting ridge of 
the mountain, are a herd of vicnuas (Auchenia vicugna), one of 
that peculiar form of the camel tribe found in South America and 
confined to its temperate and alpine regions. The upper bird is 
a plant-cutter (Phytotoma ram), of sober plumage but alhed to 
the beautifid chatterers, though forming a separate family. Below, 
standing on a rock, is a plover-like bird, the Thinooorus m-bi- 
gniantts, which is considered to belong to a separate family, 
though alhed to the plovers and sheath-bills. Its habits are, 
however, more those of the quails or partridges, living inland in 
dry and desert places, and feeding on plants, roots, and insects. 
Above is a condor, the most characteristic bird of the high 

HeptUes and AmphiHa.^-These groups show, for the most part, 
similar modifications of American and neotropical forms, as those 
we have seen fa prevail among the birds. Snakes do not seem 
to go very far south, but several South American genera of Colu- 
bridte and Dendrophida? occur in Chih ; while En<^hrifs is pecu- 
har to La Plata, and Callorhinus to Patagonia, both belonging 
to the Colubridsa The Elapidte do not extend into the tem- 
perate zone ; but Craspet^cephalus, one of the Crotalidte, occurs 
at Bahia Blanca in Patagonia (Lat. 40° S.) 



■' ^^/ 




Lizards are much mote numerousj and there are several pecu- 
liar and iateresting forms. Three families are represented ; 
Teid^e by two genera — Callopistes peculiar to Chili, and Ameiva 
which ranges over almost the whole American continent and is 
found in Patagonia ; Gectotidfe by four genera, two of which, — 
Caiidwerhera and Homonota, — are peculiar to Chili, while Sphm- 
radaetylvs and OuMna are Neotropical, the former ranging to 
Patagonia, the latter to Chili ; and lastly the American family 
Iguanidee represented by eight genera, no less than six being 
peculiar, (or almost so,) to the South temperate region. These are 
Leiodera, Diplolcemtcs and Procirotretm, ranging from Chili to 
Patagonia ; ZetQlcemtis, from Peru to Patagonia ; Phrymaturm, 
confined to Chili, and Ptygoderus peculiar, to Patagonia and 
Tierra del Fuego. The other two genera, Oplurm and Leiosaums, 
are common to Chili and tropical South America 

Tortoises appear to be scarce, a species of Hydroinedwsa only 
being recorded. Of the Amphibia, batrachia (frogs and toads) 
alone are represented, and appear to be tolerably abundant, 
seventeen species having been collected by Mr. Darwin in this 
sub-region. Species of the South American genera Pkryniseus, 
Hylaplesia, Telmatohius, Oacotus, Jlylodes, Cydorka-mfhus, PUii- 
rodmui, Cystignathas, and Leiv^erus, are found in various locali- 
ties, some extending even to the Straits of Magellan, — the 
extreme southern limit of both Eeptilia and Amphibia, except 
one lizard {Ptygodenis) found by Professor Cunningham in Tierra 
del I\iego. There are also four peculiar genera, SMnoderma 
belonging to the Engystomida ; Alsodes and Namm/ypheym to the 
BombinatoridEe ; Opisthodelphys to the Hylidie ; and Calyptoce- 
fkalus to the Disc(^lossid£e. 

It thus appears, that in the Beptiles all the groups are typically 
American, and that most of the peculiar genera belong to families 
which are exclusively American. The Amphibia, on the other 
hand, present some interesting external relations, but these are 
as much with Australia as with the North temperate r^ons. The 
BombinatoridEe are indeed Palearctic, but a larger proportion are 
Neotropical, and one genus inhabits New Zealand. The Chilian 
geuus Galyptocephalus is allied to Australian tropical genera. 



The Neotropical genera of Eanidie, five of wliich extend to 
Chili and Patagonia, belong to a division which is Australian 
and Neotropical, and which has species in the Oriental and 
Ethiopian regions. 

Fresbr^water Fishes. — ^These present some peculiar forms, and 
some very interesting phenomena of distribution. The genus 
Ferdlia has been found only in the Eio de Maypu in Chili; and 
Feirdchihys, also belonging to the perch family, has five species 
confined to the fresh waters of South Temperate Ameriisa, and 
one far awa^7 in Java. Nematogsnys (1 sp.) is peculiar to Chili ; 
Tridwrnyeterus reaches 15,000 feet elevation in the Andes,-;— both 
belonging to the SUuridse;. Chvrodon (2 sp.), belonging to the 
CharacinidEe, is peculiar to Chili ; and several other genera of the 
same fanuly extend into this sub-region fi-om Brazil. The family 
Haplochitonidse has a remarkable distribution ; one of its genera, 
Saplochiion, (2 sp.), inhabiting Tierra del Fuego and the FaDdaiid 
Islands, while the other, Protatroctes, is foimd only in South 
Australia and New Zealand. Still more remarkable is Galamas 
(forming the family Galaxidfe), the species of which are divided 
between Temperate South America, and Australia, Tas- 
mania, and New Zealand; and there is even one species 
{Galaidas attemiatvs) which is found in the Chatham Islands, 
New Zealand, and Tasmania, as well as in the Falkland 
Islands and' Patagonia. Mtzroya (1 sp.) is found only at 
Montevideo ; Orestias (6 sp.) is peculiar to Lake Titicaca in the 
high Andes of BoHvia; Jenymid (1 sp.) in the Eio de la Plata 
— all belonging to the characteristic South American family of 
the Cyprinodontid^. 

Insects.~lt is in insects more than in any other class of animals, 
tliat we find clear indications of a not very remote migration of 
northern forms, along the great mountain range to South Tem- 
perate America, where they have established themselves as a 
prominent feature in the entomology of the country. The 
several orders and families, however, differ greatly in . this 
respect ; and there are some groups which are only represented 
by modifications of tropical forms, as we have seen to be almost 
entirely the case in birds and reptiles. 



Lefpidiyptem. — The butterflies of. the South Temperate Sub- 
region are not numerous, only about 29 genera and 80 species 
being, recorded Most of these are from Chili, which is suffi- 
ciently accounted for by the general absence of wood on the 
east side of the Andes from Buenos Ayres to South Patagonia. 
The famib'es represented are as follows: Satyridfe, with 11 
genera and 27, species, are the most abundant ; Wymphalidfe, 
2 genera and 8 species ; Lemoniidffi, 1 genua, 1 species ; Lycee- 
nidje, 3 genera, 8 species ; Pieridie, 6 genera, 14 species ; Papi- 
lionidte, 2 genera, 8 species; Hesperidse, 4 genera, IS species. 
One genus of Satyrida; (Mina) and 2 of Pieridte {Eroessa and 
Pkidia) are peculiar to Chili. The following are the genera 
whose derivation must be traced to the north temperate zone:— 
TetrapMybia, Neosatyrus, and 3 allied genera of 1 species each, 
were formerly included under JSrebia, a northern and arctic form, 
yet having a few species in South Africa ; Arffyropharm, allied 
to jEneis, a northern genus ; Hipparchia, a northern genus yet 
having a species in Brazil ; — all Satyridie. The Kympbalid^e are 
represented by the typical north temperate genus Argynnis, with 
7 species in Chili ; Colias, among the Pieridse, is usually con- 
sidered to be a northern genus, but it possesses representatives 
in South Africa, the Sandwich Islands, Malabar, J^few Grenada, 
and Peru, as well as Chili, and must rather be classed as 
cosmopolitan. These form a sufficiently remarkable group of 
northern forms, but they are accompanied by others of a wholly 
Neotropical origin. Such are SObomorpka with 6 species, rang- 
ing through South America to Guatemala, and Meona, common 
to Chili and Brazil (Satyridse) ; Apod&mia (Lemoniidse) confined 
to Tropical America and Chili Jlesperocharis and Callidryas 
(Pieridte), both tropical ; and Thracidea (Hesperidse) confined to 
Tropical America and Chili. Other genera are widely scattered; 
as, EpinepMh found also in Mexico and Australia ; Oupido, 
widely spread in the tropics ; Euryades, found only in La Plata 
and Paraguay, allied to South American forms of PapUio, to the 
Australian Euryem, and the northern Pamassius ; and Heterop- 
terus, scattered in Chili, North America, and Tropical Africa. We 
find then, among butterflies, a large north-temperate element, 



interiniagled in nearly equal proportiona with forms derived from 
Tropical America; and the varying degrees of resemblances of 
the Chilian, to the northern speciea, seems to indicate successive 
immigrations at remote intervals. 

Goleoptera. — It is among the beetles of South Temperate 
America that we find some of the most curious examples of 
remote affinities, and traces of ancient migrations. The Carabidte 
ate very well represented, and having been more extensively col- 
lected than most other families, offer us perhaps the most com- 
plete materials. Including the Cicindelid^, about 50 genera are 
known from the South Temperate Sub-region, the greater part 
from Chili, but a good number also from Patagonia and the 
Straits of Magellan. Of these more than 30 are peculiar, and 
most of them are so isolated that it is impossible to detennine 
with precision their nearest allies. 

The only remarkable form of Cicindelidse is Agrius, a genus 
allied to the Atiiblyeheila and Omns of N.W. America. Two 
genera of Oambid^, Cascellius and Baripus, are closely allied to 
Fromecod&ms, an Australian genus; and another, LecanoTiwnis, 
has one species in Chili and the other in Australia Five or six 
of the peculiar genera are undoubtedly allied to characteristic 
Paltearctic forms ; and such northern genera as Carahus, Prislo- 
nychus, Amhomeniis, Fterostiekus, Perctis, Bradycdlus, Trechus, 
and BewMdium, all absent from Tropical America, give great 
support to the view that there is a close relation be- 
tween the insects of the northern regions and South Temperate 
America. A decided tropical clement is, however, present. 
Tropo'pt&ms is near Colpodes, a Tropical and South American 
genus; Mimodromius and Plagiotelium are near Calleida, a 
South American genus; while Fachyteles, Fericompsus, Varia- 
palpus, and Calleida are widely spread American groups. 
The preponderance of northern forms seems, however, to be 

Six Carabidfe are known from Juan Pemandez, 3 being 
identical with Chilian species and 3 peculiar. As the island is 
350 miles from the mainland, we have here a proof of how 
readily insects may be transported great distances. 



The Palffiarctic affinity of the South Temperate Carabidee may 
be readily understoodj if we hear in mind the great antiq^mty of the 
group, and the known long persistence of genenc and specific 
forms of Coleoptera ; the facility with which thej may be trans- 
ported to great distances by gales and hurricanes, either on land 
or over the sea ; and, therefore, the probability that suitable 
stations would be rapidly occupied by species already adapted 
to them, to the exclusion of those of the adjacent tracts which 
had been specialised under different conditions K, for example, 
we carry ourselves back to the time when the Andes had only 
risen to half their present altitude, and Patagonia had not 
emerged from the ocean {an epoch not very remote geologically), 
we should find nearly all the Carabidse of South America, 
adapted to a warm, and probably forest- covered country. If, 
then, a further considerable elevation of the land took place, a 
large temperate and cold area would be formed, without any 
suitable insect inhabitants. During the necessarily slow pro- 
cess of elevation, many of the tropical Carabidaj would spread 
upwards, and some would become adapted to the new conditions ; 
■while the majority would probably only maintain themselves by 
continued fresh immigrations. But, a*s the mountains rose, 
another set of organisms would make their way along the 
highest ridges. The abundance and variety of the North 
Temperate Carabidee, and their complete adaptation to a life on 
barren plains and rock-strewn mountains, would enable them 
rapidly to extend int« any newly-raised land suitable to them; 
and thus the whole range of the Eocky Mountains and Andes 
would obtain a population of northern forms, which would over- 
flow into Patagonia, and there, finding no competitors, would 
develope into a variety of modified groups. This migration was 
no doubt effected mainly, duriiig successive glacial epochs, when 
the mountain-range of the Isthmus of Panama, if moderately 
increased in height, might become adapt-ed for the passage of 
northern forms, while storms would often carry insects from 
peak to peak over intervening forest lowlands or narrow 
straits of sea. If this is the true explanation, we ought to find 
no such preponderant northern element in groups which 


46 ZOOLOOICAti GEOGRAPHY. [part hi. 

aie proportionally less developed in cold and temperate 
climates. Our further examination will show how far this is 
the easel 

Lucanid:e, — Only four genera are known in the sub-region. 
Two are peculiar, OMasognathus and Streptocerm, the former 
allied to Tropical American, the latter to Australian genera ; the 
other two genera are exclusively South American. 

Cetoniidse. — These seem very scarce, only a few species of the 
Neotropical genus Gymmtts reaching Patagonia. 

Buprestidie. — These are mther numerous, many very beautiful 
species being found in CbUi. Nineteen genera are represented 
in South Temperate America, and 6 of these are peculiar to it ; 
3 others are South American genera ; 2 are Australian, and the 
remainder are wide-spread, but all are found also in Tropical 
America. The only north-temperate genus is Dicerca, and 
even this occurs also in the Antilles, Brazil, and Peru. Of the 
peculiar genera, the largest, Dactylozodes {26 sp.), has one species 
in South Brazil, and is closely allied to Hyperantlm, a genus of 
Tropical America ; Epistmimtis is allied to Nasm, an Austra- 
lian genus ; Tyndaris is close to AcmwocUra, a genus of wide 
range and preferring desert or dry countries. The other 
two are single species of cosmopolitan affinities. On the 
whole, therefore, the Buprestidse are unmistakeably Neotropical 
in character. 

Longicorns. — Almost the whole of the South Temperate Longi- 
coois inhabit Chili, which is very rich in this beautiful tribe. 
About 75 genera and 160 species are known, and nearly half 
of the genera are peculiar. Many of the species are large and 
handsome, rivalling in beauty those of the most favoured tropical 
lands. Of the 8 genera of Prionidfe 6 are peculiar, but all 
are allied to Tropical American' forms except Miaro^ofhorv^, 
which belongs to a group of genera spread over Australia, Europe, 
and Mexico. The Cerambycidse are much more abundant, and 
their affinities more interesting. Two (Syllitus and Pseudoee- 
jjAo/ms) are common to Australia and Chib. Twenty-three are 
Neotropical; and among these J6i'(£M)i,(7ompsocCT'iis, CalHderiph->is, 
Traehyderes, and Xyloeharis, are best represented. Twenty are 



altogether peculiar, but most of them are more or less closely 
allied to genera inhabiting Tropical America. Some, as the hand- 
some ChdodlTus and Oxypeltus, have no close allies in any part 
of the world. , Holopterus, though very peculiar, shows most re- 
semblance to a New Zealand insect. Sibt/Ua, Adalhis, and 
PhaMagoderus, have Australian affinities ; while Calydon alone 
shows an affinity for north-temperate forms. One species of the 
northern genus, Leptura, is said to have been found at Buenos 

The Lamiidse are less abundant. Nine of the genera are Neo- 
tropical. Two {Apomeeyna and Exoe&ntrus) are spread over all 
tropical regions. Ten genera are peculiar; and most of these 
are related to Neotropical groups or are of doubtful affinities. 
Only one, Acon&pterus, is decidedly allied to a northern genus, 
Pogonochm-us. It thus, appears, that none of the Lamiid^ ex- 
hibit AustraKan affinitie'< although these ire i prominent fea- 
ture in the relations of the Ceramb^cidEe 

. It is evident ftom the foregomg outline that the insects of 
South Temperate Amei ca moie than any other Uass of amn ils, 
exhibit a connection with the north temperate regions yet this 
eonnectioo is only seen m certam sjroups In Diurnal Lepidop- 
tera and in Carabile the noithem element i f Uy equal to the 
trapical, 'or even prej onderates o\ei it We have alieady sug- 
gested an explanation of this fvct m the case ft the Oanbidfe, 
and with the butterflies it la not more lifiieult The gieat mass 
of Neotropical butterflies are forest species, and have been de- 
veloped for countless ages in a forest-clad tropical country. The 
north temperate butterflies, on the other hand, are very lai^ely 
open-country species, frequenting pastures, mountains, and open 
plains, and often wandering over an extensive area. These 
would find, on the higher slopes of mountains, a vegetation and 
conditions suited to them, and would occupy such stations in 
less time than would be rec^uired to adapt and modify the forest- 
haunting groups of the American lowlands. In those groups 
of insects, however, in which the conditions of life are nearly the 
eame as regards both temperate and tropical species, the superior 



number and variety of the tropical forms has given them the ad- 
vantage. Thus we find that among the Luoanid^e, Buprestidai, and 
Loiigicorns, the northern element is hardly perceptible. Most of 
these are either purely Neotropical, or allied to Neotropical genera, 
with the admixture, however, of a decided Australian element. 
As iu the case of the Amphibia and fresh-water fishes, the Aus- 
trahan affinity, as shown by insects, is of two kinds, near and 
remote. We have a few genera common to the two countries ; 
but more commonly the genera arc very distinct, and the afBnity 
is shown by the genera of both countries belonging to a group 
peculiar to them, but which may be of very great aga In the 
former case, we must impute some of the resemblance of the two 
faunas to an actual interchange of forms within the epoch of 
existing genera — a period of vast and unknown duration in the 
class of insects ; while in the latter case, and perhaps also in 
many of the former, it seems more in accordance with the whole 
of the phenomena, to look upon most of the instances as 
survivals, in the two southern temperate areas, of the relics of 
groups which had once a much wider distribution. That this is 
the true explanation, is suggested by the numerous cases of dis- 
continuous and scattered distribution we have had to notice, in 
which every part of the globe, without exception, is implicated ; 
and there is a reason why these survivals should be rather more 
frequent in Australia and temperate South Aioerica, iiiasmuch 
as these two areas agree in the absence of a considerable number 
of otherwise cosmopolitan vertebrate types, and are also in many 
respects very similar in climatic and other physical conditions. 
The preponderating influence of the o^anic over the physical 
environment, aa taught by Mr. Darwin, leads us to give most 
weight to the first of the above-mentioned causes ; to which we 
may also impute such undoubted cases of auivival of ancient 
types as the GentetidEe of the Antilles and Madagascar — both 
areas strikingly deficient in the higher vertebrate forms. The 
probable mode and time of the cross migration between Australia 
and South America, has been sufBeiently discussed in our chapter 
on the Australian region, when treating of the origin and affinities 
of the New Zealand fauna. 



Islands of the South Temperate Sub-region. 

These are few, and of not much zoological interest Tierra 
del Fuego, although really an island, is divided from the main- 
land hy so narrow a channel that it may he considered as 
forming part of the continent. The guanaco (Auchenia Imcmaco) 
ranges over it, and even to smaU islands further south. 

The Falkland Islands. — These are more important, heing 
situated ahout 350 mOes to the east of Southern Patagonia; 
hut the intervening sea is shallow, the 100 fathom line of sound- 
ings passing outside the islands. We have therefore reason to 
believe that they have heen conjiected with South America at a 
not distant epoch; and in agreement with this view we find moat 
of their productions identical, while the few that are peculiar 
are closely allied to the forms of the mainland. 

The only indigenous Mammals are a wolf-like fox (Pseu- 
dalopex antarcticus) said to be found nowhere else, hut alhed to 
two other species inhabiting Southern Patagonia ; and a species 
of mouse, probably one of the American genera S'esperomys or 

Sixty-seven species of Birds have been obtained in these 
islands, hut only 18 are land-birds ; and even of these 7 are 
birds of prey, leaving only 11 Passeres, The former are all 
common South American forms, hut one species, Milvago a-mtralis, 
seems peculiar. The 11 Passeres belong to 9 genera, all found on 
the adjacent mainland. Three, or perhaps four, of the species 
are however peeuhar. These are Phrygilus melanod&i-us, F. 
■xanthogrammus, Cinclodes anfarciicus, and Musdsaxieola maclo- 
viana. The wading and swimming birds are of little interest, 
except the penguins, which greatly developed; no less than 
eight species being found, five as residents and three as acci- 
dental visitors. 

Ko reptiles are known to inhabit these islands. 

Juan Fernandez.- — This island is situated in the Pacific Ocean, 
ahout 400 miles west of Valparaiso in Chili. It is only a few 
miles in extent, yet it possesses four land-birds, excluding the 
powerful Accipitres. These are Turdus falklandicus ; Anceretes 



fimandensis, one of the Tyraiinidje ; and two humming-birds, 
EustephanuB /emande/ms and E. gal&i-itus. The first is a wide- 
spread South Temperate species, the two next are peculiar 
to the island, while the last is a Chilian species which ranges 
south to Tierra del Fuego. But ninety miles beyond this 
island lies another, called "Mas-a-fuero," very much smaller; 
yet this, too, contains four species of similar birds ; one, 
Oosywus mas-a-fuerce, allied to the wide-spread South Temperate 
0. spmicaiida, and Cinclodes fiisus, a South Temperate species — 
both Dendrocolaptidfe ; with a humming-bird, Eustephanus l&y- 
bohU, allied to the species in the larger island. The preceding 
fa«ts are taken from papers by Mr. Sclater in the Ibis for 1871, 
and a later one in the same journsQ by Mr. Salvin (1875). The 
former author has some interesting remarks on the three species 
of humming-birds of the genus Eustephamts, above referred to. 
The Chilian species, E. galeritus, is green in both sexes. E. 
/ernandensis has the male of a fine red colour and the female 
green, though differently marked from the female of E. galeritits. 
E. leyboldi (of Mas-a-fuera) has the male also red and the female 
green, but the female is more like that of E. gaUritiis, than it is 
like the female of its nearer ally in Juan Fernandez. Mr, 
Sclater supposes, that the ancient parent form of these three 
birds had the sexes aHke, as in the present Chilian bird ; that a 
pair (or a female having fertilised ova) reached Juan Fernandez 
and colonised it. Under the action of sexual selection (unchecked 
by some conditions which had impaired its efficacy on the con- 
tinent) the male gradually assumed a biilliant plumage, and the 
feraiale also slightly changed its markings. Before this change 
was completed the bird had established an isolated colony on 
Mas-a-fuera ; and here the process of change was continued in 
the male, but from some unknown cause checked in the 
female, which thus remains nearer the parent form. Lastly 
the slightly modified Chilian bird again reached Juan Fer- 
nandez and exists there side by side with its strangely altered 

All the phenomena can thus be accounted for by known laws, 
on the theory of very rare accidental immigrations from the 



mainland. The species are here so very few, that the greatest 
advocate, for continental extensions would hardly call such vast 
causes into action, to account for the presence of these three 
hirds on so small and so remote an island, especially as the 
union must have continued down to the time of existing species. 
But if accidental immigration has sufficed here, it will also 
assuredly have sufficed where the islands are larger, and the 
chances of reaching them proportionately greater; and it is 
heoause an important principle is here illustrated on so small 
a scale, and in so simple a manner as to be almost undeniable, 
that we have devoted a paragraph to its elucidation. 

A few Coleoptera from Juan Fernandez present analogous 
phenomena. All belong to Chilian genera, while a portion of 
them constitute peculiar species. 

Land-shells are rather plentiful, there being about twenty 
species belonging to seven genera, all found in the adjacent 
parts of South America; but all the species are peculiar, 
as well as four others found on the island of Mas-arfuera. 

III. Tropical North .America, or the Mexican Siib-region, 
This sub-region is of comparatively smaR extent, consisting of 
the in-egular neck of land, about J.,800 miles long, which 
connects the North and South American continents. Almost 
the whole of its area is mountainous, being in fact a con- 
tinuation of the great, range of the Eocky Mountains. In. 
Mexico it forms an extensive table-land, from 6,000 to 9,000 
feet above the sea, with numerous volcanic peaks from 12,000 to 
18,000 feet high ; but in Yucatan and Honduras, the country is 
less elevated, though still mountainous. On the shores of the 
Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, there is a matgui of low 
land from 50 to 100 miles wide, beyond which the mountains 
rise abruptly ; but on the Pacific side this is almost entirely 
wanting, the mountains rising almost immediately from the sea 
shore. With the exception of the elevated plateaus of Mexico 
and Guatemala, and the extremity of the peninsula of Yucatan, 
the whole of Central America is clothed with forests; and as its 
e is much broken up into hill and valley, and the volcanic 



soil of a large portion of it is very fertile, it is altogether well 
adapted to support a varied fauna, as it does a most luxuriant 
vegetation. Although many peculiar Neotropical tj^ea are 
absent, it yet possesses an ample supply of generic and specific 
forms ; and, as far as concerns birds and insects, is not perhaps 
inferior to the richest portions of South America in the number 
of species to be found in equal areas. 

Owing to the fact that the former EepubHc of Mexico 
comprised much territory that belongs to the Nearctic region, 
and that many Nearctic groups extend along the high-lands to 
the capital city of Mexico itself, and even considerably further 
south, there is much difficulty in determining what animals 
really belong to tiiis sub-region. On the low-lands, tropical 
forms predominate as far as 28° N. latitude ; while on the 
Cordilleras, temperate forms prevail down to 20°, and are found 
even much farther within the tropics. 

Mammalia. — Veiy few peculiar forms of Mammalia are re- 
stricted to tropical North America ; which is not to be wondered at 
when we consider the small extent of the country, and the facility 
of communication with adjacent sub-regions. A peculiar form 
of tapir (Elasmognathus hairdi) inhabits Central America, from 
Panama to Guatemala, and, with MyrMtnys, a genus of Murids, 
are all at present discovered. Bassiris, a remarkable form of 
Procyonidje, has been included in tlie Nearctic region, but it 
extends to the high-lands of Guatemala. Heteroniys, a peculiar 
genus of Saccomyidse or pouched rats, inhabits Mexico, 
Honduras, Costa Eiea, and Trinidad. Five genera of monkeys 
extend here, — Ateles, Mycetes, Oebus, Nyctipiihecus, and Saimiris ; 
the two former alone reaching Mexico, the last only going as far 
as Costa Rica. Other typical Neotropical forms are Galera, the 
tayra, belonging to the weasel family ; Kasna, the coatimundi ; 
Dicotyles, the peccary ; Cercolaies, the tree porcupine ; Dasyprocta, 
the agouti ; Coslogenys, the paca ; Gholmpus, and Arctopiihemts, 
sloths ; Gydothwms, an ant-eater ; Tat^tsia, an armadillo ; and 
Bidelphys, oppossum. Of Northern forms. Sorex, Vulpes, L&pus, 
and Pteromys teach Guatemala, 

Birds. — The productiveness of this district in bird life, may 




be estimated from the fact, that Messrs, Salvin and Sclater 
catalogued more than 600 species from the comparatively small 
territory of Guatemala, or the portion of Central America hetween 
Mexico and Honduras. The great mass of the birds of this 
sub-region are of Neotropical families and genera, but these are 
intermingled with a number of migrants from temperate North 
America, which pass the winter here ; with some northern forms 
on the high-lands ; and with a considerable number of peculiar 
genera, mostly of Neotropical affinities. 

The genera of birds peculiar to this sub-r^on belong to the 
following families: — Turdidse {2 genera) ; Troglodytidse (1 gen.; 
Vireonidffi (1 gen.) ; Corvidfe (2 gen.) ; Ampelidee (1 gen. 
Tanagridffi {1 gen.) ; Fringillidte (2 gen.) ; IcteridEe (1 gen. 
Formicariidie (2 gen.) ; TjTannidEe (2 gen,) ; Cotingidai (1 gen. 
Momotidte (1 gen.) ; Trogonidse (1 gen.) ; Trochilidte (14 gen. 
Conuridfe (1 gen.) ; Cracidse (2 gen.) ; Strigidie (1 gen.) ; in all 
37 genera of land-birda. The Neotropical families that do not 
extend into this sub-region are, Pteroptochidte ; the sub-family 
lih/mariincB of the DendrocolaptidEe ; the sub-family Conophu- 
gi-rue of the Tyrannidte; the sub-family Mupicolinm of the 
Cotingidfe ; Phytotomidse ; Todids; OpisthocomidEe ; Chioni- 
didte; Thinocoridte ; Cariamidse; Psophiidm; Eurypygidce; 
Palamedeidte ; and StruthionidEe. On the other hand Paridse, 
Certhiidte, Ampelidse, and Phasianidse, are northern families repre- 
sented here, but which do not reach South America ; and there 
are also several northern genera and species, of Turdidse, Troglo- 
dytidee, Mniotiltidfe, Vireonid^e, rringillidie, Corvid», Tetra- 
onidte, and Strigidje, which are similarly restricted. Some of 
the most remarkable of the Neotropical genera only extend as 
far as Costa Eica and Veragua,— countries which possess a rich 
and remarkable fauna. Here only are found an umbrella bird, 
{Gephalcpte/rus glabricoUis) ; a bell bird (Chasmorhynohus tncar- 
unmlatits) ; and species of Dacnis (Cercebida), Bwtkra-wpis, 
Eiicimtetis, Taeh/ypkonus (Tanagridas), Xiplwrhyiuihus (Dendro- 
colaptidae) ; Hypocnemis (FormicariidEe) ; EuscaTthmus (Tyran- 
nidffi) ; Attila (Cotingid«) ; Piprites (Pipridfe) ; Capita, Tetra- 



Cuculidte) ; Monasa (BuccoiiidEe) ; many genera of Trochilidas ; 
and Nothocermis (TmamidEe) ; none of ■which extend further 
north. A considerable number of the peculiar genera noted 
above, are also foimd in this restricted area, which is probably 
one of the richest ornithological districts on the globe. 

Reptiles. — These are much less known than the preceding 
classes, but they afford several peculiar and interesting forms. 
Snakes are perhaps the least remarkable ; yet there are recorded 
4 peculiar genera of Calamariidie, 1 of Golubridte, 1 of Homalop- 
sidte, 3 of Dipsadidra ; whUe Boa and Maps are in common with 
South America. Lizards are much more specially developed. 
Chirotes, one of the Amphisbienians, is confined to Mexico and the 
southern part of the Kearctic region ; Heloderma forming a pecu- 
liar family, Helodermidse, is Mexican only ; Ahroma and Barissia 
(Zonuridfe) are also Mexican, as is Siderolampus belonging to 
the Scincidfe, vihilti Blepharactitis (same family) inhabits Nicara- 
gua; Brackydactyhis, one of the geckoes, is from Costa Eica; 
while Phymaiolepis, Lmaanctus, Corytheolus, Cachrix, Corytko- 
phanes and Chamceleopsis, all belonging to the Ignanidfe, are con- 
fined to various parts of the sub-region. In the same family we 
have also the Antillean, Cyclwra,d.'a& the Nearctie F/i/iynosoma. and 
TropidolepiB, as weU as the wide-spread American genus Anolius. 

Among the tortoises, Staurotypus, allied to Chelydra, is found 
in Mexico and Guatemala ; and another genus, Claudius, has been 
lately described from Mexico. 

Amphibia.— These are chiefly Eatrachiana ; Mhinophryna 
(forming a peculiar family) being coniined to Mexico ; Ti-iprion, 
a genus of Hylidce, inhabiting Yucatan, with Le,yla and Sira- 
homantis (Polypedatidfe) found only iu Costa Eica and Veragua, 
are peculiar genera. The Salamandridie, so, abundant in the 
If earctic region, are represented by a few species of Amhlystoma 
and Spelerpes. 

Fresh-ivaler fish. — Since the British Museum catalogue wis 
published, a valuable paper by Br. Giinther, in the Transactions 
of the Zoological Society for 1868, furnishes much additional 
information on the fishes of Central America. In that part of 
the region south of Mexico, 106 species of fresh-water fishes are 



enumerated ; and 17 of these are found in streams flowing into 
both the Atlantic and Pacific Ocetins. On the whole, 11 famiEes 
are represented among the fresh-water fish, and about 38 genera. 
Of these, 14 are specially Nearctic, — ^miwMs'(Silurid£e) ; Fundu- 
lus (CyprinodontidEe) ; SderogjMthus (Cyprinidaj) ; and Lepidosteits 
(G-anoidei). A, much larger number are Neotropical; and several 
Neotropical genera, as Jleros and Pcecilia, are more largely 
developed here than in any other part of the region. There are 
also a considerable number of peculiar genera; — Fetenia, Tkeraps, 
and Neotn^lms (Chromides) ; ^luricMhys (SiiuridEe) ; Chalet- 
nffpsis (Characniidfe) ; Cha/racodon, Betonesox, Pseudoxiphopkonis; 
Flatypceciliis, MoUienesia, and Xvphophorus (CyprinodontidEe)^ 
A few peculiar AntiUean forms are also present ; as Agonostoma 
(MugilidEe) ; Gambima and Oirardmuus (CyprinodontidEe): The 
other families represented are Percidte (1 genus) ; Pristopomatidse 
(2 gen.) ; Gobudse (1 gen.) ; Clupeidte (2 gen.) ; and Gymnotidse 
(1 genus). 

On the whole the fish-fauna is typically Neotropical, but with 
a small infusion of Nearctic forms. There are a considerable 
proportion of peculiar genera, and almost all the species are 
distinct from those of other countries. The predominant family 
is that of the Cyprinodontidfe, represented by 12 genera; and 
the genus Reros (Chromidse) has here its maximum development, 
containing between thirty and forty 'species. Dr. Giinther con- 
siders that a number of sub-faunas can be distir^ished, corre- 
sponding to some extent, with the islands into which the country 
would be divided by a subsidence of about 2,000 feet. The 
most important of these divisions is that separating Honduras from 
Costa Rica, and as it also divides a very marked ornithological 
fauna we have every reason to believe that such a division must 
have existed during the latter portion of the tertiary epoch. 
We shall find some farther evidence of this division in the 
next class. 

Insects. — The butterflies of various parts of Central America 
and Mexico, having been lai^ely collected, offer us some 
valuable evidence as to the relations of this sub-region. Their 
general character is wholly Neotropical, about one half of the 

YOL, IL— 5 



South Ameriean genera being found here. There are also a few 
peculiar genera, as,i>rwci«ffl (Satj^dte); Microtia (Nymphalidse) ; 
UtiTtimd (Lycfenidas) ; and Eucheira (PieridBe) , Clothilda 
(Nymphalidfe) is confined to this sub-region and the Antilles. 
The majority of the genera range over the whole sub-region 
from Panama to Mexico, hut there are a considerable number, 
comprising many of the most chaxacteriatic South American 
forms, which do not pass north of Coata Riea or Nicaragua. Such 
are Lycorea, Iluna, Thyridia, Galliihomia, Oleria and Oeratina, 
— -all characteristic South American groups of Danaidfe ; Prono- 
phila and Ih/nastor (Satyiidie) ; Protogonius, Pyeina, Pi-epona, 
Nica,, Eetima and Col(enis (NymphalidEe) ; EwryUa and Metko- 
nella (Nemeobiid^e) ; Hades, and Panthemos (Erycinidte). 

Coleoptera. — 'These present some interesting features, but 
owing to their vast number only a few of the more important 
families can be noticed. 

Cicindelidte. — The only specially Neotropical genera recorded 
as occurring in this sub-region, are C'tenostoma and Hiresia, both 
reaching Mexico. 

Carabidse. — Several genera are peculiar. Molohrvs is found 
in all parts of the sub-region, while Onyckoptm-ygia, Phymato- 
cephalns, and Anisolarsws are Mexican only. There are about 20 
South American genera, most of which extend to Mexico, and 
include such characteristic "Neotropical forms as Agra, Cdllida, 
-a, Pachyteles, Ardistomus, Aspidoglossa, Sienoorepis, and 

Lucanidie.— Of this important family there is, strange to say, 
not a single species recorded in Gemminger and Harold's cata- 
logue up to 1868 ! It is almost impossible that they can be 
really absent ; .yet their place seems to be, to some extent, 
supplied by an unnsual development of the allied Passalidse, of 
which there are iive South American and six peculiar genera. 

CetoniidEe. — All the larger South American genera extend to 
Mexico, which country possesses 3 peculiar forms, Iscknoscelis, 
Psilocnemis, and Bialitkus ; while Trigonopeltastes is character- 
istic, having 4 Mexican, 1 Braailian, end 1 North American 



BuprestidEe. — In this family there are no peculiar genera. 
AH : the large South American groups are absent, the only im- 
portant and characteristic genus being Stenogaster. 

Longicorns. — This important group is largely developed, the 
country being well adapted to them ; and their distribution 
presents some features of interest. 

In the Prionidfe there are 6 peculiar genera, the lai^est being 
Holonotiis with 3 species ; two others, JDerotrachus and Mallaspis, 
are characteristic ; 3 more are common to South America, and 1 
to Cuba. The Cerambyeidte are much more niimerous, and there 
are 24 peculiar, genera, the most important being Sphenoihems, 
Entomostemd, and Cyphosterna ; while Crioprasopus and Metalep- 
tm are characteristic of the sut-region, although extending into 
South America ; about 12 Neotropical genera extend to Mexico 
or Guatemala, while 12 more stop short, as far as yet known, at 
Nicaragua. Lamiid^ have a very similar distribution ; 13 genera 
are peculiar, the most important being Monilema, Kamatodertis, 
and Garneades, while Phma and LagocMrm are characteristic. 
About sixteen typical Neotropical genera extend to Mexico, and 
15 more only reach Nicaragua, among which are such important 
genera as Anisopus, Lepiurgws, and Gallia. 

The land-shells are not sufficiently known to furnish any 
coi-responding results. They are however mostly of South 
American genera, and have comparatively little affinity for tliose 
of the Antilles. 

Relations of the Mexican sub -region to the N'orth and South 
American Continents. — The sudden appearance of numerous 
South American forms of Edentata in temperate North America, 
in Post-Tertiary times, as narrated in Chapter VII., together 
with such facts as the occurrence of a considerable number 
of identical species of sea fish on the two sides of the Central 
American isthmus, render it almost certain that the union of 
North and South America is comparatively a recent occm-- 
rance, and that during the Miocene and Pliocene periods, they 
were separated by a wide arm of the sea. The low country 
of Nicaragua was probably the part sitbmerged, leaving the 
hkrhlands of Mexico and Guatemala still united with the North 



American continent, and forming part of the Tertiaiy " Xearctic 
regioiL" This is clearly indicated both by the many Nearclic 
forms which do not pass south of Mcaragua, of which the turkeys 
(Meleagris) are a striking example, and by the comparative 
poverty of this area in typical Keotropical groups. During the 
Miocene period there was not that marked diversity of climate 
between North and South America that now prevails ; for when 
a luxuriant vegetation covered what are now the shores, of the 
Arctic Ocean, the country south of the great lakes must have been 
almost or quite tropical. At an early Tertiary period, the zoological 
differences of the Nearetic and Neotropical regions were probably 
more radical than they are now. South America being a huge 
island, or group of islands — a kind of Australia of the New 
World, chiefly inhabited by the imperfectly organized Edentata; 
while North America abounded in TJngulata and Carnivora," and 
perhaps formed a part of the great Old World continent. There 
were also one or more very ancient unions (in Eocene or Miocene 
times) of the two continents, admitting of the entrance of the 
ancestral types of Quadrumana into South America, and, somewhat 
later, of the Camelidie ; while the isthmus south of Nicaragua 
was at one time united to the southern continent, at another made 
insular by subsidence near Panama, and thus obtained that rich 
variety of Neotropical types that still characterises it. When 
the final union of the two continents took place, the tropical 
climate of the lower portions of Guatemala and Mexico would 
invite rapid immigration from the south ; while some northern 
forms- would extend their range into and beyond the newly 
elevated territory. The Mexican sub-region has therefore a 
composite character, and we must not endeavour too rigidly to 
determine its northern limits, nor claim as exclusively Neotro- 
pical, forms which are perhaps comparatively recent immigrants ; 
and it would perhaps be a more accurate representation of the 
facts, if we were to consider aU the highlands of Mexico and 
Guaitemala above the limits of the tropical forests, as stiU 
belonging to the Nearetic region, of which the whole country so 
recently formed a part. 

The long-continued separation of North and South America 



by one or more arms of the sea, as above indicated, is further 
rendered necessary by the character of the molluscan fauna of 
the Pacific shores of tropical America, which is much more 
closely allied to that of the Caribbean sea, and even of West 
Africa, than to that of the Pacific islands. The families and 
many of the genera are the same, and a certain proportion of 
very closely allied or identical species, shows that the union of 
the two oceans continued into late Tertiary times. When the 
evidence of both land and sea animals support each other as 
they do here, the conclusions arrived at are almost as certain as 
if we had (as we no doubt some day shall have) geological proof 
of these successive subsidences. 

IslaTids of the Mexican Sub-region. — The only islands of 
interest belonging to this sub-region, are Ti'es Marias and 
Socorro, recently investigated by CoL Grayson for some of the 
American Natural History societies. 

Tres Marias consist of four small islands lying off the coast 
of north-western Mexico, about 70 miles from San Bias. The 
largest is about 15 miles long by 10 wide. They are of horizon- 
tally stratified deposits, of moderate height and fiat-topped, amd 
everywhere covered with luxuriant virgin forests. They appear 
to lie within the 100 fathom line of soundings. Pifty-two species 
of birds, of which 45 were land-birds, were colSected on these 
islands. They consisted of 19 Passeres; 11 Picarife (7 being 
humming-birds) ; 10 Accipitres ; 2 parrots, and 3 pigeons. All 
were Mexican species except 4, which were new, and presumably 
peculiar to the islands, and one tolerably marked variety. The 
new species belong to the following genera; — Panda, and 
Granatellus (Mniotiltidte) ; Icterus (Icteridfc) ; and AmasSia 
(Trochilid^). A small Psittacula diffei's somewhat from the 
same species on the mainland. 

There are a few mammalia on the islands ; a rabbit (Ze^Ms) 
supposed to be new ; a very small opossum {Didetfhys), and a 
racoon {Proeyon). There are also several tree-snakes, a Boa, and 
many lizards. The occurrence of so many mammalia and snakes 
is a proof that these islands have been once joined to the main- 
land ; but the fact that some of the species of both birds and 



mala are peculiar, indicates that the separation is not a very 
recent one. At the same time, as all the species are very closely 
allied to those of the opposite coasts when not identical, we may- 
be sure that the auhsidenee which isolated them is not geologi- 
cally remote. 

Socorro, the lai^est of the Eevillagigedo Islands, is altogether 
different from the Trea Marias. It ia situated a little further 
south (19 8. Latitude); and about 300 miles from the coast, in 
deep water. It is about 2,000 feet high, very rugged and bare, 
and wholly volcanic. No mammalia were observed, and no 
reptiles hut a small lizard, a new species of a genus (Jltd) 
characteristic of the deserts of -K. -Western Mexico. The only 
observed land-shell (Ch'thalicus v/ndatus) also inhabits N.-W. 
Mexico. Only 14 species of birds were obtained, of which 9 
were land-birds ; but of these 4 were new species, one a peculiar 
variety, and another (Parula insularis) a species first found in 
the Tres Marias. With the exception of this bird and a Buieo, 
all the land-birds belonged to different genera from any found on 
the Tres Marias, though all were Mexican forms. The peculiar 
species belonged to the genera Harporhynchus (Turdidas) ; Trog- 
lodytes (Troglodytidse) ; Pipilo (Fringillidfe) ; Zmaidisra (Colum- 
bidffi) ; and a variety of Cmiurus holochrms (Psittacidte). 

The absence of mammals and snakes, the laige proportion of 
peculiar species, the wholly volcanic nature of these islands, and 
their situation in deep water 300 miles from land, — all indicate 
that they have not formed part of the continent, but have been 
raised in the ocean ; and the close relation of their peculiar 
species to those living in N.- Western Mexico, renders it pro- 
bable that their antiquity is not geologically great 

The Cocos Islands, about 300 miles S.-W. of the Isthmus of 
Panama, are known to possess one peculiar bird, a cuckoo of the 
Coecy^us type, which is considered by some ornithologists to con- 
stitute a peculiar genus, Nesococcyx. 

IV. The West Indian Islands, or Antillean Sub-region, 

The West Indian islands are, iu many respects, one of the 

most interesting of zoological sub-regions. In position they 



form an unbroken chain uniting North and South America, 
in a line parallel to the great Central American isthmus ; yet 
instead of exhibiting an intermixture of the productions of 
Plorida and Venezuela, they differ ■widely from both these 
countries, possessing in some groups a degree of speciality 
only to be found elsewhere in islands far removed from any 
continent. They consist of two very large islands, Cuba and 
Hayti ; ^ two of moderate size, Jamaica ' and Portorico ; and a 
chain of much smaller islands, St. Croix, Angiiilla, Barbuda, 
Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica, MartiiiicLue, St. Lucia, ' St 
Vincent, Barbadoes, and Grenada, with a host of intervening 
islets, Tobf^o, Trinidad, Margarita, and Curasao, ate situated 
in shallow water near the coast of South America, of which they 
form part zoologically. To the north of Cuba and Hayti are the 
Bahamas, an extensive group of coral reefs- and islands, 700 
miles long, and although very poor in animal life, belonging 
zoologically to the Antilles. All the larger islands, and most of 
the smaller ones (except those of coral formation) are veiy 
mountainous and rocky, the chains rising to about 8,000 feet ia 
Hayti and Jamaica, and to nearly the same height in Cuba. 
AH, except where they have been cleared by man, are covered 
with a luxuriant forest vegetation ; the temperature is high and 
uniform ; the rains ample ; the soil, derived from granitic and 
liinestone rocks, exceedingly fertile ; and as the four larger islands 
together are larger than Great Britain, we might expect an 
ample and luxuriant fauna. The reverse is however the ease ; 
and there are probably no land areas on the globe, so highly 
favoured by nature in all the essentials for supporting animal 
life, and at the same time so poor in all the more highly 
organised groups of animals. Before entering upon our sketch 
of the main features of this peculiar but limited fauna, it will 
be well to note a few peculiarities in the physical structure of 
the islands, which have an important bearing on their past 

' This uame will be used for the whole kland of St. Domingo, as being 
both shorter and more euphonious, and avoiding all confusion with Dominica, 
one of the Leaser Antilles. It is aiso better -known than " Hispaniola," which 
is perhaps the most correct name. 



history, and ■will enable us to account for much that is peculiar 
in the general character of tlieir natural productions. 

If we draw a line immediately south of St. Croix and St. 
Eartholomew, we shall divide the Archipelago into two very 
different groups. The southern range of islands, or the Lesser 
Antilles, are, almost without exception, volcanic ; beginning with 
the small detached volcanoes of Saba and St. Eustatius, and 
ending with the old volcano of Grenada. Barbuda and Antigua 
are low islands of Tertiary or recent formation, connected with 
the volcanic islands by a submerged hank, at no great depth. 
The islands to the north and west are none of them volcanic ; 
many are very large, and these have all a central nucleus of 
ancient or granitic rocks. We must also note, that the channels 
between these islands are not of excessive depth, and that their 
eutliues, as well as the direction of their mountain raises, 
point to a former union. Thus, the northern range of Hayti is 
continued westward in Cuba, and eastward in Portorico ; while 
the south-western peninsula extends in a direct line towards 
Jamaica, the depth between them being 600 fathoms. Between 
Portorico and Hayti there is only 250 fathoms; while close to 
the south of aU these islands the sea is enormously deep, from 
more than 1,000 fathoms south of Cuba and Jamaica, to 2,000 
south of Hayti, and 2,600 fathoms near the south-east extremity 
of Portorico, The importance of the division here pointed out 
wOl be seen, when we state, that indigenous mammalia of peen- 
Har genera are found on the western group of islands only ; 
and it is on these that all the chief peculiarities of Antillian 
zoolc^ are developed. 

Mammalia. — The mammals of the "West Indian Islands are 
exceedii^ly few, but very interesting. Almost all the orders 
most characteristic of South America are absent. There are no 
monkeys, no carnivora, no edentata. Besides bats, which are 
abundant, only two orders are represented ; rodents, by peculiar 
forms of a South American family;. and inseetivora (an order 
entirely wanting in South America) by a genus belonging to a 
family lai^ly developed in. Madagascar and found nowhere else. 
The. early voyagers mention " Coatis " and " Agoutis " as being 



found in Hayti and the other lai^e islands, and it is not im- 
probable that species allied to Jffasua and Dasppructa did 
exist, and have been destroyed by the dogs of the invaders ; 
though, on the other hand, these names may have been appKed 
to the existing specii^, which do bear some general resemblance 
to these two forms. 

The Chiroptera, or bats, are represented by a large number of 
species and by several peculiar genera. The American family 
of Phylloatomidfe or vampires, has six genera in the Antilles, of 
wliieh three, Lonchorina, Brachyphylla, and Phyllonyderis, axe 
peouhar, the latter being found oidy in Cuba, The Vesperti- 
lionidse have four genera, of which one, Nycticelltis, is confined to 
Cuba. There are six genera of ]SroctiIionid£e, of which one, 
Phyllodio; is confined to Jamaica. 

The Insectivora are represented by the genus SoUnodon, of 
which two species are known, one inhabiting Cuba the other 
Hayti. These are slnall animals about the size of a cat, with 
long shrew-like snout, bare rat-Hke tail, and long clawa. Their 
peculiar dentition and other^points of their anatomy shows that 
they belong to the family Centetidse, of which five different genera 
inhabit Madagascar ; while there is nothing closely allied to 
them in any other part of the world but in these two islands. 

Seals are said to be found on the shores of some of the islands, 
but they are very imperfectly known. 

The rodents belong to the family Octodontidse, or, according 
to some authors, to the Echimyidffi, both characteristic South 
American group's. They consist of two genera, Gapromys, con- 
taining three or four species inhabiting Cuba and Jamaica; 
while Plagiodontia, (very closely allied) is confined to Hayti. 
A peculiar mouse, a species of the American genus Hesperomys, 
is said to inhabit Hayti and MartinicLue, and probably other 
islands. A Dasyproeta or agouti, closely allied to, if not identical 
with, a South American species, inhabits St. Vincent, St. Lucia, 
and Grenada, and perhaps St. Thomas, and is the only mammal 
of any size indigenous to the Lesser Antilles. All the islands 
in which sugar is cultivated are, however, overrun with European 
rats and mice, and it is not improbable that these may have 



starved out and exterminated some of the smaller native 

Birds. — Tlie birds of the Antilles, although veiy inferior in 
number and variety to those of the mainland, are yet suffi- 
ciently abundant and remarkable, to offer us good materials for 
elucidating the past history of the country, when aided by such 
indications as geology and physical geography can afford. 

The total uumb^ of land-birds which are permanent residents 
in the West India islands is, as nearly as can be ascertained from 
existing materials, 203, There are, in addition to this number, 
according to Prof. Baird,,88 migrants from North America, 
which either spend the winter in some of the islands or pass on 
to Central or South America. These migrants belong to 55 
genera, and it is an interesting fact that so many as 40 of these 
genera have no resident representatives in the islands. This is 
important, as showing that this northern migration is probably a 
I'ecent and superficial phenomenon, and has not produced any 
(or a very shght) permanent effect on the fauna. The migratory 
genera which have permanent residents, and almost always 
representative species, in the islands, are in most cases character- 
istic rather of the Neotropical than of the Nearctic fauna, as the 
following list will show; Turdus, Bendrmca, Vireo, PoUoptila, 
Agelmis, Icterus, Gontopus, Myiarchus, Tyrannus, Antrostomim, 
Chordeiies, Cocei/sm, Columba. By far the lai^er part of these 
birds visit Cuba only ; 81 species being recorded as occurring 
in that island, while only 31 have been found in Jamacia, 12 in 
Porto Eico and St. Croix, and 2 in Tobago and Trinidad. 
Setting aside these migratory birds, as having no bearing on the 
origin of the true Antillean fauna, we will discuss the residents 
somewhat in detail. 

The resident land-birds (203 in number) belong to 95 genera 
and 26 families. Of these families 15 are cosmopolitan or 
nearly so — Turdid^e, Sylviidfe, Gorvidse, Hirundinidffi, Frin- 
gillidfe, KcidsB, Cuculidie, Caprimulgidje, CypsehdEc, Trogonidas, 
Psittaeidfe, ColumhidEC, TetraonidEc, Falconidse, and Strigidse; 
5 are American only— VireonidEe, Mniotiltidffi, Icteridfe, Tyran- 
nidte, Trochilidte ; , 4 are Netropical only or almost exclusively — 



Ccerebidje, TanagridEe, CotingidEe, Conuridfe ; 1 is Antillean 
only — ^Todidje, ; while 1 — AmpelidEe — ia confined (in the western 
hemisphere) to North America, and almost to the Nearctic region. 
Of the 95 genera, no less than 31, or almost exactly one-third, 
are peculiar ; while of the 203 resident species, 177 are peculiar, 
the other 26 being all inhabitants of South or Central America. 
Considering how closely the islands approach the continent in 
several places — Florida, Yucatan, and Venezuela — this amount 
of speciality in such locomotive creatures as birds, is probably 
unexampled in any other part of the globe. The most interesting 
of these peculiar genera are the following: 4 of Turdidje, or 
thrushes — 1 confined to the large islands, 1 to the whole 
archipelago, while 2 are limited to the Lesser Antilles ; 2 
genera of Tanagridte, confined to the larger islands ; 2 of 
Trogonidffi, also confined to the larger islands ; 5 of humming- 
birds, 3 confined to the Greater, 1 to the Lesser Antilles ; 2 of 
cuckoos, one represented in all the large islands, the other in 
Jamaica only; 2 of owls, one peculiar to Jamaica, the other 
represented in St. Croix, St. Thomas, Portorico, and Cuba ; and 
lastly, Todm, constituting a peculiar family, and having repre- 
sentative species in each of the larger islands is especially 
interesting because it belongs to a group of families which ai-e 
whoUy Neotropical— the Momotidte, Galbulidte, and Todidte. 
The presence of this peculiar form, with 2 trogons 10 species 
of parrots, all but one pecubii , 16 peculiar humming-birds 
belonging to 8 genera , a genus of Cotingidffi ; 10 peculiar 
tanagers belongii^ to 3 genet a, 9 Ccerebidte of 3 genera: 
together with species of such exclusively Netropical genera as 
Ccerd)a, Certhiola, Sycalis, Phonipara, Elainea, PUangm, Campe- 
pkilus, Chloronerpes, Nyctibivs, Stenopsis, La/mpomis, Calypte, 
Ara, Ghrysotis, Zenaida, Leptoptila, and Geotrygon, sufficiently 
demonstrate the predominant affinities of this fauna ; although 
there are many cases in which it is difficult to say, whether the 
ancestors of the peculiar genera or species may not have been 
derived from the Nearctic rather than from the Neotropical 

The several islands differ considerably in their apparent pro- 



ductivenesa, but this is, no doubt, partly due to our knowledge 
of Cuba and Jamaica being iciich more complete than of 
Havti. The species of resident land-birds at present known are 
as follows : — 

e peouliiir to it, 





which 40 



,. 17 



-. 41 


„ 15 

Lesser Antilles 45 


„ 24 

If we count the peculiar genera of each island, and reckon 
as (^) when a genus is common to two islands only, the 
numbers are as follows : — Cuba 7|, Hayti 3J, Jamaica 8^, 
Portorico 1, Lesser Antilles 3^. These figures show us, that 
although Jamaica is one of the smaller and the most isolated of 
the four chief islands, it yet stands in the first rank, both for the 
number of its species and of its peculiar forms of birds, — and 
although this superiority may be in part due to its having been 
more investigated, it is probably not wholly so, since Cuba has also 
been well explored. This fact indicates, that the West Indian 
islands have undergone great changes, and that they were not 
peopled by immigration from surrounding countries while in 
the condition we now see them ; for in that case the smaller 
and more remote islands would be very much poorer, while 
Cuba, which is not only the largest, but nearest to the mainland 
in two directions, would be immensely richer, just as it reaUy 
is in migratory birds. 

The number of birds common to the four lai^er islands is 
very small— probably not more than half a dozen ; between 20 
and 30 are common to some two of the islands ["counting the 
Lesser Antilles as one island) and a few to three ; but the great 
mass of the species (at least 140) are confined each to some one 
of the five islands or groups we have indicated. This is an amount 
of isolation and speciahty, probably not to be equalled else- 
where, and which must have required a remarkable series of 
physical changes to bring about. What those changes probably 
were, we shall be in a better position to consider when we. have 
completed our survey of .the various classes of land animals. 





In the preceding enumeration the Bahamas have been included 
with Cuba aa regards the birds they have in common; but they 
p m 1 alf dozen specie not found elsewhere, and even 

n nt 1 American genus of humming-birds (DoricTia) not 
f u I nay ther part of the Antilles. We have thus given 
C b th more peculiar species than it really possesses, so 
that tl p p rtionate richness of Jamaica is rather greater than 
shown by our i^res. 

The destruction of the forests and the increase of population, 
with, perhaps, the use of firearms, seem to have led to the 
extermination of some species of birds in the smaller islands. 
Professor Newton has called attention to the work of M. Ledru, 
who, in 1796, described the birds of St Thomas. He mentions 
a paiTot and a parroquet in the island, the latter only being 
now known, and very scarce ; also a green pigeon and a tody, 
both now unknown. No less than six species of parrots are 
said to have been formerly iound in Guadeloupe and Martinique, 
which are now extinct. 

Plate XYII. Illvstrating ike peculmr Mammalia and Birds of 
the Antilles. — The scene of this illustration is Cuba, the largest 
of the West Indian islands, and one in which aH its peculiar 
zoologicil features are well developed. In the foreground is the 
agouta \SoUnodon eubanus), a remarkable insectivorous animal 
which, with another species inhabiting Hayti, has no allies on 
the American continent; nor anywhere in the world but in 
Madagascar, wheiP a group of animals are found constituting 
the family Centetidaj, to which Soknodon is said undoubtedly to 
belong. Above it are a pair of hutias {Capromys foumieri), 
rat-like animals belongii^ to the South American family Octo- 
dontidte. They live in the forests, and climb trees readily, eating 
aU kinds of vegetable food. Three species of the genus are 
known, which are found only in Cuba and Jamaica, Just above 
these animals is a white-breasted trogon (Frionoteles tetnnwnis), 
confined to Cuba, and the only species of the genus. Near the 
top of the picture are a pair of todies (Todus multicolor), singular 
little insectivorous birds allied to the motmots, but forming a 
very distinct family which is confined to the islands of the 




Greater Antilles. They are laeaatifully-coloured tirds, — greea 
aljove, red and white beneath, and are exceedingly active in their 
movements. To the right are a pair of small humming-birds 
{Sporadinus ricordi), not very remarkable in this beautiful 
family, but introduced here because they belong to a genua which 
ia confined to the Greater Antillea. 

Table of distribution of West-Indian Birds,— As the birds of 
the West- Indian islands are particularly interesting and their 
peculiarities comparatively little known, we give here a table 
of the genera of land-birds, compiled from all available sources of 
information. Owing to the numerous independent observations 
on which it is founded, the discrepancies of nomenclature, and 
uncertainty in some cases as to the locality of species, it can 
only be looked upon as an approximative summary of the 
y materia,l3 on Antillean ornithology. 


FoTE. — Genera coniiaed to the 'West Indies are ii 
spedes flOminon to two islands : Ijvit where there ai 
the localities are doubtful, thia indicatioa cannot 
noted are peculiar to the Antilles. 

[talies. An {a) after (1) indicates a 
two or more species in an island, or 
) given. All species not otherwise 

Mnmber of Speoies in each lElacd. 



Fomi] J aod Genus. 








i . 


















Five species m^rate to Cuha 

Martinique, St.Ltieia, Guada. 
Martinique and St. Lucia 
TfevistoSt. Lucia 
Another species migrates to 
the Antilles 

St Lucia 



Nun^ber Of Speoies to ea^ Inland, 


Family ana Genua. 








■\ IPEuMDB. 












One S. Amerieaii species 
Five species migratu to Ciiba 











9. American species 












IT. American species 
Twelve fp. migrate to W. I . 










Dominica and Martinique 
8. American species 










One species locality unknown 














One S. American species 













St. Bartliolom. & MartiniciHe 














Martinique and Dominiea 
One S. Americm species 
















Mexican species 









St. Lncia, Martinique and 





Fmlly and Oenus. 




















St. Lucia 

One S. American species (i) 

One sp. in Cen. America (i) 











Cen turns 




























Dominica, St. Lucia, all Hao- 

tropical species 
N. & Oen. American species 































Neotropical species 
One Neotropical species 
Martiniqiie (S. America sp.) 











S. American speoiea 
Mexican species 




«ami«r of Speciea m eath Island, j 



































St. Cvoix, Dominioa, St. 
Lucia, Martinique 

















Domin., Martini., St. Locm 












S- American apeeies 








St. Thomas 



















One in Hondums 






















St. Lucia, Martinique, on 
species Mesican 



























Hypotriordiis ... 


Muiican species 















Mexican species 










S. American species 






St. Croix and St. Thomas 









Vol. II.- 



Befitiles and Amphiiia.~-These classes not having been 
systematically collected, and the numerous described genera not 
having undeigone careful revision, little trustworthy information 
can be derived from them. The following enumeration of the 
chief groups hitherto noticed or described, will, however, show 
very similar features to those presented by the birds — a general 
relation to Neotropical forms, a more special relation to those 
of Central America and Mexico, and a considerable number of 
peculiar types. 

Snakes. — ArrKyton (CalamariidEe) from Cuba, Sypsirhynchus 
from Barbadoea, Oryptodams from Cuba, laltris from Hayti, and 
Ooloragia from Cuba (all Colubridfe), have been described as 
genera peculiar to the Antilles Phylodryas and Ih'omicus 
(Colubridfe) are Antillean and Keotropical, Ahatulla (Dcn- 
drophida) has the same distribution but extends to tropical 
Africa; Eficrates and Oorallus (Pythonide) ire NeotiDpn,al 
and AntiRean ; while Chilaioth us from Jimiica and Unqaha 
from Cuba and Jamaica (both Pythomdte) ^^e found elsewheie 
only in Central America and Mexico There appear to be no 
Crotalidfe except an introduced species ot Craspedocephalv^ m 
St. Lucia. 

Lizards are more numerous. Amelia (Teid'e) vi tound all 
over America. Gerrkonoiiis (Zonund?) is Neotiopn,al and occuis 
in Cuba; Gymnopthalmus is South Ameiicaii and Antillean. 
Of Seincidfe seven genera are noted. Gelestus (with 9 species) is 
peculiar to the Antilles ; Oamilia (1 species) to Jamaica, Fanoplus 
(1 species) and Emhryopus (1 species) to Hayti ; Diplogossm is 
Antilletui and South American ; while Flestiodon and Mabov/ya 
are cosmopolita Of Geckotidte there are four genera ; Fkyllo- 
dadylus and ITemidactyliis which are cosmopolite ; Sphterodactylus 
which is wholly American ; and CuJnna found only in Martinique 
and BraziL Of Iguanidse there are six genera ; Anolis, which 
ranges all over America ; Polychrus, which is Neotropical ; 
Iguana and Lincephilus which are South American ; Tropedurus 
found in Cuba and Brazil; and Cyclura only known from 
Jamaica, Cuba, and Central America. 

Amphibia. — The genus Trachyeephalus, belonging to the 



Hylidfe or tropical tree-frogs, is almost peculiar to the Antilles ; 
Cuba, Hayti, and Jamaica possessing seven species, while only 
one is recorded from South America, Other genera are, Pelta- 
phrpne (BufonidEe) from Portorico ; Phyllobates (PolypedatidEe) 
from Cuba ; Leiwperus (Eanid^) from Hayti, — all Neotropical, Of 
the Urodela, or tailed batrachians, no representative occurs, 
although they are so characteristic a feature of the Nearctic 

Fresk-water Jish.—'T:\]& same general remarks apply to these as 
to the reptiles. Only one peculiar genus is noted — Lebistes, a 
form of CyprJnodontidse from Barbadoes ; other genera of the 
same famUy being, HaplochUm, Eivulus, and Girardinus, widely 
spread in the Neotropical region ; -while Gamhusia is confined to 
Central America, Mexico, and the Antilles. Four other families 
are represented; Siluridie by Chcetostomus, found in Portorico 
and South America ; Cbromidfe by the South American Acara ; 
Mugillidfe by the Central American Agonostoma ; and Percidee 
by the North American Centraa-chus, of which a species is recorded 
from Cuba. 

Insects.— The various West Indian islands have not been well 
explored entOmologicaJly ; one reason! no doubt being, that their 
comparative poverty renders them little attractive to the pro- 
fessional collector, while the abounding riches of Central and 
South America lie so near at hand. We can, therefore, hardly 
tell whether the comparative poverty, or even total absence of 
some families while others seem fairly represented, is a real 
phenomenon of distribution, or only dependent on imperfect 
knowle(^e. Bearing this in mind, we proceed to give a sketch 
of what is known of the chief groups of Lepidoptera and 

Zepidoptera. — The Neotropical butterfly-fauna is but poorly 
represented, the majority of the most remarkable types being 
entirely wanting ; yet there are a few peculiar and very charac- 
teristic forms which show great isolation, while the majority of 
the species are peculiar. Four genera are exclusively or charac- 
teristically Ajitillean, — Galisto belonging to the SatyiidEe, with 
four species, of which one ranges to South Carolina; 



(NymplialidEe) a fine genua which has 4 Antillean species and 
2 in Central America; ZwejWa (Kymphalid^e) 2 species, confined 
to Jamaica and Hayti ; and Kricogonia belonging to the Pieridte, 
which has 2 West Indian species, while 1 inhabits Mexico and 
Florida. Genera which show a special relation to Central 
America are E-uptoieta, Eiimtmis, and Nathalis. Almost all the 
other genera are South American, the total number recorded in 
each family as occurring in the West Indian islands, being, 3 of 
Danaidte ; 1 of HeliconiidEc ; 2 of SatyridEc ; 18 of Nymphalidte ; 
1 of Erycinidffi ; 4 of Ljctenidse ; 6 of Pieridas ; 1 of Papilio- 
nidie, and 10 of Hesperidfe. The genus Papilio is represented 
by about 20 species, 2 of which are Korth American, 4 South 
American, while the rest form little characteristic groups allied to 
those of Central America. The most marked feature seems to be 
the scarcity of Satyridte and the almost total absence of Erycinida?, 
with a great deficiency in characteristic Neotropical forms oi 
DanaidEe and Nymphalidte. 

Coleoptera. — Cicindelida and Carabid* are very poorly repre- 
sented, by a few species of wide-spread groups, and hardly any 
peculiar genera. No Lucanidse are recorded. Of Cetoniidas, 
Gymnetis only appears to be represented. Bupreatidfe seem to 
be more numerous ; 15 genera being recorded, but almost all 
of wide distribution. One only is peculiar — Tetrngonosckoma, 
found in Hayti ; Halecia is the only exclusively South American 
genus ; Chalcophora is widely scattered over the tropical r^ons 
but is absent from South America, yet it occurs in the Nearctic 
region and extends to Jamaica and Guadeloupe. We now come 
to the Longicoms, the only group of Coleoptera which seems to 
be well represented, or which has been carefully collected. No 
less than 40 genera are known from the West Indian islands, 
and 15 of these are peculiar. PrionidEc are proportionately very 
numerous, there being 10 genera, 2 of which ai^e widely dis- 
tributed in both South and North America, 1 is North American, 
and 1 South American, while the following are peculiar,—- 
Stmodontes (Hayti and Cuba) ; BendroUaptus (Cuba) ; Mono' 
desums (Cuba and Jamaica) ; Broslemodes (Cuba) ; Solenoptera 
and Materopsis, the two largest genera found in most of the 



islands. Of Cerambycidse there are 16 genera, 2 of which range 
aR over America, 4 are Neotropical, 1 South American only, 
while the following are confined to the islands, — Merostenus, 
Peniomacrus, and Eburiola (Jamaica) ; JBromiades (Cuba) ; 
Trichrous, Ileterops, and P<Bciloderma (AntUlea). One genus, 
Smodicum, is widely spread, having a species in Carolina, 1 in 
South America, 1 in Hayti, and 1 in West Africa. Of Lamiidffi 
there are 14 genera, 8 of which are Neotropical, 1 common to 
Central America and Mexico, 1 to the United States and Cuba, 
while 2, Froecha and Phidola, are confined to Cuba. Several of 
the genera are curiously distributed -i—Spalaecrpsis is South 
American, with 4 species in Cuba and Tropical Africa ; Za^o- 
cheirus is Neotropical, with a species in Australia ; while Lepto- 
stilua is characteristic of the Antilles and North America, with 
a few species in South America, and one in New Zealand. 
These cases of erratic distribution, so opposed to the general 
series of phenomena among which they occur, must be held to 
be sufficiently explained by the great antiquity of these groups 
and their former wide distribution. They may be supposed to 
be the remnants of types, now dying out, which were once, hke 
Callichroma, Clytus, and many others, almost universally dis- 

All the peculiar Antillean genera of Cerambycidfe and La- 
miidfe are allied to Neotropical foi-ras. The peculiar Prionidas, 
however, are mostly allied to Mexican and North American 
groups, and one, Monodesmns, belongs to a group all the other 
genera of which inhabit the East Indies and South Africa. 

Land-shells, — ^Thia subject has already been generally treated 
under the Region, of which, in this class of animals, the Antilles 
form so important a part. We must therefore now confine our- 
selves mainly to the internal distribution of the genera, and to 
a few remarks on the general bearing of the facts. 

The excessive and altogether unexampled productiveness of 
the West Indian islands in land-shells, may be traced to two 
main sets of causes. The first and least known, consist of the 
peculiar influences and conditions which render islands always 
more productive than continents. Whatever these conditions 



are, they will be more effective where the islands have been long 
separated from the raainlaQd, as is here undoubtedly the case. 
It seems most probable that the great development of land- 
shells in islands, is due to the absence or deficiency of the verte- 
brata, which on continents supply a variety of species adapted 
to prey upon these molluscs. This view is supported by the fact, 
that in such islands as have been united to a continent at no 
very distant epoch, and still maintain a continental vaiiety of 
vertebrata, no such special development of land-shells has taken 
place. If we compare the Philippine islands with the Sunda 
group, we find the development of vertebrata and land-molluacs 
in inverse ratio to each other. The same thing occurs if we 
compare New Zealand and Tasmania ; and we have a still more 
striking example in the Antillean group itself, continental 
Trinidad having only 20 genera and 88 species, while the 
highly insular Jamaica has about 30 genera and more than 600 

The other causes favourable to the increase and development 
of land-shells are of a physical nature. A great extent of lime- 
stone-rock is one ; and in the larger West Indian islands we have 
a considerable proportion of the surface consisting of this rock. 
But perhaps equally or more important, is the character of the 
land surface, and the texture of the exposed rock itself. A 
much broken surface, with numerous deep ravines, cutting up 
the whole country into isolated valleys and ridges, seems very 
favourable to the specialization of forms in this very sedentary 
class of animals. Equally favourable is a honeycombed and 
highly-fissured rock-surface, affording everywhere cracks and 
crannies for concealment. Now, taking Jamaica as an example 
of the archipelago, we find all these conditions in a wonderful 
degree. Over a lai^e part of this island, a yard of level ground 
can hardly be found; but ridges, precipices, ravines, and rock- 
bound valleys, succeed each other over the whole country. At 
least five-sixths of the entire surface is limestone, and under the 
influence of tropical rains this rock is worn, fissured, and honey- 
combed, 30 as to afford ample shelter and concealment for land- 



It is probable that the three chief islands, Cuba, Jamaica and 
Hayfci, are nearly equally rich in land-shells; but the last iw 
very much less known, and therefore, perhaps, appears to bo 
much poorer. Cuba has rather more species than Jamaica ; 
but while the former has only 1 peculiar genus (IHplopoma), 
the latter has 3 (Geomelania, Chittya, and Jamaicea), as well as 
two others only represented in the other islands by single 
species. From Hayti, only about one-third as many species are 
known as from the two former islands. It has no peculiar 
genera, but it has some forms in common with Cuba and others 
with Jamaica, which show that those islauds have more connec- 
tion with it, than with each other ; just as we found to be the 
case in birds. Portorico and the Vii^in islands have still fewer 
species than Hayti; and, as many of the genera common to the 
other three islands are wanting, there is, no doubt, here a real 
deficiency. In the islands farther south (Barbuda to Martinique) 
more Antillean genera disappear or become very rare, while 
some continental forms take their place. The islands from St. 
Lucia to Trinidad have a still more continental character; the 
genus Bulimus, so largely developed on the continent, only 
reaching St Lucia. The Bahamas contain about 80 species of 
land-shells, of which 25 are AntiUean, the rest peculiar ; aE the 
genera being Antillean. The affinity is chiefly with Hayti and 
Cuba, but closest with the latter island. 

In the West Indian islands as a whole, there are 11 peculiar 
genera; 9 opereulate {Geomelania, Chittya, Jamaieea, Licina, 
Ohoanopoma, Oienopoma, IHplopoma, Sioaslotna, Liiddclla) ; and 
2 inoperculate {Sagda and Stenopvs), besides Cydostomus, 
which belongs to the Old World and is not found on the 
American continent Mr. Bland considers, that many of the 
Antillean land-shells exhibit decided African and Asiatic, rather 
than South American affinities. A species of the Asiatic genus 
Diplomvmtina, has been found in Trinidad, and an Indian 
species of Ennea occurs in Grenada and St. Thomas ; a clear 
indication that land-shells are liable to be accidentally imported, 
and to become established in the less productive islands. 

Although these islands are ao wonderfully rich even now, 



there is good reason to believe that many species have become 
extinct since the European occupation of them. When small 
islands are much cultivated, many of these molluscs which can 
only live under the shade of forests, are soon extirpated. In 
St. Croix many species have become extinct at a comparatively 
recent period, from the burning of forests ; and as we know that 
in all the islands many of the species are excessively local, being 
often confined to single valleys or ridges, we may be sure that 
wherever the native forests have disappeared before the hand of 
man, numbers of land-shells have disappeared with them. As 
some of the smaller islands have been almost denuded of their 
wood, and in the larger ones extensive tracts have been cleared 
for sugar cultivation, a very considerable number of species have 
almost certainly been exterminated. 

Genial Conclusions as to the Past ffiatory of the West Indian 
Islands. — ^The preceding sketch of the peculiarities of the animal 
life of these islands, enables us to state, that it represents the 
remains of an ancient fauna of decided Neotropical type, having 
on the whole most resemblance to that which now inhabits the 
Mexican sub-region. The number of peculiar genera in all 
classes of animals is so great in proportion to those in common 
with the adjacent mainland, as to lead us to conclude that, 
subsequent to the original separation from the Mexican area, a 
very lai'ge tract of land existed, calculated to support a rich and 
varied fauna, and, by the interaction of competing types, give 
rise to peculiar and specially modified organisms. We have 
already shown that the outline of the present islands and the 
depths of the suiTOunding seas, give indications of the position 
and extent of this ancient land ; which not improbably occupied 
the apace enclosed by uniting Western Cuba with Yucatan, and 
Jamaica with the Mosquito Coast. This land must have 
stretched eastward to include Anguilla, and probably northward 
to include the whole of the Bahamas. At one time it perhaps 
extended southward so as to unite Hayti with northern 
Venezuela, while Panama and Costa Eica were sunk beneath the 
Pacific. At this time the Lesser Antilles had no existence. 

The only large island of whose geology we have any d 



account, is Jamaica ; and taking this as a type of what will 
probably be found in Cuba and Hayti, we must place the 
continental period as having occurred after the close of the 
Miocene, or during some part of the Pliocene epoch, since a large 
portion of the surface of the former island consists of beds of 
marine limestone from 2,000 to 3,000 thick, believed to be of 
Pliocene age. After some time, the land between Hayti and 
South America subsided, and still later that between Central 
America and Cuba with Jamaica ; but a large tract of land 
remained insulated, and no doubt supported a very much richer 
and more varied fauna than now. We haye evidence of this in 
extinct Mammalia of large size, belonging to the peculiar South 
American family of the chinchillas, which have been found in 
caves in the small islands of Anguilla, and which, from the 
character of the land-shells associated with them, are believed to 
be of PKocene or Post-pliocene age. This discovery is most 
interesting, and gives promise of very valuable results from 
the exploration of the numerous caverns that undoubtedly 
exist in the abundant limestone strata of the larger islands. 
This extensive Antillean land, after long continuing undivided, 
was at length broken up by subsidence into several islands; 
but as this alone would not account for the almost complete 
annihilation ot the mammalian fauna, it seems probable that 
the subsidence was continued much farther, so as greatly to 
reduce the size and increase the number of the islands. This 
is indicated, by the extensive alluvial plains in Cuba and 
Hayti, and to a less extent in Jamaica ; and by elevated beds 
of Post-pliocene marls in the latter island. 

The series of changes now suggested, will account for all the 
main features of the Antillean fauna in its relations to that of 
the American continent. There remains the affinity with 
Madagascar, indicated by SoUnodon, and a few c^ses of African 
and Asiatic affinity in insects and land-shells ; but these are far 
too scanty to call for any attempt at special explanation. Such 
cases of remote affinity and discontinuous distribution, occur in 
all the r^ons, and in almost every group of animals ; and we 
look upon them almost all, as cases of survival, under favourable 



conditions, of once wide-spread groups. If no wild species 
of the genus Equus were now to be found, except in South 
Africa (where they are still most abundant), and in South 
Temperate America, where their fossil remains show us they did 
exist not very long ^o, what a strong fact it would have 
appeared for the advocates of continental extensious ! Yet it 
would have been due to no former union of the great southern 
continents, but to the former extensive range of the family or 
the genus to which the two isolated remnants belonged. And if 
such an explanation will ajiply to the higher vertebrata, it is 
still more likely to be applicable to similar cases occurring amoi^ 
insects or mollusca, the genera of which we have every reason to 
believe to be usually much older than those of vertebrates. It 
is in these classes that examples of widely scattered allied 
species most frequently occur ; and the facility with which they 
are diffused under favourable conditions, renders any other 
explanation than that here given altogether siiperfluous. 

The Solenodon is a member of an order of Mammalia of low 
type (Inaectivora) once very extensive and wide-spread, but 
which has begun to die out, and which has left a number of 
curious and isolated forms thinly scattered over three-fourths of 
the globe. The occurrence, therefore, of an isolated remnant of 
this order in the Antilles is not in itself remarkable ; and the 
feet that the remainder of the family to which the Antillean 
species belong has found a refuge in Madagascar, where it has 
developed into several distinct types, does not afford the least 
shred of argument on which to found a supposed independent 
land connection between these two sets of islands. 

Stimmary of the Past History of the Neotropical Region. 

We have already discussed this subject, both in our account 
of extinct animals, and in various parts of the present chapter. 
It is therefore only necessary here, briefly to review and Bum- 
mainse the conclusions we have arrived at. 

The whole character of Neotropical zoology, whether as regards 
its deiiciencies or its specialities, points to a long continuance 
of isolation from the rest of the world, with a few very distant 



periods of union with the northern continent. The latest 
important separation took place by the submeigence of parts 
of Mearagua and Honduras, and this separation probably con- 
tinued throughout much of the Miocene and PKoeeue periods ; 
but some time previous to the coming on of the glacial epoch, the 
union between the two continents took place which has con- 
tinued to our day. Earlier submei^ences of the isthmus of 
Panama probably occurred, isolating Grata Eica and Veragua, 
which then may have had a greater extension, and have thus 
been able to develope their rich and peculiar fauna. 

The isthmus of Tehuantepec, at the south of Mexico, may, 
probably, also have been submerged ; thus isolating Guatemala 
and Yucatan, and leading to the specialization of some of the 
peculiar forma that now characterise those countries and Mexico. 

The West Indian Islands have been long isolated and have 
varied much in extent. Or^inally, they probably formed part 
of Central America, and may have been united with Yucatan 
and Honduras in one extensive tropical land. But their sepa- 
ration from the continent took place at a remote period, and 
they have since been broken up into numerous islands, which 
have probably undergone much submergence in recent times. 
This has led to that poverty of the higher forms of life, com- 
bined with the remarkable speciality, which now characterises 
them ; while their fauna still preserves a sufficient resemblance 
to that of Central America to indicate its origin. 

The great continent of South America, as far as we can judge 
from the remarkable characteristics of its fauna and the vast 
depths of the oceans east and west of it, has not during Tertiary, 
and probably hot even during Secondary times, been united with 
any other continent, except through the intervention of North 
America. During some part of the Secondary epoch it probably 
received the ancestral forms of its Edentates and Rodents, at a 
time when these were among the highest types of Mammalia 
on the globe. It appears to have remained long isolated, and to 
have already greatly developed these groups of animals, before it 
received, in early Tertiary times, the ancestors of its marmosets 
and monkeys, and, perhaps also, some of its peculiar forms of 



Carnivora. Later, it received its Camelidaa, peccaries, mastodons, 
and lai^e Carnivora; and later still, just before the Glacial 
epoch, its deer, tapir, opossums, antelopes, and horses, the two 
latter having since become extinct. All this time its surface 
was undergoing important physical changes. What its earlier 
condition was we cannot conjecture, bnt there are clear indica- 
tions that it has been broken up into at least three large masses, 
and probably a number of. smaller ones ; and these have no 
doubt . undergone successive elevations and subsidences, so as 
at one time to reduce their area and separate them still more 
widely from each other, and at another period to unite them 
into c-ontinental masses. The richness and varied development 
of the old fauna of South America, as stiQ existing, proves, how- 
ever, that the country has always maintained an extensive area ; 
and there is reason to believe that the last great change has 
been a long continued and steady increase of its surface, 
resulting in the formation of t^e vast alluvial plains of the 
Amazon, Orinoko, and La Plata, and thiis greatly favouring 
the production of that wealth of specific forms, which dis- 
tinguishes South America above all other parte of our globe. 

The soutbem temperate portion of the continent, has probably 
had a considerable southward extension in late Tertiary times ; 
and this, as well as the comparatively recent elevation of the 
Andes, has given rise to some degree of intermixture of two 
distinct faunas, with that proper to South Tempei-ate America 
itself The most important of these, is the considerable Austra- 
lian element that appears in the insects, and even in the reptiles 
and fresh- water fishes, of South Temperate America. These may 
be traced to several causes. Icebei^s and icefloes, and even 
solid fields of ice, may, during the Glacial epoch, have afforded 
many opportunities for the passage of the more cold-enduring 
groups; while the greater extension of southern lands and 
islands during the warm periods — which there is reason to 
believe prevailed in the southern as well as in the northern 
regions in Miocene times — would afford facilities for the passage 
of the reptiles and insects of more temperate zones. That no 
actual land-connection occurred, is proved by the total absence 



of interchange of the mammals or land-birds of the two 
countries, no less than by the very fragmentary nature of the 
resemblances tliat do exist. The northern element consists 
almost wholly of insects ; and is evidently due to the migratio^i 
of arctic and north temperate forms along the ridges and 
plateaus of the Andes ; and most likely occurred when these 
organisms were driven southward at successive cold or Glacial 

A curious parallel exists between the past history and actual 
zoological condition of South America and Africa. In both 
we see a very ancient land-area extending into the South 
Temperate zone, isolated at a very early period, and developing 
only a love grade of Mammalian life ; chiefly Edentates and 
Kodents on the one. Lemurs and Insectivora in the other. Later 
we find an irruption into both of higher forms, including 
Quadrumana, which soon acquired a large and special develop- 
ment in the tropical portions of each country. Still later we 
have an irruption into both of northern forms, which spread 
widely over the two regions, and having become extinct in the 
land from whence they came, have been long held to be the 
original denizens of their adopted country. Such are the 
various forms of antelopes, the giraffe, the elephant, rhinoceros, 
and lion in Africa ; while in America we have deer and peccaries, 
the tapir, opossums, and the puma. 

On the whole, we cannot hut consider that the broad outlines 
of the zoological history of the Neotropical region can be traced 
with some degree of certainty ; but, owing to the absence of 
information as to the most important of the geological periods 
— the Miocene and Eocene — we have no clue to the character of 
its early fauna, or to the land connections with other countries, 
which may possibly have occurred in early Tertiary times. 




In drawing up these tables, showing the distribution of the 
various classes of animals in the Neotropical region, the following 
sources of information have been relied on, in addition to the 
general treatises, monographs, and catalogues used in the com- 
pilation of the Fourth Part of this work. 

Mammalia. — D'Orbigny, and Bunneister, for Braj;il and La 
Plata; Darwin, and Cunningham, for Temperate S. America; 
Tschudi, for Peru ; Frazer, for Ecuador ; Salvin, for Guatemala ; 
Frantzius, for Costa Eica; Sclater, for Quadnimana N. of 
Panama; Gundlach, for Cuba; and papers by Dr. J. E. Gray, 
and Mr. Tomes. 

.ffirifo.— Sclater and Salvin's Nomenclator ; Xotes by Darwin, 
and Cunningham ; Gundlach, March, Bryant, Baird, Elliot, 
Newton, Semper, and Sundevall, for various islands of the 
Antilles; and papers by Hudson, Lawrence, Grayson, Abbott, 
Sclater, and Salvin. 




I italics show the famOiea which are peculiar to the region. 

Nmnhers corresponS i 


i. GeHdce 

5, Sapalidie 


10. PhyUostamidiB 

12. Veapertilionidie 

13. NoctilionidiB,.. 



Feiidie ... . 

Ctmidte ... . 

Procyonidte . 

UrsidK ... . 

OtariidK... . 

Phocidte... . 




12. Maniitidie 
it Tapiiidie 

17. Suid^ 

48. Camelidu 

Sl^, GervidEe 

3a of families in Part IV. 

Kange lieyond tie Region. 



AH tropical regions 

All regions but Australian 

All regions hut Australian 

All regions but Australian 

N. America 

All regions but Ethiopian and Australian 

8. temperate v — 

N. an"' ' — 

Tmpital shores 

Jndo Malays 

Coomopolite, excl. Australia 

Paliear tic 

AH regions bat Ethiopian and Australian 




Order and Family. 

HBUge beyond the Region. 






55, Murid® 






69. Saoeomyid^ . 


61. Seiuridte 

All regions but AnBtraliut 

63. CUncUUidie ... 


65. EchimvidEe ... 


66. CeiviolabidB ... 


68. Gaviid<e 

70. Leporidce 



AH re^ons but Anstralian 





76. Didelphyid^.... 




Tempecate N. Ameiioa 



1 Turfida! 







Nearctic, Paliearctto, Oriental 


Nearctic, Palsearciic, Oriental 


Nearctic, Paliearctio, Oriental 



All regions, exel. Africa 



Nearetio, Pal^arctie, Oriental 







MDioHlfid* ... 



TireonidEB ... 



Nearctic, Palfearetio 


HirundiaidEe ... 





TanagridsB .. 
FringiUid^ ... 






All regions but Australian 


Motttcillid* ... 












Pkylotomidie ... 








61. Picidie 





fi4. MegitliemidiB... 

Ethiopian. Oriental 






Riuigo beyorid tt 

53. CucuUdie 

60. Siuximidce ... 

61. Gallmlid(B ... 

64. Todid<e 

65. Momo/idfe ... 

66. Trogoiiidfe ... 
67- AlceJinidie ... 

72. Sieatomiihidf^ 

73. Caprimalgid£c 

74. Cypselidw ... 

75. Trochilidte ... 


80. Coiioridffi 

81, Psittacid* ... 


87. Teti'aoiiidK . 

88. PhasiBnidffi 
01. Craeidee 

92. Timemidee . 


93. Opislhocomidie 


84. VnlturidEB .. 
Se, PaleonidiB ., 

97. PandioBidie .. 

98. Strigid« 


99. Edlid» 

100. Scolopacidffl.. 
JOl. Chio'm.Mfke .... - 

102. TMMKoridie... - 

103. PwTid^ 

105. Charadriidffi... I - 

108. CaHamidm ... - 

109. Ara/midie 

110. FsophiidiE ... 

111. EuTypygidi:^... 

113. Ardeidffi ... - 

114. Plataleidie ... - 

115. Ciooniidte ... - 
lis. Palamedeid(E \ - 
117. Ph<BnicoT>terldie ■ 

YOL. n.-7 

Ethiopian, Oriental 

Almost costiiopoUt* 

AH regions but Australian 

Almost cosmopolite 
Nearly ei 




Order and FamUy. 



Enngc beyond Uie Region. 







118. Anatidffi ... 

119. Laridse 

120, Frocellariids 

— CoemopoHte 

— Cosmopolite 

S. temperats zone 







126. Sttuthionid^ 





1. TyphlopidiB ... 




Tropical regions snd S. Patearetio 
Oriental, S.-Vf. America 

2. Tortrioaa! 

6. Cakmaciid*... 

All warm countries 

6. Oligodontidm 

iental, Japan 

7. Cblubridie ... 

A most cosmopolite 

AU the rejpouB 

12. Dryiophidffi ...' 

A 1 tropical regions 
All tropical tegions 



14. Seytalidte '.'.'. 

PhiUppine Islands 


23.' Hydrophidra!!! 

All tropical regions, Califomfii 

Tropical regions, Japan, S. Carolina 

Oriental, Anstralian, Modflgasear 

24. Crotalidis ... 





Nearctic, PalEearotic, Oriental 


27. ChirotidK „. 


Ethiopian, S. Palsarctio 

29. Lapidosteniidfe 


31. Selodermidte 

82. TeidiB 


34. ZonnridsB ... 

Nearotic, Ethiopian, S. Europe, and N. India 

35. Ckal<M(e ... 


36. Anadiadm ... 

37. Ohirocolidis ... 

88. Ipkisadte ... 

89. Cera)Sav,rul(e 

mid* ... ( 



Australian, Ethiopian, Paliearctio 

45. Scineid^ ... 

Almost cosmopolite 

49. Geckotid^ .. 

Almost cosmopolite 







55. Grooodilidffi ... 




Ethiopian, Oriental, F. Australian 

56. AOigatoridiB,.. 






Su -reglous. 

Orfer ma Family. 




Rnnge beyond the Region. 






6r..Te3tadinidffl ... 




A.!l oonlinenis but Australi^i 

68. Chelydidte ... 

Ethiopian, Australian 

60. CUeloniicUe ... 




1. CeoUisuife 



Oriental, Ethiopian 




Nearctic, Palieatctio 


7. mincpkry^id^ 

8. PhmiisGid* ... 

10. BufonidEB 


Ethiopian, Australian, Java 




AU continents but Auatralia 

12. Engyatomidie... 

All regions but Paliearetio 

13. Bombiuatoridie 

Pulsarctic, Kew Zealand 

14. Pla^emamtidte 

16. Alrtidffl 

la. PetodrjadK ... 

17. HyUdK 

All regions but Oriental 




All regions but Ethiopian 

19. Kanidffi 





All the regions 

26. DiscogloEsidffl 



AU regions but Nearotie 

21. PipMis, 





3 Percidm 

All regions hut Australian 

11 (Traehmldffi) 

IS Seiemda- 



All regions but AuetralUn 

33 Nandidm 


3* Myceninda. 

88 Mugilhdie 


Australian, Ethiopian 

S2 Chromicl'B 




Ethiopian, Oriental 


S9 Silund-B 


All warm regions 

60 CharacinidsB 


81 Haploohitomd* 
67 OaWidie 

S. Australia 

Tasmania and New Zealand 

Alisent from Australia 

78 08teoglo>,idB 

All tropical regions 

84 Gymnolida 

85 Symbia!i;.l«d» 


Oriental, Australian, (? marine) 




OMer and Family, 





Eange beyond the Region. 



112. TrygonidoB ... 



I Danwcte 

3 Satyndw 

4 Morphirte 

8 AcrB5id« 

7 Bekemiida 

5 ITymphalidw 

9 Libytheid'e 
10 Nempobiict'e 

12 Eiyoimd» 

13 LvciemdK 
U RbxcI* 

16 PapUionidEe 

16 Hesponda, 


17 Zreienid^ 

18 Castiuidte 

aft Uramidra 

21 StygudBB 

22 .^enid'B 

23 SptLingids 




Ethiopian, Auistraliati 

All warm regions, and to Canada 

Aiistcauan, Oriental 

All tropical rflgions 


Absent from Auatvalia 

Not in Australia ovHeavctic i-egions 








All tropical rejdons 


Not ia Anstvalia 




[f ames in iialics shavr the genera peculiar to iiie region. 

Names euclosed thus ( ) indicate genera, wliich barely en 

considered properly to belong to it. 
Genera midoubtedly belonging to the region are numberad oc 


r the region, and a 

Ordor, Family, Miii 


liBDge within tlie Region, 

Hange iKyond the Region, 



, 1. Cehis ... 


Costa Kica to Paraguay 
Upper AniHKon and E, Andes 

2. Lcmdwiso 

S. Eriodea 


East Brazil, S. of Equator 

4. AUlM 


Almost all teopical America 

5. Myceles 


K Guatemala tc Paraguay 

6. Fitheda 


Equatorial Forests 

7. BraMwras ... 


Equatorial Forests 

8. Nya^Ucaa ... 


Nicaragua to Amazonia 

S. Saimirk 


Costa Eica to Brazil and liolivia 

10. Gallithrix 


Panama to Paraguay 


n. Sapak 


Brazil and Upper Amazon 

12. Midas 


Equatorial America to Panama 



13. Lmchmina ... 


West Indian Islands 

14. Macrophyllum... 

15. rampynm 1 

18. Mactotus 




Tropical America and Cliili 


Antilles and Mexico 


in. Sch^osloma ... 


South America 

20. Bra^yphylla ... 




Tropical America 



28. AHibeas ... .... 


S. America & Antilles, Costa Siea 


The whole region 

Chili to Guatemala 

28. IMmodM ... 


Chili to Mexico 






30. Laduroa 

81. SootopHlns ... 



35. Fitri^Ums 
86. Thyroplera 

37. Nyctieellus 

38. Taphozous 

39. Diclidwras 


40. N'oeUlio ... 
*1. Mormops ... . 

42. Phyllodia... . 

43. Ohilonyderis . 

44. PfciTOKJitis 

45. NyctinomnB . 

46. Moloasua... . 


47. SolBJiodim.,. 

48, Felia 

40 iefwiyojt 

50 Ghiysoeyon 

51 lAji.aXi)pe£ 

52 JVudaZopac 


54 Mil stela 
66 Gah'iis 
'ib Lcmlra 

Tropit^al America 

AntiUes, Moxiso to S. America 

The whole region 

" Temperate America 

America and Antilles 
S. America 
S. America 

S. America 

Par^nay to W. Indies 
Antilles and Mexico 

izil and West Indies 

La Plata to Antilles & Costa Eic 
Paraguay anii Chili to Antilles 

Cuba and Hayti 
Guatemala and Costa Eica) 

Nearc,, AustraL, Orien. 


''earotic, India, Tropical 

The whole region, excl, Antilles All regions tat Austral. 


Costa Eica) 
America, Falkland Islands, & 
Tierra del Fnego 
■ America to Chili 

S, H'eBrE.,Orien.,Madag. 
Ethiopian, S. Palfcarc, 

All other reg. bnt Austrl, 

Andes of Pern 

S America to Chili & Patasoni 

C entral and S. America to Cnon 

W. coast of America to Chiloe 

All other reg. but Austrl. 



Order FamUy, ana 


Eange within the Begion. 

Emge beyona the Region. 

fib Ft^ionara 


Surinam and Brazil 

59 Meph.tis 


MexiKitoSts. ofMogeiian 

Nearetic to Canada 


60. Proevon 


Tropical America 

Nearctic tx) Canada 

61 Nasmi 


Mexico to Paragiiay & La Plata 
Mexico to Peru and N. Brazil 

62 0e,L0lepiss 


63 Bassans 


California and Texas 


64 TreimiUos 


Andes of Peru and Chill 


65 Ofana 


Falkland Islands & Capo Horn 


New Zealand 


m Stenorhjuohua 


Falkland Islands 

New Zealand 

68 Lolodon 


Antarctic shores 

69 Leptonyi 


Aniarotio shores, E, Patogonia 

S. Australia 


Antarctic shores 

71 MoiuTiga, 


Falkland Islands 

California, S. temp, zone 

72 Uystnphora 



N, Atlantic 



73. Ima 


Upper Amazon 



74. Manatas 


Gulf of MsKico to N. Brazil, 
Amazon K, 

W. Africa 



75. Tapirus 


Equatorial S. America 



Panama to Guatemala 


77. Dieolylm 


MuKico to Paraguay 



78. Attchmia 


Temp, S. America, from Cape 
Horn to Andes of Pern 



Mexico to Patagonia and Tierra 

All regiona hut Ethiopian 

del Fucgo 

and Australian 



80. Reithrodon ..., 


South Temp, America to Tierra 

United States 



Oi'aet. PamQy, and 


Hangc within the K*gion, 

Ranae beyond the Region 

81. Aeodan 

Peru, 14,000 ft. elevation 

82. Myxomys 




The whole region 


8*. SolocMlus ... 


S. America 

85. O^myderM .. 


Btaail and La Plata 

86. Dryvuimys ... 



87, Neottmya 


S. America 






88. mteromys 


Mpxico, Honduvaa, CostaRkaa 


89. Scinnis 


Mexico to Paraguay 

All rag. but Australian 


BO. Ghimchilla ... 


Andes of Cliili and Peru 

91. Lagidinvt ... 


Chili to Ecuador (11,000 t« 
16,000 ft.) 

92, Lagoslmmis 


Uruguay toBioNegra of Patagonia 


93. ifa&racomus ... 



94. Gapromys 


Cuba and Jamaica 



ChUi and E. of Andes 

97, Oetodoit 


Chili, Peru, and Bolivia 

98. CIcnomys 


S. Bradl to Tierra del Fuego 


99. Daefylomns ... 


Guiana and Brazil 

100. Oerco^ys 


101. Lasiuromys ... 

St. Paulo, Brai^il 


S. half of tiopical S. Ameiica 
Central Brazil 

108. CWterodon ... 


101. Mesomys 

Upper Amazon 

106. Eekimys 


Equatorial America to Paraguay 

108. Loneheres ... 


New Granada to Brazil 


107. Cermlaha ... 


Mexico to Paraguay 

108. Gh/x/mrtya ... 




108. Dasyproda ... 


Paraguay. to Mexico aridLesser 

Guatemala to Paraguay 

110. CtKlogenys ... 


111. Hydroehosrus 


Guiana to La Plata 

112. Cavia 


Brazil and Pei-u to Magellan Sts 

113, Kerodon 

Brazil aud Peru to Magellan Sts. 

114. Dolichotis ... 


The Pampas aud Patagonia 



Order, PaaHly, and 


Range within the Region, 

Range liejond the P.egioo. 


115. Lepus 



Central Brazil and Andes, Costa 
Rica to Mexico 

All regions tat Austtai. 


116. Clwk^ua 

117. Bradfpus ... 
lie. Ardopitkeaus... 



Costa Eica to Brazil 
Amazon to Bio de Janeiro 
Costa Eica to Brai^il and Bolivia 


119. Talmia 

120. Prionodonles ... 

121. Dasypus 

132. Xenurus 

123. mgpeuUs ... 

124. ChVamydophorvs 





Rio Grande, Texas, to Patagonia 

Surinam to Paraguay 

Brazil fco Chili and La Plata, 

Costa Kica ! 
Guiana to Parasuay, Coata Pica ? 
Bolivia and La Plata 
La Plata and Bolivia 


137. Cyclomma ... 


CoHta Eica f, & N. Brae,, to Pai'ag 
Guatemala to Pai'aguay 
Honduras and Coata Rica to 


128. DiddphjB 

129. Chxronecte^ 
180. Ry^atodm 



Mexico to ITriiguayaud S, Chili 
Guiana and Brazil, Cogta Eica 

Temperate H. America 


1. Turdus ,,. 

2. JihoiMnodchIa 

3. Meltau/pHla 

4. QUhoirua ... 

5. Xargaropt 

6. Mimus . ... 

I. GincltKeHhia ... 

The whole reg. toTierradelFuego 

Mexico to Venezuela 


MexiiM to Ecuador and Columbia 

Hayti and Lesser AntiUes 

Nearly the whole region 

Mexico and Guatemala 

Mexico to Panama 

Cnlui to Porto Rico 


Lesaer Antilles 

Martinique and St. Lucia 

Almost cosmopolite 

Hearctic genus 

tilles to Peru and 

N. & W, of N. America 



Sange beyond tbe Regl 

IS. GicklopsJs 


14. Eegulus 

15. Polioptila 


16. Cinclus 


17. Troglodytes ... 

18. Thiyophilus ... 

19. Thryotlioraa ... 

20. Cistothorns- ... 

21. l}lmacobi^ls 

22. ComipylorhyTichu 

23. OyphorMnits ... 

24. Mierocereukis ... 
26. Heaicorhma ... 


20. CinnKertkUi ... 
27- Uropnla 






(Psaltripanis ... 


28. Cyanocitta 

29. Oyanocorax ... 

30. GalodUa , 

81. Fsilorhinus ... 
32. Corvua ... ... 


?. Siglossa ... . 

Cotdradrum . 
Dacnis ... . 
Csrthidea. . . 

and Guatemala) 
and Guatemala 
and Cuba to Bolivia and 
La Plata 

Mesico to Venezuela and Fera 

Mexico tfl Straits of Masellatt 

Mexico to Central Rraril 

Mexico to S. Brazil 

Mexico to Chili and Patagonia 

Columbia to Brazil and Bolivia 

Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia 

Costa Rica to Peru 

Mexico to Peru 

Mexico to Peru 

Mexico and Guatetnaloi 


United States & Canada 

itic, Paliearctic 
Cen. and S. U. States 

Foarctic, Palssarctic 

Fearotic, Paltearotic 
!R.-"W. America 
K. America 
N. America 

Mexico and Guateiiialii) 

Mexico aiid Guatemala) 

Mexico to Guatemala 
Mexico to Costa Pica 
Maxioo to Guatemala, Cuba 1 
Porto liico 

Mexico to Guiana, Peru, and 

Venezuda to Ecnadof 


Columbia to Bolivia 

Columbia and Upper Amazon 

Costa Riea to Guiana & S. Brazil 

Galapagos Islands 

North temperate genus 

Kearc, Palsearc., Orient. 
Nottli temperate genus 

Cosmop., excl. S. Amei: 



Order Family and 


Range witMn tbe Keglon. 

Range bojond the Region. 

40 OhUxphanes 


Brazil to Centra! America, Cuba 

41 Carsia 


Meitieo and Cuba to Gniana, and 
Brazil - 

42 Ctrthwla 


Antilles to Ecuador and Brazil 


48 ahmphla 




44 Siurus 


Mexico to Columbia, Antilles 

S, 4E. States & Canada 

45 JIniotilta 


Columbia to Mexico and AntiUea 

Sastern United States 

4b Paiula 


Brazil aud Ecuador to Meiioo 

Eastern U. S. & Canada 

47 Protonotano 


Venezuela to Central America 
and W. India 

Florida to Ohio 

48 Helmmthophaga 


Mexico to fiolumWa 

North America 

49 Helmmthenis 


Mexico to Veragua 

U. States to Canada 

50 PetiasogloBsa 


Cuba, Hayti, and Porto Eieo 

E. United States 

61 Dendrceca 


Mexico & W. Indies to Ecuador 
and CMli 

Al! N. America 

52 Oporantis 


Guatemala to Panama 

58 Geothlypia 


Brazil to Mexico 

All K. America 

It aa 


Mexico to Braail 

E. U. States & Canada 


60 Srgahnis 


SJ Myioodioctes 


Columbia to Mexico 

U. States and Canada 

58 BamUuterw. 


Mexico to Brazil 

69 Ictena 


Costa Bica to Mexico 

E. and Central United 
Statea to Canada 

60 Oramidlus 


Amazon to Mexico 

61 Teretnstis 




62 Vireosylvift 


Venezuela to Mexico & Antilles 

Ail If. America 

68 Vireo 


Mexico to Costa Kica & Antilles 

AU United Statea 

64 Neockloe 



65 Bylophilus 


Brazil to Mexico 

66 iaWa» 


68 rMWjJfiwms 


Mexico to Amazon 

69 Oyckhns 


Mexico to Paraguay 


70 Ziuiii! 





Mexico and Guatemala) 

S". temperate genus 

71 Ftilogonys 


Mexico to Coata Rica 




Gila and Lower Coloi'adc 


7 ' Hirundo 


Mexico and Antilles to Chili and 
La Plata 

Almost cosmopolite 

73 PettfMihelidoii 


Mexico and Antilles to Paraguay 
Guatemala tc Peru and Braal 


74 Atlicom 


75 fohrle 


Central America to La Plata 

All regions but Austral 


Mexico to Brazil 

S. United States 

77 Proine 


The whole region 




°"'"'l£n1^^' ^"^ 


Range within thoBegion. 

Kaug3 beyona tint Begiau, 



Upper Ama^n 

79. OaUnops 


Mexioii to Gdana, Brazil, and 


80. Cassieulas . . 


81. Ccmiem 


Mexico to S. Brazil and Bolivia 

82. leteras 


Mexico to Antilles aad La Plata 

All U. States & Canada 

83. Doliohonyi-... 


Mexiw to-Paragnay, Galapagos 
Mexico to La Plata and Bolivia 

E. U. States and Canada 

84. Molothma ... 

All U. States & Canada 

85. AgeliBiw 


MexieotoPat^^y, Cuba, Porto 

All U. States & 




Nearctie genus 

88. XoJi(Aoso)ii«s... 


Venezuela to La Plata 

87. AiiMyrhamphvs 

Bolivia and La Hata 


Guiana and Amazonia 

89. Pseadohislss ... 


Brazil and La Plata 

90. Ldites ... ... 


Venezuela to Paraguay k Bolivia 

9L Stumella .„ 


Cuba and Mexico to Chili, Falk- 
land Islands k Tierra del Fuego 

All U. States & Canada 

92. Cfurmis 


Chili to Magellan Sti'aits 


Mexico, Cuba ?) 

Nearctie genus 


85. QniflcaluB 


Mexico to Antilles & Venezuela 

S. and E. United States 
to Labrador 

90. Wypopyrrh^... 




Brazil Paraguay and Bolivia 

98. CossidKc 


Mexico to Brazil! and Guiana 

99. Procnias 


Brazil and Peru to Columbia 

100. Odorophoma... 


Brazil to Mexico 

101. Eviphonia .. 


Mexico and W. Indies to Brazil 
and Bolivia 

102. Tamgrella ... 


Columbia to Guiana and Brazil 

103. GhlimshTysa ... 


Columbia to Peru 

104. PipHdea 


Venezuela to Brazil and Bolivia 

105. iKm 


ColuiuHa and Ecuador 

106. CoHfsi^ 


107. Jrtdomis ... ' 


Columbia to Peru 


Columbia to Bolivia 


Bmzil and La Plata 

110. SvilwaiipU ... 


Veragna to Bolivia 


Columbia to Bolivia 

112. Ih^nma... ... 


Columbia and Ecuador 

113. IWoffJW 


Mexico to Bolivia and La Plata 

114. SidndalU ... 


Porto Rico to Bahamas 


Guatemala to Brazil and Bolivia 


Mexico to Coata Eioa 

117. Euehcdes 


Eastern Ecuador . 

118. Pyranga 


Mexico to Bolivia, and Paraguay 

U. States and Canada 

119, Orthogmys ... 


Bmzil and Guiana 


Brazil and Columbia 

131. Phu^icoihnuapU 


Mwico to Paraguay and Bnlivi.T 



Order, Family, and 

BBDgo ivitliiii Uie Regioa, 

Range beyond the Begior. 

122 Itmio 


Mexico to Bolivia 

123 Eacrmetis 


CoBta Rica to Bolivia 

124 Tnchothrav^u. 


S. Brazil and ParaBuay 

VJ5 Creurqopa 


Weat Ecuador 

lae Tachyphonus 


Nicaragua to Paraguay 

127 Cypswigra 


S. Brazil and Bolivia 

128 mm,oma 


Venezuela, W. Ecuador, to Bra- 
zil aud Bolivia 

139 Pyrrhocoina 

S. Brazil and Paraguay 


Mosioo to Peni and Bolivia 

151 Buarremm 


Mexico to S. Brazil and Bolivia 

182 Fh^KophUm 



133 Airemom 


Mexico to 8. BrazR 


East Ecuador 

186 Owsopw 


Columbia to Peru and Bolivia 


187 ilM«05M«O 


Columliia to Peru 

138 .Sa;fa{«r 


Mesico to La Plata and Bolivia 

189 Dweop^ 


Upper Amazon and S. Brazil 

140 OrciaiiiCTis 


Tropical S. America 

141 Pi^yiMS 


Mexico to Brazil and Ecuadcv 


142 rlirvaomitns 


Meitico to Bradl, Chili and 

Mexico to Chili and La Plata. 

Neorotic, Palfearctio 

143 SyMli$ 



Nearctic, Palcearctic 

14S Otosjusa 



147 Gadorms 

Galapa^s Islands 

148 Pftrj,yii«s 


Columhia to Fiiegia and Falk- 
land Islands 



150 IHlMK 


Peru, ChUi, and Patagonia 


Venezuela to Paraguay 


S. Brazil and La Plata 



164 Embemagra 
156 Htemopma 


Mexico to La Plata 

Eocky Mountains 


Mexico to Coata liJca 

166 Atlapetea 




168 Mpib 


Mexico to Costa Eica 


Mexico to Guatemala 

AH Searctie region 

169 Junco 


Mexico and Guatemala 

United States 

IflO Zonotnohia 


Mexico to Straits of Magellan 




Mexico and Guatemala) 

Nearctic genua 


Mexico and Guatemala) 

Nearctic genus 


Nearctic genus 




Nearctic genus 

101 Acamndramus 




162 Cotnrnleulil^ 


Mexico to Bolivia, Jamaica 

E. &N. ofN. America 

163 PauLffia 



S. E. States & California 

184 Tmns 



166 Fi)2ahn.m 


Mexicfl to Brazil 



Order Family, aud 



Range wiftiin tbo Region, 

Range beyond the Heglon. 


Mexico aud Central America) 


Trop. S. America, E. of Andea 


Tropical S. America 

168. Porphyrispka 



189. Saplospim ... 


Mexico and Brazil 

170. Phojiipom ... 


Mexico to Columbia, Greater 

Mesico to Bolivia and La Plata 

171. Poospiza ... 


W. & Central U. States 


(Carpodacus ... 
173. Cardmalis ... 



Nearctic, Patoatetie 


Mexico to Venezuela 

S. &S. Cent. U. Status 

174. Guiraca 


Mexico to Brazil and La Plata 

Southern U. States 

175. Amatirosjnm 


Costa iUca and Brazil 

176. Hedymeles ... 

Mexico to Columbia 


177. PheucHeas ... 


Mexico to Peru and Bolivia 


Mexico to Ecuador and S. Brazil 






Mexico to Bolivia and Uiiiguay 


182. CcUainmia ... 


Columliia to Bolivia 


■W. Peru 

18t Oataimy 1 



rhifnchiia ( *■■ 




N'orth temperate somiB 



Arizona an^ Texas 



W. and Cent, F, States 



Mexico to Columbia) 

S,.&U. States, Palmare 

185. ehifiemafrir. ,.. 

Paraguay and La Plata 




M". temp, ftArctio genus 


186. Otocorys 


Mexico, Andes of Columbia 

Fearc. & Palffiarc. genus 


187. Anthu3 


Mexico to Patagonia and Falk- 
land Islands 


ma. Oxyrhamphvs 


Braan to Costa Rica 


188. CmwpUga ... 


Columbia to Bolivia and BraEil 

189. Garylhopis ... 


Braiiil and Guiana 

190, Agriontis ... 


Ecuador; Peru, and Chi]i 

191. Myiothm-elcs ... 

Columbia to Ecuador, Patagonia 

1S2. Timioplepa ... 

. 8 

S. Brazil and Bolivia t^ Patago. 

193. Ochi/iadiiEla ... 

194. Ockthmca ... 


Andes, Bolivia to Columbia and 

195. Sayomis 


Mexico to Ecuador 

E. United Sts. to Canada 

19S. Flwoicola ... 


Guiana & "W. Ecuador to Brazil, 
and Bolivia 

197. JntfMJmMiito 


Tropical S. Amifrica 
S. Brazil and La Plata 

108. Aketomrus ... 




Ortler, Fimily, and 

1S9. OyhsraeUs ... 

200. Sysopygis ... 

201. Onipoleg^ ... 

202. Lidi^efs ... 

203. Musdpipra ... 
20i. CopVTUS 

205. MachetomU ... 

206. Mindaataieola 

207. Gentriles 

208. MuadgraUa, ... 

209. FlatyrhyjKkiM 

210. rorflTTMirMm.,.. 

211. OrKosotma ... 
^12. .B«scar(ftm«»... 

213, OnAiius 

214. Coloptenm ... 
216. Bmvitrientte ... 

216. PAj/Koswtrtes ... 

217. Sapaiocerem... 

218. SiArura ... 
210. J\)3imoiJ"tceu«. . . 

220. i^pirJeciM ... 

221. Stignialura, ... 

222. S^phophaga ... 

224. CyanoH$ 

225. MitmedM 
223. Zeplopogon ... 

227. (Aipsiitnips .. 

228. i%jJiomyi<)« .. 

229. OmMioit 

230. IV"(»TOirfw« ., 

231. SV^aimiscas . . 
282. Elalma 

I. Mefprhy 

346. Jfyii^iKS 
247. PyrocephaluB... 

BanBa beyond Oie R 

Brazil and J.A PI»t; 

S. BraaU 

Costa Eica to S. Brsail 

Venezuela to Brazil 

Andea of Ecuador to Chili and 

Bolivia to Patagonia 
W, Ecuador 
Me!:ioo to Btasdl 
Tropical N. and S. America 
Tropical N. America 
Cosia Bicato W. Ecuador, BrazO, 

and Bolivia 
Coata Eicft to BraaO and Bolivia 
Veragua to Columbia and Guiana 

Columbia to Brazil 

Brazil to Chili and La Plata 

Brazil and Veragua 
Upper Amazon to La Plata 
Columbia to Chili and La Plata 
Columbia to Chili and La Plata, 

Ida«ell. Sts. & Juan Femand. 
W. Peru to La Plata 
Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia 
Mexico to Peru and Brazil 
Chiriqui to Brazil 
Columbia to Brazil 
Mexico to Brazil 
Guatemala to Amazonia 
Guatemala to E. Peru 
Mexico to Tierra del Euego, An- 

Bolivia and La Plata 

Mexico t<^ Brazil 

Venezuela and Lower Amazon 

Mexico to W. Peru and Brazil 

Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil 

Venezuela to Peru an.d Brazil 

Mexico to La Plata, Antilles 

Panama to Brazil 

Mexico to Bolivia and Paragoay 

Mexico to Brazil 

Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil 

Columbia k Guiana to Paraguay 

Panama to W.Eouador & Amazon 

Mexico to W. Peru, Bolivia, 

and La Plata 
Tropical N. and S. America and Gila and Eio Grande 

Galapagos Islands 



Ordor, Family, and 


HsiigB wHhin the Beginn. 

Radge beyond the Region. 

248. Empidochanes 


Venezuela to S, Braail. 

219. Miirephorus ... 

Mexico to Costa Rica 


Mexico to Columbia & Ecuador 

All N. America 

251. Contflpus ... 

252. Myioohanes ... 


N. & E. of Rocky Mtna. 


253. Myiarchus ... 


Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil, 

East and West Coasts to 

Qalapagoa and Antilles 
Cnba, Hayti, Jamaica 


264. Bladaas 


(Empidias ... 



Eastern United States 


Guiana and BraaU 

266, Tvraniins ... 
257. Mihulus ... 


All tropical Bub-regions 

All U. States to Canada 


Tropictil N. and S. America 



268. Pijmks 


Costa Rica to Brazil 

259. Mhsim 


Columbia aud Ecuador 



381. Xeiwpipo ... 

Guiana and Columbia 

26% JV« 


Trop. N. and S. Ameriai 

263. Jfeopipo 

Upper Amazon 
Columbia to Brazil 

264. Mac/ueropterus 


266. lUeum 


266. Ckinxdpkia ... 


2S7. Melawla 



26S. MetovoihTW ... 


Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil 

26B. Okiromacheeris 


270. llelmvpeljm ... 


Mexico to Guiana and Brazil 

271. Hekrocercua ... 

Guiana and Upper Amazon 

272. Schifmmis ... 


Upper Amazon and Brazil 


273. Tilyra 


Tropical IT. and S. America 


Mexico to W. Ecuador A Brazil, 


Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil 

276. Lathria 


Mexico to Brazil 

277. AuUa 

Veragua to Brazil 

278. Lipmigita ... 

Guatemala to Brazil and Guiana 

278. PHloehloris ... 



280. JtHla 


Costa Rica to Brazil and Guiana 

281. GamlmtiB ... 

S. Brazil to Paraguay 

282. SMjrfcoZa 


Guiana to W. Ecuador Sc Bolivia 

233. Ifuenieoeerms 


Guiana and Amaaonia 

284. Tyuea 



286. Pkibalmu ... 



286. Pipreola 


Venezuela to Ecuador and Peru 

287. Ampelio 


Columbia to Pern and Brazil 

288. Carpodedes ... 


Niearaeua and Coata Rica 
Columbia to Peru and Bolivia 

289. BeUoduBra ... 


290. CotiTtga 

Guatemala to Peru and Brazil 

291. Xiphkma ... 

292. lodopleu/m ... 


Guiana to Brazil 
Guiana to Brazil 

293. Cdl^wa. ... 

■ 1 


294. GifETKin 


Panama to Amazonia 






Order, Fmiily, md 


Bangs Kitbin tJia Itegion. 


eyond the Region, 

29.'", EismatBdems 


Guiana and Lower Amazon 




Costa Kitti to Guiana and Brazil 





Guiana and Eio Negro 
Gaiana and Upper Amazon 


Pyrodems ... 


Venezuda to Brazil 




Coata Eicft to W. Eenador & Upr. 



801. FhyMoma ... 


Bolivia, Cliili, and La Plata 


302 Geohatea 

South Brazil 



Peru to Chili and Patagonia 


iWnoHas ... 

Guiana & ■W.Eeuadorto La Plata 


cmanwmU ... 

S. Brazil 


UpwxTiMa ... 

Andes of Ecuador to CMli and 

Ecuador to ChUi, Patagonia and 


dttaodes ... 



Hmieamis ... 




LoOmias ... 


Veneznela and Brazil 


ScUrwnis ... 


Mexico to Brazil 




ChUi to Tiorra del Juego, and 
Masafaera Islands 


hmelws ... 




Fhlc^ypt^ ... 


W. Peru to La Plata 



Andea of Ecuador to Brazil an< 
The^wSole region (excl. Antilles) 


SynallatBiB ... 





La Plata 


AnuniHm ... 


Paraguay and La Plata 



Uruguay and La Plata 



Venezuela to Peru and La Plata 
Brazil and Columbia 




Columbia to Ptru 




Brazil, Bolivia, and La Plata 

ThHpadedes ... 





Upper Amazon 
Meiioo tj) Amazonia 


AfOomohis ... 



miydor ... 


Tropical South Amoric^ 


SelMUtas .. 




Amiaioides ... 





Mexico to Brazil 




Trop. North and South America 


mcmmns ... 


Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil 


MargaromU ... 


Costa lUca to Peru and Bolivia 




Trop. North and South America 


FygarrUeas ... 





Mejiioo to Venezueb and Brazil 









La Plata 



Mesieo to Bolivia and Paraguay 




[part it I. 

Order, Paniilj-, aiifl 


Rauge ivitWii tbe Eegiou. 

Rai^ beyoud the Region. 




Bendrorais ... 


Mesieo, W. EeuMor and Brazil 


Dendropkx ... 


Colambia & Venezuela to Brazil 


Ficolavtes ... 


Mexico to Bolivm aud La Plata 




Veragna to Brazil 



Amazonia and Gniana 




S. Brazil 



Trop. Horth and South America 






Timmi^ea ... 


Central America and Ecuador 


Fygopm ... 







Easttrn Ecuador 



(Texico to BoliTia and Bradl 



Ecuador, Guiana, and Brazil 




Venezuela to Brazil and Bolivia 




Tropical S. America 



Trop. Horth and South America 



Veragua to W. Ecuador & Brazil 


Centra! Bradl 


Microbaies ... 





Cen. America to W". Ecuador & 

S. Brazil 

363. Pyriglemc ... 


Ecuador to Peru and Brazil 

364. GymiMcichla,,. 


Hondnrag to Panama 

386. Permo^ola ... 


Qniana and Upper Amazon 



Guiana and Upper Amazon 
VetJ^ua to W. Ecuador, Bolivia, 


Myrw^oim ... 






Co3taKica toW.Ecuador & Brazil 
5'iearagua to Amazonia 





SicacHgua to Guiana and Bolivia 



Mesico U> Jiiuzil and Bolivia 


PUtasoim '.'.. 

Panama and Verajfua 


OkamtEza .. 


Columbia to Brazil 


GndUria ... 


Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil 


OralUmBula ... 


Costa Kica to Ecuador 


377. Scyialopus ... 


Columbia & Brazil to Chil! and 
Tierra del Fuego 

378. Mendas!is ... 


Central Brazil 


. Mmwc^w^ ... 


La,Plata and Patagonia 

. M>scels3 


Madeira Valley 


. Pleroploehwi ... 


Chili ^d Chilce 


. Hylactea 




, Acrnplemis .. 


Columbia and Ecuador 






Order, Family, ™ft 


Rang wIlWli the BsglDn. 

Bjmge beyond Uie Itegio 



S85. Pteamitus ... 


Honduras to BrazU and Bolivia 


M«sico, Chili, La Plata, and 
S. Patagonia 

All reg. but Austral. 




Nearetic genas 


Mexico to Patagonia, Cuba 


Dryoeopns ... 


Mexico to S. Brazil 





Moxioo and S. Brazil 


Nesoceleus ... 




Tropical S. America 


Centurus ... 


Mexico to Venezncla, Antilles 




Tropical America, Hajti 






MeUnerpas ... 


Mexico to Brazil, Porto Rico 



Leuammtes ... 


Braail, Bolivia 

397. Colaptes: 


Open country of trop. America, 
Greater Antfflea 



Venezuela and Ecuador 


399. Oapilo 


Costa Rica to Peru and Guiana 

iOO. Tetragoiwps .. 


CoatalHca and Ecuador 



All tropical Amerieu 

4(12. PterogUssas ... 


Mexico to Guiana and Brazil 

403. Selmidera ... 


Veragua to Brazil 

404. Andigena ... 

Columbia to W. Ecnador, Bolivia 
and Brazil 

405. Aulatorhamphua 


Mexico to Venezuela and Bolivia 


40S. Crolopkaga ... 


Tropical America and Antilles 

Nearetic to Pennsylva 


407. a^ira 


BrazU and Paraguay 

408. JVeommyftiw ... 


Nicaragua io Brazil fand Upper 

409. Oeococcyx ... 


Texas to Calfornia 

Mexico to Brazil 

411, mpl<^erus ... 


Mexico to Ecuador and Braail 

412. Smrothera ... 


Greater AnttHes 

41S. Hyetorms ... 


Jamaica and Hayti 

414. JHaya, 


Mexico to W. Ecuador A BrazU 


Mexico to Costa Bioa 

418. Cocoygus 


Tropical America and AntilliiS, 
Cocoa Islands 



417. £>M^o 


Guatemala to Guiana, Paraguay 

and Bolivia 
Guatemala to Guiana, W. Ecua- 

418. Mafacoptila, ... 


dor and Bolivia 




Columbia and Amazonia 



Order Fimilj and 

KanK6 withiE the Region. 

Range lieyond the Kogron. 

4'0 Monaia 

Goata Rica to BrazQ 

421 Oh^lidoplera 


Colnmbia to Guiana and Brazil 


422 GalbuJa 


Gnatemala to Brazil and Boliria 

*23 Urogalba 


Guiana to Lower Amazon 

434 BmJyjldba 


Columbia to Bi'azil and Bolivia 

425 Jacama,aUni<m, 



Colombia to Amazonia 

427 GamiciftAyn ) 
thus S 


Tipper Amazon 


423 rod«< 


Greater Antille.? 


429 Jfanwtifs 


Mexico to W. Ecuador, Brazil 
and Bolivia 

430 Uiomtha 


Costa Rica to Columhia 


Brazil and Paraguay 

432 Bylirmwma 


Mexico and Guatemala 

433 JViojwrAjfftcftSM 


434 Jfunumioia 



435. PHonokks ... 



486. Jfemiiotros™ ... 



437. SVnjoJi 

Mexico to W. E<.-uadov & Par.ig. 

438. Svptilotis ... 



439. PAoronufcrus 




440. Ceiyle 


Mexico to Brazil, Patagonia and 

Nearc, S.Palfearc., Orion, 


441 St'tUorm^ 


Columb., Venezuela, & Trinidad 


442 Nydtkus 


443 Hydropaalw 

Columbia & Guiana to La Plata 

444 Antrostomus 


Mexico and Cuba to Bdivia and 
La Plata 

All U. States to Canada 

445 Stenrrpm 


Martinique to Columb., W. Peru 


446 .SiytofltAis 


447 fieSeWiAi^iw 


Central Brazil 

448 NydidFOTiaia 


Central America to S. Brazil 

449 Porfajei- 


Tropical S. America 

4'iO iMi oaths 


Gtiiana to Brazil 

451 Cliordeilea 


Mexico to W. Peru and Brazil 
Jamaica and Porto Rico 

All U. States to Canada 

452 NychprogM 





Order, Fitinily, snd 



Range tojona tlia Be^on. 


453. CypseluB 


Antilles to Giiiana and Bolivia 

The Eastern Hemispbere 

464. FmwiHa ... 


Guatemala and Guiana 

456. ChEEtuta 


Meitico to Ecuador and Biazil 

456. Semiprome ... 


Mexico to La Plata, Jamaica 

and Hayti 
Biazil and Peru 


468. Dfephxcetes ... 




469. Gno«M 





Coata Riea to Ecuador 

402. Glauds 


Panama to Brazil 

463. PhaetkomU ... 


Tropical H. and S. America 

464. Fygmantis ... 


Mexico b) Guiana and Bmil 

465. Tkrenetes ... 


Costa Rica to Amazonia and W. 

466. m^rimi ... 


467. Eupetomemt ... 

Quiana to Brazil 

468. SphenopToetm 

Mexico to Guatemala 


Jilexico to Amazonia 

470. Phamkrm ... 



Ecuador and Brazil 

472. t^roearoa ... 



478. SUmaclyta, ... 



474. &(»»«!» 


Mexico to Costa Rica 

47E. KbZ^^ ... 




477. Delallna ... 


478. Oreopyra 


Costa Eica to CMriqui 


Mexico and Guatemala 

480. rqpfKa 



481. Oreotrochiiris... 

■ 6 

Ecuador to Peru and CMli 

482. LmnmmU ... 


Mexico & W. India to Amazonia 


Lesser AuttUes 



486. Lafreanaya ... 


Venezuela and Columbia 

486. Doryphera ... 


Coata Eica to Ecuador 

487. CTAoi^iMra ... 


Costa Rica to Columbia 

488. Hdiodom ... 


Costa Riea to Venezuo. & Boliv. 

489. iotemt 


Ecuador to Pern 

490. PfeteoZiemo ... 


Colombia and Ecuador 

491. ffiiffraim 



492. AUhwms ... 




Coeta Riea to Guiana, Ecuador 
and Brazil 


Columbia and Ecuador 

495. Flmisuga ... 


Guatemala to Brazil 

496. Mia-ochmi ... 


Nicaragua to Veragua 

497. Lophorms ... 


Mexico to Braril, Peru, & Boliviii 

498. PAmisWa ... 


Columbia to S. Brazil 

489. iK«!«ra 



500. GiwMia 


Costa Rica to Brazil & fioliviii 



0*,, ,-»,„. 

Bsnge Tvithiu the Region. 

Rauga bsyoiia the Region. 

so:. Trochiliis ... 

Mexico to Veragua 

To Canada and Sitka 

502. Meliisam ... 


Jamsicit to Hityti 
Mexico and Oiiba 

508. (7(%pfe" 


505. Atthis 


Mexico to Veraffua. 

W.&Cen. United States 


Mexico and Guatemala 

Califomia and Colorado 

GOG. StelMa 



607. OaMharaa^ ... 


608. Amtrura, ... 


Venezuela to Ecuador & Bolivia 

509. CJustocenm ... 


Veneznela. and Ecuador 

510. Myrtia 


Ecnadorto Bolivia, W. of Andes 

511. Thawmaatwra 


W. Peru 

B12. Ehodopia 

W. Pern and CMi 

S13. DoriOa 


Mexico to Veragua, Bahamas 

514. H^haaiwa ... 




Ecuador and Brazil 


Pemvian Andes 

m.SUganum ... 


Yenezaela to Ecuador & Bolivia 

618. iesfria 


Coluiobia to Peru 

619. Owmnihus ... 

Venezuela to Ecuador 


Columbia to Bolivia & La Plata 

Columbia to PeiTi 

622. AglmaUis ... 


Columbia w Bolivia 

623. 0:-m>9on ... 


Venezuela and Columbia 

624. Oreon^npAa ... 



625. Sham^ihma'uami, 


Columbia to Bolivia 

526. Wrosmu 



627. Mdtdlmu ... 

Columbia to Bolivia 


Venezuela to Pern & Bolivia 

629. AmKeMnm ... 



Venezuela to Brazil 


Lesser Antilles 




Venezuela and Columbia 

SS6. ScMda 


Mexico to Veragua 

686. SeltacUTi ... 



637. Heliofkrw ... 



Columbia and Ecuador 

m. PMogopMkis ... 



5*0. Augastes 



641. Petasophara ... 


Mexico to Pern and Brazil 


Venezuela to Brazil 

543. FafagBna 


Ecuador to Bolivia and Chili 


Columbia and Ecuador 

645. ffdimOm ... 


Columbia to Bolivia 

640. mmrypha ... 


Columbia and Ecuador 

547. SeiuMiiBiuis ... 


Venezuela to Peru 




E. Ecuador and Brazil 


Venezuela to Peru 


Venezuela to Bolivia 


Mexico to Ecuador & Venezuela 


654. Calliperidia ... 

Centiul Brazil and Paraguny 

655. aMfepMraws .. 


Chili, S. Patagonia, and Juan 
Pemandez Islands 



Order, Family, and ■ 


— «""»•>-■ 

Range beyond the Kegion. 

656. Eriociiemis ... 


Venszuela to Ecuador 

S57. Ogamomyia ... 


Mexico to Peru 

558. SemhtUbon ... 




Peru and Bolivia 


Mexico te Guiuna, Upr.AmazOQ, 

and Brazil 
Mexico to W. Ecuador & Peru 


532. Satteeroltia ... 


Costa Biea to ColuniU & Venezue. 

588. Ei^hentm ... 


Mexico to Verflgna 

564. Ckfysv^onia ... 


Guatemala to Ecuador & La Plata 


Venezuela to Guiana and Brazil 

596. FmiterpB 


Costa Bica and CMriqui 

E87 JiiUamyia ... 


Panama U Ecuador 

568. Cfiree 



589. PhmoptiU 



571. HylAa^ ... 


Costa Rica to Ecuador 

Amazonia and Brazil 

Columbia and Veragua 


Cuba, Babamas, Hay ti, Porta Eico 

E74. CMorostilbon ... 

Mexico to Brazil and La PJata 

575. Panycklora ... 


"Venezuela and Columbia 

676. SmamgdochrysU 





577. Ara 


Trop. North and South America, 

Cuba, Jamiuca (extiiiot) ' 


Mexico 1 



580. Conoraa 


The whole region 

Costa Rica to Paraguay & Bolivia 

S.&S.E.Uniteil States 

581. Pyrrh-ara ... 



Mexico to Peru, Central Brazil, 
and La Plata 

583. Bi-otogerys ... 


Trop. North and South America 


584. Caiea 


Mexico to Amazonia 

685. OhrysoUs ... 


All the tropical sub-regions 

688. Tridarin .. 



587. Deropiyue ... 

Guiana and Rio Negro 

588. PUmts 


Costa Rica to Bolivia and Braiil 


Teneimela to Brazil 

680. PsiOaada ... 

Mexico to W. Ecuador & Brazil 


691. Columlia 


Trop, aulj-regions with CMli and 

la Plata 
Mexico to Veragua 
Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia 

All regions but Austral 

692. Zenaidura ... 



S. NearctiiJ 


Brazil and La Plata to Chili 

585. ScardafeUa ... 


Guatemala and Brazil 


Antilles and S. America to Chil 
and La Plata 



Order Family, aiirt 

Kange beyond ilia Begiui 

. Leplopiila 
I. Oeotrygon 

Jleiico to Chili 

Mexico to Brazil 

"W.Amerieft from Ecuador to Chili 

West Peru and Bolivia 

Tropical sub-regiona 

Tropical sub-regiona 


South & West Neorotic 

60i. Odonlopharus 
606, Deruirortyo: ... 

606. Cyrtoiiyx 

607. Ortyx 

808. Miipaycharlyx 

{Cailipepla . . . 


609. Meleagris 


610. Orwc 

611. Ifotliocrax 

612. Pmai 

613. Mlua 

614. Stegnolimtci ... 
616. FtnelopB 

616. Pmelopma ... 

617. FipUe 

fflS. Abnnia 

619. Oha/mfs^eUs ... 

630. Orlalida 

621. Oreophasis ... 

Trop. North and South Amm 
Mexico to Costa Rica 
■ Mexico to Guatemala 
Mexico to Oosta Eica, Cuba 
Mexico to Gdumbia and Guiana 

Mexico and Hondiu'as 

Guiana to Peru 

Columbia and Ecuador 

Trop. Horth and Soutli America 


Venezuela to Braall and Peru 


Costa Kiea to Pern 

Trop. North and South America 


■. Oryplwnis 

'i. BhynehUus :. 

\. Nothoproda, .. 

'. Nothwra 

1. Taonisciis 

<. Calodromas .. 

'. TirMmolui . 

Trop. North and South America 
Costa Kiea to Venezue. A Ecuador 
Trop. North and South America 
Brazil to Bolivia and La Plata 
Ecuador to Bolivia and Chili 
Brazil to Bolivia and La Plata 
Brazil and Paraguay 
La Plata 
Andes of Peru and Bolivia 



631. Oputkoctmius... 

1 Guiana and Lower A 



0«„, »...,,... 


Bauge within the Region. 

Range beyond the Region. 





The Andes and S. of 41° S. Lat. 

633. CatharUs ... 


Mexieo to 20" S. Lat. 

68*. Cflthariata ... 


Mexico to 40° S. Lat. 

S. United States 

635. Pseudogijpliis 

Mexico to PalkJand Ida., Cuba, 

United States 


6.96. Polyborus ... 


The whole re^on 

California and Plorida 




Guatemala to Terra del Fuego 




Nearly the whole regioc 

Almost cosmopolite 


MivraaHr ... 


Trop. North and South America 


T^Dp. North and South America 




Mexico tfl Chili and La Plata 

California and Texas 




Trop. N. and S. America 

Almost cosmopolite 


Aodpiter ... 


The whole region 




Trop. S. America, E. of Andes 




Mexico to Paraguay 





Mexico to Patagonia 




VerMua to Amazonia 

Mexico to Bolivia and La Plata 




S.E. United States 


Susarellus ... 


Brazil and Gniana 


Siiteogalliis ... 


Colambia and Gniana 



Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia 

652. HaTvyhaVUeehii 

Veragoa to Chili & N. Patagonia 

65B Mmrhrms 


Panama to Amazonia 


Mexico to Bolivia and Paraguay 

655 Lophotriorchis 




656 Spiitmaiwr 


Guatemala Ifl BrazU 

667 bpizaetua 

668 Serpelolheres 


Mexico to Pai'aguay 

Africa, India, Malaya 


S. Mexico to Bolivia & Paiagnay 

669 FautleruB 


Mexico to Brazil 

S. United States 

660 Itosirhamus 


Antilles to Btazil and Peru 


661 Zeplodon, 


Central America to 3. Btsiil and 

Mexico to Chili 

662 MuDUS 


Califor., Old World trop. 

663 Gampionyx 


Trinidad to Brazil 


Central America to BrazU & Peru 

666 Mwm 


Mexico to Brazil 

South United States 

667 ^co 


La Plata 

The whole re^on 

663 Cerchneis 


The whole region 


669 Pandioii 


The whole I'cgion 




The whole reKlon 

"W. United Sts.,Paliearu. 

671 Micrathene 



Arizona, New Mexico 

672 Pholeoptynx 

The whole legion 

Jf.W, America & Texas 




The whole region 

All regions but Anstral. 




[PABT iir. 

Order, Family, aad 


Rnnge within the Resion. 

Ranee beyond the Region. 

674. Suops 


Mexico to Brazil and La Plata 


Oytimoglaux ... 


West India Idands 


LophosMx ... 


Guatemala to I^owflt Amazon 



Mfxioo to Patagonia 

All regions hut Austral. 




Mesioo to Peru and Paraguay 





PuUaMs ... 


Guatemala to Brazil and Peru 




The whole re^on 

All regions but AustraL 


NyetaJops ... 

Cuba and Mexico to Brazil 


FMttdoacops ... 






N", Temperate genus 




The whole rogioo 

Almost cosmopolite 

Peculiar or ■ 








ThinocoHs .. 


P/mgomis .. 
Plwiio/aelbii'. . 

1/ GharaaUrisUc Qernra of Wading <md Smmmitiff Birds. 

.e whole regiou 
Sta. of Magellan, Falltland Ii 

Kerguelen's Island 

indes to Fue^ and Falkland 

Peru, Chili, and La Plata 

Temperate S. America 
Temperate S. America 
Tempeiato S. America 
^" loast of S. America 

W. coast of N. America 

S. Brazil and La PLita 

Mexico and Cuba to Brazil 



Equatorial S. America 
Tropical America 



Order, Family, and 


B^nge wiUiin tha Bflglon. 

Kange bcyona Uia Region. 


Tigrisama . . . 


Tha whole region 
Tropicals. Ameiiei 




Eqnatoriai America 
Colmntiia, Brazil, aud La Plata 




Mieropteirus ... 



Tropical S. America 


Temperate S. America 


Eudypfes ... 


Temperate S. America 
Falkland Manda 

Antarctic shores 
Antarctic shores 



686. lihea 


S. Temperate America 




TfflS region consists almost wholly of Temperate U"ort]i America 
as defined by physical geographers. In area it is about ecLual 
to the Neotropical region. It possesses a vast mountain range 
traversing its entire length from north to south, comparable 
with, and in fact a continuation o^ the Andes, — and a smaller 
range near the east coast, ecLually comparable with the mountains 
of Brazil and Guiana. These mountains supply its great river- 
system of the Mississippi, second only to that of the Amazon; 
and in its vast group of fresh-water lalres or inland seas, it 
possesses a feature unmatched by any other region, except 
perhaps by the Ethiopian. It possesses every variety of climate 
between arctic and tropical; extensive forests and vast prairies ; 
a greatly varied surface and a rich and beautiful flora. But these 
great advantages are somewhat neutralized by other physical 
features. It extends far towards the north, and there it reaches 
its greatest width ; while in its southern and warmest portion it 
suddenly narrows. The northern mass of land causes its 
isothermal lines to bend southwards ; and its winter tempera- 
ture especially, is far lower than at corresponding latitudes 
in Europe. This dimiuishes the available area for supporting 
animal life ; the amount and character of which must be, to a 
great extent, determined by the nature of the least favourable 
part of the year. Again, owing to the position of its mountain 
ranges and the direction of prevalent winds, a large extent of its 
interior, east of the Eocky Mountains, is bare and arid, and often 
almost desert ; while the most favoured districts, — those east of 




Newloik Hliy^ V Bioth^i 



the Mississippi and west of the Sierra Nevada, hear hut a small 
proportion to its whole area. Again, we know that at a very 
recent period geologically, it was subjected to a very severe Glacial 
epoch, which wrapped a full half of it in a mantle of ice, and 
exterminated a large number of animals which previously in- 
habited it. Taking all this into account, we need not be sur- 
prised to find the Nearetic region somewhat less rich and varied 
in its forms of life than the Paljearctie or the Australian regions, 
with which alone it can fairly be compared. The wonder rather 
is that it should be so little inferior to them in this respect, and 
that it should possess such a variety of groups, and such a 
multitude of forms, in every class of animals. 

Zoological characteristics of the NearcHe Region. — Temperate 
North America possesses representatives of 26 families of Mam- 
malia, 48 of Birds, 18 of Eeptiles, 11 of Amphibia, and 18 of 
Jresh-water Fish, The first three numbers are considerably less 
than the corresponding numbers for the Palsearctic region, wlule 
the last two are greater — in the case of fishes materially so, a 
circumstance readily explained by the wonderful group of fresh- 
water lakes and the noble sonthward-flowit^ river system of the 
Mississippi, to which the Palsearetio region has nothing com- 
parable. But although somewhat deficient in the total number 
of its famihes, this region possesses its fall proportion of peculiar 
and characteristic family and generic forms. No less than 13 
famihes or sub-families of Vertebrata are confined to it, or just 
enter the adjacent Neotropical region. These are, — three of mam- 
malia, Antilocaprinte, Saccomyidte and Haploodontid^ ; one of 
birds, ChamEeidfe ; one of reptiles, Chrrotidte ; two of amphibia, 
SirenidEe and Amphiuniidffi ; and the remaining six of fresh-water 
fishes. The number of 'peculiar or characteristic genera is per- 
haps more important for our pui^ose ; and these are very con- 
siderable, as the following enumeration will show. 

Mammalia. — Of the family of moles (Talpidte) we have 3 
peculiar genera : Condylwa, Scapantts, and Sealops, as well as 
the remarkable Jlrotricluis, found only in California and Japan. 
In the weasel family (Mustelidse) we have Latax, a peculiar 
Mnd of otter; Tasddea, allied to the badgers; and one of the 


116 ZOOLOGICAL aE0OE4PH\ [part I it. 

remarkable and characteristic skunks is sepirated by Dr. J, E, 
Gray as a genus — Spilogale. In the American family Procyo- 
nid^e, a peculiar genus (Bassaris) is found in California and 
Texas, extending south along the mountams of Mexico and 
Guatemala, Ewmetopias, and Salicyon, are seals confined to the 
west coast of Korth America. The Bovidse, or hollow-horned 
ruminants, contain three peculiar forms ; Antilocapra, the re- 
markable prong-buck of the Kocliy Mountains ; Aplocerus, a goat- 
like antelope; and Ov^os, the musk-sheep, confined to Arctic 
America and Greenland. Among the Eodenta are many pecu- 
liar genera: Neotoma, Sigmodon, and Fiber, belong to the 
Muridse, or rats; Jaculm to the Dipodidse, or jerboas. The 
veiy distinct famil y Saccomyidm, or pouched rats, which have 
pecuhar cheek pouches, or a kind of outer hairy month, con- 
sists of five genera all confined to this region, with one of 
doubtful afiinities in Trinidad and Central America. In the 
squirrel family (Sciuridfe), Gynomys, the prairio-dogs, are pecu- 
liar; and Tamias, the ground squirrel, is very characteristic, 
though found also in North Asia, Haploodon, or eewellels, 
consisting of two species, forms a distinct family ; and MretMzon 
is a pecuhar form of tree porcupine {Cercolabidsi}. True mice 
and rats of the genus Mils are not indigenous to Korth America, 
their place being supphed by a distinct genus {Kesperomys), 
confined to the American continent. 

Mrds. — The genera of birds absolutely peculiar to the Nearetic 
region are not very numerous, because, there being no boundary 
but one of chmate between it and the Neotropical region, most 
of its characteristic forms enter a short distance within the 
limits we are obliged to concede to the latter. Owing also to 
the severe winter-climate of a lai^ part of the region (which 
we know is a comparatively recent phenomenon), a large pro- 
portion of its birds migrate southwards, to pass the winter in 
the West-Indian islands or Mexico, some goii^ as far as Guate- 
mala, and a few even to Venezuela. 

In our chapter on extinct animals, we have shown, that there 
is good reason for believing that the existing union of North 
and South America is a quite recent occurrence ; and that the 



separation was effected by an arm of the sea across what is 
now Nicaragua, with perhaps another at Panama. This would 
leave Mexico and Guatemala joined to North America, and 
forming part of the Nearctic region, although no douht contain- 
ing many Neotropical forms, which they had received during 
earlier continental periods ; and these countries might at other 
times have been made insular by a strait at the isthmus of 
Tehuantepec, and have then developed some peculiar species, 
The latest climatal changes have tended to restrict these 
Neotropical forma to those parts where the climate is really 
tropical ; and thus Mexico has attained its present strongly 
marked Neotropical character, althoiigh deficient in many of 
the most important groups of that region. 

In view of these recent changes, it seems proper not to draw 
any decided line between the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, 
but rather to apply, in the ease of each genus, a test which will 
show whether it was probably derived at a comparatively recent 
date fl-om one region or the other. The test referred to, is the 
existence of pecuhar species of the genus, in what are un- 
doubtedly portions of ancient North or South America. If, 
for example, all the species of a genus occur in North America, 
some, or even all, o£ them, migrating into the Neotropical region 
in winter, whUe there are no peculiar Neotrc^ical ^ecies, then 
we must cla'is that genus as strictly Nearctic; for if it were 
Neotropical it would certainly have developed some peculiar 
resident forms Again, even if there should be one or two 
resident species peculiar to that part of Central America north 
of the ancient dividing strait, with an equal or greater number 
ot speaes ranging over a large part of Temperate North America, 
the genus must still be considered Nearctic. Examples of the 
former case, are Helminthopkaga and Myiodioctes, belonging to 
the MniotHtidK'., or wood-warblers, which range over all Tem- 
perate North America to Canada^ where all the species are found, 
but in each case one of the species is found in South America, 
probably as a winter migrant. Of the latter, are AmmodramMS 
snAJunco (generaof finches), which range over the whole United 
States, but each have one peculiar species in ( 



[part III. 

may be claimed as exclusively Nearctic genera, on the ground 
that Guatem'ala was recently Nearctic ; and ia now really a 
transition territory, of which the lowlands have heen invaded and 
taken exclusive possession of by a Neotropical fauna, while the 
highlands are still (in part at least) occupied by Nearctic forms. 
In his article on " Birds," in the new edition of the " Ency- 
clopaedia Britannica " (now pubhshing). Professor Newton points 
out, that the number of peculiar genera of Nearctic birds is 
much less than in each of the various sub-divisions of the 
Neotropical region; and that the total number of genera is also 
less, while the bulk of them are common either to the Neo- 
tropical or Palfearctic regions, This is undoubtedly the case 
if any fixed geographical boundary is taken; and it would thus 
seem that the "Nearctic" should, in birds, form a sub-region 
only. But, if we define " Nearctic genera " as above indicated, 
we find a considerable amount of speciality, as the follomng list 
will show. The names not itahcised are those which are repre- 
sented in Mexico or Guatemala by peculiar species : — 

Li>5T OF TrpiCAi. NB4ECTIC Geneka op Land Birds. 

1. Oreoseoptes 

17. Phisnopepla. 

33, EmpiAim 

2, Hamorhyndms 

34. Sphyrapicm 

35. HafcrfoTOiM 

4, Chamcea 

20. Kpilo 

36. Tro^ym 

5. CaUierpes 

21, Junoo 

37. AUU> 

6. Saipmdm 

22. Mdospwa 

23. SpkelU 

24. Pamerculus 

38. Eetopiitm 

1. Peaiir^wus 

a Am-wta~aB 

9. GymnoMtttt 

26. Pocecetee 

41. Cvpidonia 

10. Pwieorvm 

26. AnimocLromus 

? OrtjK 

n. Mniomta. 

27. Oyaaiospisa 

42. OreoHyx 

12. OpoTonig 

28. Pyrrkulo^ 

43. LophoHyx 

44. Cafiipepla 

13. leteiia 


45. Oyrtonyx 

31. Oentronyx 

46. Meleagiis' 

16. Myiodioctes 

32. Neoeorys 

17. MicraStme 

The above are all groups which are either whoUy Nearctic or 
typically so, but entering more or less into the debatable ground 
of the Neotropical region; though none possess any peculiar 
species in the ancient Neotropical land south of Nicaragua. But 
we have, besides these, a number of genera which we are accus- 


a Oorvus 

16. E-uspua 

10. AmpeUs 

17. PhctTopkm 

11. Loxia 

18. Tetraa 

12. Pinicola 

19. Lagopna 

13. Linota 

20. J¥)/cto(ffi 

14. Passerdla 

21. Archiiutec 

15. Lewosticte. 

22. Haliteetus] THE NEARCTIC REGION. 119 

tomed to consider as tj^ieally European, or PalEearctic, having 
representatives in North America ; although in many cases it 
would he more correct to say that they are Nearctic genera, 
represented in Europe, since America possesses more species 
than Europe or North Asia. The following is a list of genera 
which have as much right to he considered typically Nearctic 
as Palfearctic : — 

1. Eegiilua 

2. Cecthia. 

3. Sitta 

4. Pania 

5. Lophophanes 

6. Lanius 

7. Perisoreus 

8. Pica 

The seven genera italicized have a decided preponderance of 
Nearctic species, and have every r^ht to he considered typically 
Nearctic ; while the remainder are so well represented hy peculiar 
species, that it is quite possible many of them may have origi- 
nated here, rather than in the Palfearctic region, all alike being 
quite fore^n to the Neotropical 

On the whole, then, we have 47 in the first and 7 in the second 
table, making 54 genera which we may feirly class as typically 
Nearctic, out of a total of 168 genera of land- birds, or nearly 
one-third of the whole. This is an amount of peculiarity which 
is comparable with that of either of the less isolated regions ; 
and, combined with the more marked and more exclusively 
peculiar forms in the other orders of vertebrates, fully establishes 
Temperate North America aa a region, distinct alike from the 
Neotropical and the Pahearctic 

Eeptiles.- — Although temperate climates are always compara- 
tively poor in reptiles, a considerable number of genera are 
peculiar to the Nearctic region. Of snakes, there are, Conophis, 
ChUommisms, PiUiophis, and Ischnognathus, belonging to the 
Oolubridee; Farancia, and Dimodes, Homalopsidse ; lAchanotus, 
one of the PythonidEC; Cenchris, Crotaiophorus, Uropsophorus, 
and Grotalus, belonging to the CrotalidEe or rattlesnakes. 

Of Lizards, Chirotes, forming a peculiar family ; Ophisaurus, 

Vol. H— 9 



the curious jijlass-snake, belonging to the ZonuridEe ; with Phry- 
nosoma, (commonly called homed toads), daUisaurm, Uia, 
Euphryne, Uma, and Holbrookia, genera of Igiianidse. 

TestudinidEe, or Tortoises, show a great development of the 
genua Emys; with Aromochelys and Ohelydra as peculiar genera. 
-In this class the Ifearctic region is very rich, 
iresentatives of nine of the families, of which two 
are peculiar to the region, and there are no less than fifteen 
peculiar genera. Siren forms the family Sirenidfe ; Menohranckus 
belongs to the Proteidse ; Amphiuma is the only representative 
of the Amphiumidffi; there are nine peculiar genera of Sala- 
mandridje. Among the tail-less batrachians (frogs and toads) we 
have ScapMopus, belonging to the Alytidse ; Pseudacris to the 
Hylid^ ; and Acris to the Polypedatidie. 

Fresh-ivater Fishes. — The Wearctic region possesses no less than 
five peculiar family types, and twenty-four peculiar genera of 
this class. The families are Aphiedoderid^, consisting of a 
single species found in the Eastern States ; Percopsidfe, founded 
on a species peculiar to Lake Superior; Heteropygii, containii^ 
two genera peculiar to the Eastern States ; Hyodontidte and 
Amiidas, each consisting of a single species. The genera are as 
follows: Pamlabrax, found in California; Suro, peculiar to 
Lake Huron ; Pileoma, Ihleosonm, Bryttus and Pomotis in the 
Eastern Staffs — all belonging to the perch family. . Hypodelus 
and Notv/ms, belonging to the SUuridse. Thakichthys, one of 
the Salmonidse peculiar to the Columbia river. Moxostoma, 
Pim&phales, Myborhynchus, MhinicMhys, in the Eastern States ; 
Ericfymba, Exoglossum, Leucostmms, and Garpiodes, more widely 
distributed ; Gocklognathus, in Texas ; Myla^horodon and Oriho- 
don, in California ; Meda, in the river Gila ; and Acrochilus, in 
the Columbia river — all belonging to the Cyprinidee. Scaphi- 
rhyndms, found only in the Mississippi and its tributaries, 
belongs to the stuigeon family (Accipenseridse). 

Summary of Neardic Veriebrata. — The Nearctic region 
possesses 24 peculiar genera of mammalia, 49 of birds, 21 of 
reptiles, and 29 of fresh-water fishes, making 123 in all. Of 
these 70 are mammals and land-birds, out of a total of 242 



genera of these groups, a proportion of about two-sevenths. 
This is the smallest proportion of peculiar genera we have found 
in any of the regions; hut many of the genera are of such 
isolated and exceptional forms that they constitute separate 
families, so that we have no less than 12 families of vertebrata 
confined to the region. The Palfearetic region has only 3 
peculiar families, and even the Oriental r^on only 12; so that, 
judged by this test, the Nearctic region is remarkably well 
characterized. We must also remember that, owing to the 
migration of many of its peculiar forms during the Glacial 
period, it has recently lost some of its speciality ; and we should 
therefore give some weight to the many characteristic groups it 
possesses, which, though not quite peculiar to it, form important 
features in its fauna, and help to separate it from the other 
regions with which it has been thought to be closely allied. It 
is thus well distinguished from the Palsearctic region by its Pro- 
cyonidas, or racoons, ITesperomys, or vesper mice, and Diddfhys, 
or opossums, among Mammalia ; by its VireonidEe, or greenlets, 
Mniotiltidffi, or wood-warblers, leterid^, or hang-nests, Tyran- 
nidffi, or tyrant shrikes, and TrochilidEe, or humming-birds, 
among birds, families which, extending to its extreme northern 
limits must be held to be as truly characteristic of it as of the 
Neotropical region ; by its Teidfe, Igiianida3, and Oinostemum, 
among reptiles ; and by its Silurid^, and Lepidosteidse, among 
fishes. From the Neotropical region it is still more clearly 
separated, by its numerous insectivora ; by its bears ; its Old 
World forms of ruminants ; its beaver ; its numerous Arvioolw, or 
voles ; its Sduropterits, or flying squirrels ; Tamias, or ground- 
squirrels ; and Laxjomys, or marmots, among mammals ; its 
numerous Paridffi, or tits, and Tetraonidse, or grouse, among 
birds ; its TrionychidEe among reptiles ; its Proteidte, and Sala- 
mandridEe, among Amphibia ; and its Gasterosteidffi, Atherinidfe, 
Esocidse, Umbridas, Accipenserida, and Polydoutida, among 

These characteristic features, taken in conjunction with the 
absolutely peculiar groups before enumerated, demonstrate that 
the Nearctic region cannot with propriety be combined with 



any other. Though not very rich, and having many disadvan- 
tages of climate and of physical condition, it is yet sufficiently 
well chaiacterized in its zoological features to rank as one of 
the well-marked primary divisions of the earth's surface. 

There is one other consideration bearing on this question 
which should not be lost sight of. In establishing our regions 
we hare depended wholly upon their now possessing a snfficient 
number and variety of animal forms, and a fair proportion of 
peculiar types ; but when the validity of our conclusion on these 
grounds is disputed, we may supplement the evidence by an 
appeal to the past history of the region in question. In this 
case we find a remarkable support to our views. During the 
whole Tertiary period, North America was, zoologically, far 
more strongly contrasted with South America than it is now; 
while, during the same long series of ages, it was alvi^aya clearly 
separated item the Eastern hemisphere or the Paltearctic region 
by the exclusive possession of important families and numerous 
genera of Mammalia, as shown by our summary of its extinct 
fauna in Chapter VII. Not only may we claim North America 
as now forming one of the great zoological regions, but as having 
continued to be one ever siuce the Eocene period. 


In describing the Palaiarctic and Neotropical regions, many of 
the peculiarities of the insect-fauna of this region have been 
incidentally referred to ; and as a tolerably fuU account of the 
distribution of the several families is given in the fourth Part 
of OUT- work (Chapter XXI.), we shall treat the subject very 
briefly hera 

Zepidoptera. — The butterflies of the Nearctic region have 
lately been studied with much assiduity, and we are now able 
to form some idea of their nature and extent. Nearly 500 
species belonging to about 100 genera have been described ; 
showing that the region, which a few years ago was thought to 
be very poor in species of butterflies, is really much richer than 
Europe, and probably about as rich as the more extensive Palae- 
atctic region. There is, however, very little speciality in the 



forma. A consideraMe number of Neotropical types enter the 
southern States ; but there are hardly any peculiar genera, except 
one of the LycEenidte and perhaps a few among the Hesperidse. 
The most conspicuous feature of the region is its fine group of 
Papilios, belonging to types {P. tuntus and P. troilus) which are 
eliaracteristically Nearctic. It is also as rich as the Paljearctic 
region in some genera which we are accustomed to consider 
as pre-eminently European ; such as Argynnis, Melitma, Grapta, 
Chiondbm, and a few others. Still, we must acknowledge, that 
if we formed our conclusions from the butterflies alone, we could 
hardly separate the Nearctic from the Palsearctic region. This 
identity probably dates from the Miocene period ; for when our 
existing aistic regions supported a luxuriant vegetation, butterflies 
would have been plentiful ; and as the cold came on, these would 
move southwards both in America and Europe, and, owing to the 
long continuance of the generic types of insects, would remain 
little modified till now. 

Coleoptera. — Only a few indications can be given of the 
peculiarities of the Nearctic coleoptera. In Ciciudelidte the 
region possesses, besides the cosmopolite Cidndela, four other 
genera, two of v/hich—Amhlychile and Onvas — are peculiar to 
the West Coast and the Eoeky Mountains. Of Garabidte it 
possesses Sicmlus, Paswnachws, Ewytrickus, ^hmroderus, Pina- 
codera, and a number of smaller genera, altogether peculiar to it ; 
Helluomorpha, Galei-ita, Callida, and TeiTago7U>deras, in common 
with South America ; and a laa^e number of characteristic 
European forms. 

The Lucanidje are all of European types, The region is poor 
in Getoniidfe, but has representatives of the South American 
Euphoria, as well as of four European genera. Of Buprestidae 
it has the South American Adenodes; a single species of the 
Ethiopian and Eastern Bdionota, in California ; and about a 
dozen other genera of European and wide distribution. 

Among Longicorns it possesses fifty-nine peculiar genera, 
representatives of five Neotropical, and thirteen Paltearctic genera; 
as well as many of wider distribution. Pi-ionus is the chief 
representative of the Prionid^ ; Z^tura and Crossid-ius of the 



Cerambycidse ; Leptostylus, Lioptis, Graphidurus, and Tetraopes, 
of the Lamiidas, the latter genus being confined to the region. 

Terrestrial and Fliiviatih Mollusea. 

The land-shells of temperate North America almost all belong 
to the Inoperculate or Pulmonifferous division ; the Operculata 
being represented only by a few species of Helidna and 
Truncatella, chiefly in the Southern States. According to Mr. 
Binney's recent "Catalogue of the Terrestrial Air-breathii^ 
MoUusks of North America," the fauna consists of the following 
genera: — Glandina, (6 sp.); Macfoci/clis (5 sp.); Zonites (37 sp.); 
Vitrina (4 sp.) ; Limax (5 sp.) ; Arion (3 sp.) ; ArioUmax (3 sp.) ; 
Frophysaon (1 sp,) ; Binneia (1 sp.) ; KemipMllia. (1 sp.) ; Patvia 
(16 sp.); Helix (80); Rolospira (2 sp.); Cyli/ndrdla, (2 sp.)^ 
Macroceramiis (2 sp.) ; Bulimultos (8 sp.) ; Cwnella (2 sp.) ; Steno- 
gyra (4 sp.); Pupa, (19 sp.) ; Strophia (1 sp.) ; Vertigo (6- sp.) ; 
Jjiguus (1 sp.) ; Orihalicm (2 sp.) ; Punetwm, (1 sp.) ; Sacdnea 
(26 sp.) ; Tebennophorus (1 sp.) ; Pallifera (1 sp.) ; VeronieeUa 
(2 sp.). 

Ail the larger genera i:ange over the whole region, but the 
following have a more restricted distribution ; Maai-ocyclis has 
only one species in the East, the rest being Califomian or 
Central ; ArioUmax, Prophysaon, Mnneia, and ffemiphillia, are 
confined to the Western sub-region. Lower Cahfomia has 
affinities with Mexico, 1 8 species being pecuhar to it, of which 
two are true Bulimi, a genus unknown in other parts of the 
region. The Central or Rocky Mountain sub-region is chiefly 
characterised by six peculiar species of Patula. The Eastern 
sub-region is by far the richest, nine-tenths of the whole 
number of species being found in it. The Alleghany Mountains 
form the richest portion of this sub-region, possessing nearly 
half the total number of speoies, and at least 24 species found 
nowhere else. The southern States have also several peculiar 
species, but they are not so productive as the AHeghanies. The 
Canadian sub-region possesses 32 species, of which nearly half 
are northern forms more or less common to the v/hole Arctic 
regions, and several of this character have spread southwards all 



over the United States. Species of Vitrina, Zoniies, Pupa, and 
Succinm, are found in Greenland ; and Eastern Pakearctic species 
of Vitrina, Patula, and Pwpa occur in Alaska. More than 30 
species of shells living in the Eastern States, are found fossil 
in the Post-PUocene deposits of the Ohio and Mississippi. 

Fresh-water Shells. — North America surpasses every other part 
of the globe in the number and variety of its fresh- water mollusca, 
both univalve and bivalve. The numbers up to 1866 were as 
follows :— Melaniadas, 380 species ; Paludinidfe, 58 species ; 
Cycladidfe, 44 species ; and TJnionidai, 552 species. The last 
family had, however, increased to 832 species in 1874, according 
to Dr. Isaac Lea, who has. made them his special study ; but it 
is probable that many of these are such as would be considered 
varieties by most conehologiats. Many of the species of Vnio are 
very large, of varied forms, and rich internal colouring, and the 
group forms a prominent feature of the Nearctic fauna. By far the 
larger proportion of the fresh-water shells inhabit the Eastern or 
Alleghany sub-region ; and their great development is a powerful 
argument against any recent extensive submergence beneath the 
ocean of the lowlands of North America. 

The Nearctic Svh-regions. 
The anb-divisions of the Nearctic region, although pretty 
clearly indicated by physical features and peculiarities of 
climate and' vegetation, are by no means so strongly marked 
out in their zoology as we might expect. The same genera, as 
a rule, extend over the whole region ; while the species of the 
several sub-regions are in most cases different. Even the vast 
range of the Rocky Mountains has not been an effectual barrier 
against this wide dispersal of the same forms of life ; and 
although some important groups are limited by it, these are 
exceptions to the rule. Even now, we find fertile valleys and 
plateaus of moderate elevation, penetrating the range on either 
side ; and both to the north and south there are passes which 
can be freely traversed by most animals during the summer. 
Previous to the glacial epoch there was probably a warm period, 
when every part of the range supported an abundant and varied 



feuna, which, when the cold period arrivedj would ( 

the lowlands, and people the cotmtry to the east, west, and 

south, with similar forms of life. 

The first, and most important auh-division we can make, 
the Eastern United States, extending across the 
L and the more fertile prairies, to about the lOO'^h, 
meridian of west longitude, where the arid and almost desert 
country commences. Southwards, the boundary tends towards 
the coast, near the line of the Brazos or Colorado rivers. To 
the north the limits are undefined ; hut as a considerable number 
of species and genera occur in the United States but not in 
Canada, it will he convenient to draw the line somewhere near 
the boundary of the two countries, except that the district 
between lakes Huron and Ontario, and probably Nova Seotia, 
may be included in the present sub-region. As far west as 
the Mississippi, this was originally a vast forest country ; and it 
is still well wooded, and clothed with a varied and luxuriant 

The next, or Central sub-region, consists of the dry, elevated, 
and often arid district of the Eocby Mountains, with its great 
plateaus, and the barren plains of its eastern slope ; extending 
northwards to near the commencement of the great forests north 
of the Saskatchewan, and southward to the Kio Grande del Norte, 
the Gulf of California, and to Cape St. Lucas, as shown on our 
maps. This sub-region is of an essentially desert character, 
although the higher valleys of the Eoeky Mountains are often 
well wooded, and in. these are found some northern and some 
western types. 

The third,or Californian 3ub-region,is small,but very luxuriant, 
occupying the comparatively narrow strip of country between the 
Sierra Nevada and the Pacific. To the north it may include Van- 
couver's Island and the southern part of British Columbia, while 
to the south it extends to the head of the Gulf of California. 

The fourth division, comprises the remainder of North America ; 
and is a country of pine forests, and of ban-en wastes towards 
the Arctic Ocean. It has fewer peculiar species to characterise 
it than any other, but it possesses several characteristic arctic 



forms, while many of those peculiar to the south are ahsent ; so 
that it is a very coavenient, if it should not be considered an 
altogether natural, sub-region. 

We will now give an outline of the moat important zoological 
features of each of these divisions, taking them in the order 
in which they are arranged in the J'ourth Part of this work. 
California comes first, as it has some tropical forms not found 
elsewhere, and thus forms a transition from the Neotropical 

/. The Western or Oalifornian Sub-region. 

This small district possesses a fruitful soil and a highly 
favourable climate, and is, in proportion to its extent, perhaps 
the richest portion of the continent, both zoologically and botan- 
ieally. Its winters are far milder than those of the Eastern 
States in corresponding latitudes ; and this, perhaps, has enabled 
it to support several tropical forms which give a special character 
to its fauna. It is here only, in the whole region, that hats of 
the families PhyUoetomidfe and Noctilionida), and a serpent of 
the tropical family, Pythonidie, are found, as well as several 
Neotropical forms of birds and reptiles. 

Mammalia. — The following genera are not found in any other 
part of the Nearctic region, Macrotus (Phyllostomida;), one 
species in California ; Antrozous (VeapertilionidEe), one species 
on the West Coast ; Uroirichus (TalpidEe) one species in British 
Columbia; sub-genus Neaorez (Soricidie), one species inOregon ; 
.Fassans (Procyonidffi), California; Eiihydra (Mustelidas), Pacific 
Coast; Morwnga, (Phocidte), Cahfomia; Haploodon (Haploodon- 
tidje) a rat-like animal, allied to the beavers and marmots, and 
constituting a peculiar family found only in California and 
British Columbia. The following characteristic Nearctic forms 
also extend into this sub-region : — Taxidea, Frocyon, Didelphys, 
Sciuropterus, Tamias, Spermophilus, Dipodonvys, Perognathm, 

Birds. — Few genera of birds are quite peculiar to this sub- 
region, since most of the Western forms extend into the central 
district, yet it has a few. Qlaucidiwm a genus of Owls, is confined 



(in the Kearctic region) to California ; Ohamcea, a singular form 
allied to the wrens, and forming a distinct family, is quite pecu- 
liar; Geococcyx, a Neotropical form of cuckoOj extends to California 
and Southern Texas. The following genera are very character- 
istic of the suh-region, and some of them almost confined to 
it : Myiadestes (Sylviidffi) ; PaaUripanis (Paridje) ; Cyanodtta, 
Pidconms (Corvidte) ; ffesperiphona, Pmccea, Ghondestes {Fringil- 
lidte) ; Selasphorus, Atthis (Trochilidae) ; Columha, Melopelia 
(ColumbidEe) ; 0-reorlyx (Tetraonidas). 

£q>Hks.— The following genera are not found in any other 
part of the Nearctic region: Charina (Tortricidte) ; Lichanotiis 
(Pythonidje) ; Gerrkanot'iis (Zonuridaj) ; Phyllodaetylus (Geeko- 
tidfe) ; Anolius and Tropidolepis (Iguanid^e). Sceloporus (Igu- 
anidee) is only found elsewhere in Florida. All the larger North 
American groups of lizards and snakes are also represented here ; 
but in tortoises it is deficient, owing to the absence of lakes and 
large rivers. 

Amphibia. — California possesses two genera of Salamandridte, 
Anddes and Iferedia, which do not extend to the other sub- 

Fresh-water Fish. — There are two or three peculiar genera of 
Cyprinid^, but the sub-region is comparatively poor in this 

Plate XVIII. Elustraiive of the Zoology of California and the 
Eodsy Mountains. — We have chosen for the subject of this illus- 
tration, the peculiar Birds of the Western mountains. The two 
birds in the foreground are a species of grouse {Pediocmtes Gohitn- 
iianm), entirely confined to this sub-region ; while the only other 
species of the genus is found in the prairies north and west of 
Wisconsin, so that the group is peculiar to northern and western 
America, The created birds in the middle of the picture 
(Oreortyx pieia), are partridges, belonging to the American sub- 
family Odontophorinta This is the only species of the genua 
which is confined to California and Or^on. The bird at the 
top is the blue crow {GymnoMtta cyanocephala), confined to the 
Eocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada from New Mexico and 
Arizona northwards, and more properly belonging to the Central 





Sub-region. It is allied to the European nutcracker ; but ao- 
cordingto the American ornithologist, .Dr. Cones, haa also resem- 
blances to the jays, and certainly forma a distinct genus. The 
grizzly bear {Ursvs ferox) in the background, is one of the 
characteristic animals of the Califomian highlands. 

//. Tke Central, or Rocky Mountain Sub-region, 
This extensive district is, for the greater part of its extent, from 
2,000 to 5,000 feet above the sea, and is excessively arid ; and, 
except in the immediate vicinity of streams and on some of the 
higher slopes of the mountains, is almost wholly treeless. Its 
zoology is therefore peculiar. Many of the moat characteristic 
genera and families of the Eastern States are absent ; -while a 
number of curious desert and alpine "forms give it a character 
of its own, and render it very interesting to the naturalist, 

MaTii/malia. — The remarkable prong-homed antelope {Antilo- 
capra), the mountain goat (Aplocerus), the mountain sheep or 
bighorn (Ovts tnoniana), and the prairie-dc^ {Cynomys), one of 
the Eodentia, are peculiar to this sub- region; while the family 
of the Saccomyidfe, or pouched rats, is represented by many forms 
and is very ebaraeteristie. Here is also the chief home of the 
bison. The glutton (Gulo) and marmot (Zagomys) enter it from 
the north; while it has the racoon (Procyori), flying squirrel {Seiu- 
ropterus), ground squirrel (Tamias), pouched marmot {^permo- 
pMlus) and jumping mouse (Jaculus) in common with the 
countries east or west of it, 

I^ate XIX. Illustrative of the Zoology of the Central Plains or 
Frairies. — -We here introduce four of the most ehai'acteristic 
mammalia of the great American plains or prairies, three of them 
being types confined to North America. The graceful animals on 
the left are the prong-horned antelopes (Antilocapra americana), 
whose small horns, though hollow like those of the ante- 
lopes, are shed annually like those of the deer. To the right 
we have the prairie-dogs of the trappere {Cynomys ludovi- 
danus) which, as will be easily seen, are rodents, and allied 
to the marmots of the European Alps, Their burrows are 
numerous on the prairies, and the manner in which they perch 



themselves on little mounds and gaze on intruders, is noticed by 
all travellers. On the left, in the foreground, is one of the 
extraordinary pouched rats of America {Geomys hursarms). 
These are burrowing animals, feeding on roots; and the mouth is, 
as it were, double, the outer portion very wide and hairy, behind 
which is the small inner mouth. Its use may be to keep out the 
earth from the mouth while the animal is gnawing roots. 
A mouth so constructed is found in no other animals but in 
these i^orth American rats. In the distance is a herd of 
bisons (Bison americanus), the typical beast of the prairies. 

Birds. — This sub-region has many pecuHar forms of birds, 
both residents, and migrants from the south or north. Among 
the pecuhar resident species we may probably reckon a dipper, 
{Ginclus) ; Salpindes, one of the wrens ; Poospisa, Calamospiza, 
genera of finches ; Ficicorvm, GymnoJeitia-, genera of the crow 
family; Centrocerms and Fedioccetes, genera of grouse. As 
winter migrants fixim the north it has Leucosticte and Flectro- 
phimes,' g&nera. of finches; Perisnreus, a genus of the crow 
femily ; Ficoides, the Arctic woodpecker ; and Lagopus, ptar- 
migan. Its summer migrants, many of which may be resident 
in the warmer districts, are more numerous. Such are, Oreos- 
coptus, a genus of thrushes ; CampylorhyncJms and Cat/ierpes, 
wrens ; Paroides, one of the tits ; Fhcenopepla, allied to the 
waxwing; Emhernagra and Spei-mophila, genera of finches; 
Fyroeephalus, one of the tyrant shrikes ; GalHpepla&nd Cyrtonyx, 
American partridges. Besides these, the more widely spread 
genera, Rarporhynchms, Lophophanes, Garpodaeus, Spizdla, and 
Cyanodtta, are characteristic of the central district, and two genera 
of humming-birds — Aithis and Sdasphorus — only occur here and 
in California. Prof. Baird notes 40 genera of birds which are re- 
presented by distinct allied species in the western, central, and 
eastern divisions of the United States, corresponding to our 
sub- regions. 

It is a curious fact that the birds of this sub-region should 
extend across the Gulf of California, and that Cape St. Lucas, 
at the southern extremity of the peninsula, should be decidedly 
more " Central " than " Californian " in its ornithology. Prof, 





Baird says, that its fauna is almost identical with that of the 
Gila Eiver, and has hardly any relation to that of Upper 
California. It possesses a considerable number (about twenty) 
of peculiar species of birds, but all belong to genera character- 
istic of the present suh-regiou ; and there is no resemblance to 
the birds of Mazatlan, just across the gulf in the Neotropical 

Reptiles, Amphibia, and Fishes.— A large mimber of snakes 
and lizards inhabit this sub-region, but they have not yet 
been classified with sufScient precision to enable us to make 
much use of them. Among lizards, Iguanidse, Geckotidje, 
Scineidfe, and ZonuridEe, appear to be numerous ; and many 
new genera of doubtful value have been described. Among 
snakes, Calamariidte, Colubrid*, and Crotalidaj are represented. 
Among Amphibia, Siredon, one of the Proteidte, is peculiar. 
The rivers and lakes of the Great Central Basin, and the 
Colorado Eiver, contain many peculiar forms of Cyprinid^e. 

III. The Eastern m' Alleghany StA-region. 
This sub-r^ion contains examples of all that is most charac- 
teristic of Nearctie zoology. It is for the most part an undu- 
lating or mountainous forest-clad country, with a warm or 
temperate climate, but somewhat extreme in character, and 
everywhere abounding in animal and vegetable life. To the west, 
across the Mississippi, the country becomes more open, gradually 
rises, becomes much drier, and at length merges . into the arid 
plains of the central sub-region. To the south, in Geoigia, 
Florida, and Louisiana, a sub-tropical cKmate prevails, and 
winter is almost unknown. To the north, in Michigan and New 
England, the winters are very severe, and streams and lakes are 
frozen for months together. These different climates, however, 
produce little effect on the forms of animal life ; the species to 
some extent change as we go from north to south, but the same 
types everywhere prevail. This portion of the United States, 
having been longest inhabited by Europeans, has been more 
thoroughly explored than other parts of North America ; and to 
this more complete knowledge its superior zoological richness 



may be to some extent due; but there eaa be little doubt that it 
is also positively, and not merely relatively, more productive in 
varied forms of animal life than either of the other sub-regions. 

Mammalia. — There seems to be only one genus absolutely 
peculiar to this sub-region — the very remarkable Condylura, or 
star-nosed mole, only found from Pennsylvania to Nova Scotia, 
and as far as about 94° west longitude. It also has opossums 
{Didelphys) in common with California, and three out of four 
species of Scalops, a genus of moles ; as well as the skunk 
{Mephitis), American badger {Tawidea), racoon (Proq/on), pouched 
rat (Qeomys), beaver rat (Fiber), jumping mouse {Jac^dm), tree 
porcupine (Erethison), and other characteristic Kearctie forms. 

Birds. — The birds of this sub-region have been carefully 
studied by American naturalists, and many interesting facts 
ascertained as to their distribution and migrations. About 120 
species of birds are peculiar to the east coast of the "United 
States, but only about 30 of these are residents all the year 
round in any part of it ; the bird population being essentially 
a migratory one, coming from the north in winter and the south 
in summer. The largest number of- species seems to be congre- 
gated in the district of the Alleghany mountains. A consider- 
able proportion of the passerine birds winter in Central America 
and the West Indian Islands, and go to the Middle States or 
Canada to breed ; so that even the luxuriant Southern States do 
not possess many birds which may be called permanent resi- 
dents. Thus, in East Pennsylvania tliere are only 52, and in 
the district of Oolumbia 54 species, found all the year round, 
out of about 130 which breed in these localities ; very 
much below the number which permanently reside in Great 

This sub-region is well characterised by its almost exclusive 
possession of Mclopistes, the celebrated passenger pigeon, whose 
enormous flocks and breeding places have been so often de- 
scribed; and Ou^onia, a remarkable genus of grouse. The 
only Nearctic parrot, Gonv/rus earolinerms, is found in the 
Southern States ; as well as Crotophaga, a South American 
genus usually associated with the cuckoos. Helmintk&rus and 



Oporomis, genera of wood-warblers, may be considered to be 
peculiar to this sub-region, since in each case only one of the 
two species migrates as far as Central America ; while two other 
genera of the same family, Siuras and Betophaga, as well as the 
finch genus, Ewspiza, do not extend to either of the western 
sub-regions. Parus, a genus of tits, comes into the district from 
the north; Otocorys, an alpine lark, and Cotwrniculus, an American 
finch, fix)m the west ; and such characteristic Nearctic genera as 
Artirosiomus (the whip-poor-will goatsuckers) ; Helminthophaga, 
DmdT<Bca, and Myiodioetes (wood- warblers) ; Vireo (greenlets) ; 
Solichonyx (rice-bird) ; QaiscaJus (troupial) ; Meleagris (turkey) ; 
and Ortyx (American partridge), are wide-spread and abundant. 
In Mr. J, A, Allen's elaborate and interesting paper on the birds 
of eastern North America, he enumerates 32 species which breed 
only in the more temperate portions of this province, and may 
therefore be considered to be especially characteristic of it. 
These belong to the following genera : — Turdus, Gahoscoptes, 
Hhrporhynohus, Sialia, Bendrwca, Wilsonia, Pp-anga, Vireo, 
Laniinfeo, Zc^hophanes, Cotvmdmlus, Ammodromus, ^pizdla, 
Euspisa, Hedymeles, Cywnospim, Fipilo, Gardinalis, Icterus, 
Cormis, Centurus, Melanerpes, Antrostomus, Coccysm, Ortyx, and 

Bq>tUes. — In this class the Eastern States are rich, possessir^ 
many peculiar fonns not found in other parts of the region. 
Among snalces it has the genera Paranoia and Dimodes belong- 
ing to the fresh-water snakes (Homalopsidfe) ; the South Ameri- 
can genus Maps ; and 3 genera of rattlesnakes, Cenckris, 
Crotcdophorus, and Crotalus. The following genera of snakes 
are said to occur in the State of New York : — Coluber, Tropido- 
jiotus, LeptopMs, Calamaria, Heterodon, Trigonocephalus, Crotalns, 
Psammophis, Helicops, Mhinostoma, Pituopli/is, and Maps. 

■ Among lizards, Ohirotes, forming a peculiar family of Amphia- 
benians, inhabits Missouri and Mexico; while the remarkable 
glass-snake, OpMsau/nts, belonging to the family Zonuridic, is 
peculiar to the Southern States; and the South American 
Sphcm)dactylus, one of the gecko family, reaches Florida. 
Other genera which extend as far north as the State of New 



York are, Scincus, Tropidol&pis, Phstiodon, Lygosoina, Ameiva, and 

Tortoises, especially the fresh-water Idnd, are very abun- 
dant j and the genera Aromochelys, Chelydra, Terrapene, and 
Trionyx, are nearly, if not quite, confined to this division of the 

Amphibia. — Almost aU the remarkable forms of Urodela, or 
tailed batracliians, peculiar to the region are fotmd here only; such 
aa Siren and Pseudohranchus, constituting the family Sirenidse ; 
Mmtobranchus, allied to the Proteits of Europe ; ATiipMwtna, an 
eel-like creature with four rudimentary feet, constitutii^ the 
family Amphiumidte; Ifotopthalmus, Desmognathus, and Meno- 
poma, belonging to the Salamandridse ; together with several 
other genera of wider ranged Of Anura, or tail-less batraebians, 
there are no peculiar genera, but the Neotropical genus of toads, 
Engystoma, extends as far as South Carolina. 

Fishes. — Owing to its possession of the Mississippi and the 
great lakes, almost all the peculiar forma of North American 
fishes are confined to this sub-region. Suph are Perca, IHleoma, 
Huro, Sryttus, and Poniotis (Percidte) ; the families Aphi^edode- 
ridcE and Percopsidte ; several genera of CyprinodontidEe and 
Cyprinidffi ; and the family Polydontid». 

Islands of the Alleghany Sv^-region. 
The Bermudas. — These islands, situated in the Atlantic, about 
700 miles from the coast of Carolina, are chiefly interesting for 
the proof they afford of the power of a great variety of birds to 
cross so wide an extent of ocean. There are only 6 or 8 species 
of biiils which are permanent residents on the islands, all com- 
mon North American species; while no less than 140 species 
have been recorded as visiting them. Most of these are 
stragglers, many only noticed once ; others appear frequently 
and in great numbers, but very few, perhaps not a dozen, come 
every year, and can he considered regular migrants. The per- 
manent residents are, a greenlet ( Vireo noBebwacmsis), the cat- 
bird (Galeo&coptes earoUnensis), the blue bird {Sialia sktlis), the 
cardinal (Cardinalis mrginianiis), the American crow (Gorvus 



Ks), and the ground dove (Ghamcepelia passerina). The 
most regular visitants are a kingfisher (Geryle cdcyon), the wood- 
wagtail (Siv/rus noveboracensis), the rice-bird (Dolichonyx oryzivo- 
rus), and a moorhen {QallinvXa gahata). Besides the American 
species, four European birds have been taken at the Bermudas : 
Saxicola cenwnihe, Alauda a-rvensis (perhaps introduced), Orex 
pratmds, and Scolopax gallinago. 

A common American lizard, Plestiodon longirostris, is the only- 
land reptile found on the islands. 

IV. The Sub-Ardic or Canadian Sub-region. 

This sub-region servea to connect together the othSr three, 
since they all merge gradually into it; while to the north it 
passes into the ciroumpolar zone which is common to the Palte- 
arctic and Nearctio regions, The greater portion of it is an exten- 
sive forest-district, mostly of coniferse; and where these cease 
towards the north, barren wastes extend to the polar ocean. It 
possesses several northern or arctic forms of Mammalia, such as 
the glutton, leroming, reindeer, and elk, which barely enter the 
more southern sub-regions ; as well as the polar bear and arctic 
fox ; but it also has some peculiar forms, and many of the most 
characteristic Kearctic types. The remarkable musk-sheep 
(Ovibos) is confined to this sub-region, ranging over a con- 
siderable extent of country north of the forests, as well as 
Greenland. It has been extinct in Europe and Asia since the 
Post-pliocene epoch. Such purely Kearctic genera as Procyon, 
Latax, Erethkon, Jaculus, Fiber, Thomomys, and HesperoTnys, 
abound, many of them ranging to the shores of Hudson's Bay 
and the barren wastes of northern Labrador. Others, such as 
Blarina, Condylura, and Mejihitis, are found only in Ifova Scotia 
and various parts of Canada. About 20 species of Mammalia 
seem to be peculiar to this sub-region. 

Plate XX. IlhistratiTig the Zoology of Canada.'—'We have 
here a group of Mammalia characteristic, of Canada and the 
colder parts of the United States. Conspicuous in the fore- 
ground is the skunk {Mepkitis mephiticd), belonging to a genus 
of the weasel family fouiid only in America. This animal is 

ToL. n,— 10 



celelirated for its power of ejectiug a terribly offensive HcLuid, the 
odour of whi<;h is almost intolerable. The skunks are nocturnal 
animals, and are generally marked, as iu the species represented, 
with conspicuous bands and patches of white. This enables 
them to be easily seen at n^ht, and thus serves to warn larger 
animals not to attack them. To the left is the curious little 
jumping mouse (Jamlus hudsonim), the American representative 
of the Palffiarctic jerboa. Climbing up a tree on the left is the 
tree porcupine (Erethision dorsatus), belonging to the family Cer- 
colabidte, which represents, on the American continent, the por- 
cupines of the Old "World. In the hackground is the elk or 
moose (Akes americaniis), perhaps identical with the European 
elk, and the moat striking inhabitant of the northern forests of 
America, as the bison is of the prairies. 

Birds. — Although the Canadian sub-r^on possesses very few 
j^ident birds, the numbers which breed in it are perhaps greater 
than, in the other sub-regions, because a large number of circum- 
polar species are found here exclusively. From a comparison of 
Mr. Allen's tables it appears, that more than 200 species are 
regular migrants to Canada in the breeding season, and nearly 
half of these are land-birds. Among them are to be found a 
considerable number of genera of the American families Tyran- 
nidie and Mniotiitidee, as well as the American genera Sialia, 
Progne, Vireo, Cisiothm-us, Juneo, IHpilo, Zonotrichia, Spizella, 
Mdospiza, Molothrm, Affelcem, Gpanura, Spkyra^cus, and many 
others ; so that the ornithology of these northern regions is still 
mainly Nearctic in character. Besides these, it has such specially 
northern forms as Surma (Strigidfe) ; Piandes (Picidse) ; Pinicola 
(Frii^Ulidte) ; as well as Leucosticte, Plectr<yphanes, Pm-isorem, 
and Lagopus, which extend further south, especially in the middle 
suh-region. No less than 212 species of birds have been col- 
lected in the new United States territory of Al^ka (formerly 
Russian America), where a humming-bird (Sdasphom^ rufiis) 
breeds. The great majority of these are typically American, 
including such forms as Colaptes, Selminthophaga, Siwms, Detv- 
drcBca, Myiodioctes, Passerctdus, Zonotrichia, Jtmco, Spizdla, 
Passerella, Scohopliagas, Fediocetes, a 



-«5 ., « w. . . . ".i . 




together with roany northern birds common to both conti- 
nents. Yet a few Paltearctic formSj not known in other parts 
of the sub-region, appear here. These are Budytes fla-m,, Phyl- 
loscopus ixnmcottii, and Pyrrhida coceinea, all belonging to 
genera not occurring elsewhere in North America. Considering 
the proximity of the district to North-east Asia, and the high 
probability that there was an actual land connection at, and 
south of, Behring's Straits, in late Tertiary times, it is somewhat 
remarkable that the admixture of Paljearcticand Nearctic groups 
is not greater than it is. The Paltearctic element, however, forms 
so small a portion of the whole fauna, that it may be satisfactorily 
accounted for by the establishment of immigrants since the 
Glacial period. The great interest felt by ornithologists in the 
discovery of the three genera above-named, with a wren allied to 
a European species, is an indication that the faunas even of the 
northern parts of the Nearctic and Palffiarctic regions are, as 
regards birds, radically distinct It may be mentioned that the 
birds of the Aleutian Isles are also, so far as known, almost 
whoRy Nearctic. The number of land-birds known from Alaska 
ia 77; and from the Aleutian Isles. 16 species, all of which, 
except one, are North American. 

Entiles. — These are comparatively few and unimportant. 
There are however five snakes and three tortoises which are 
limited to Canada proper ; whUe further north there are only 
Amphibia, represented by frogs and toads, and a salamander of 
the genus Plethodon. 

Fishes. — Most of the groups of fresh- water fish of the Nearctic 
region are represented here, especially those of the perch, 
salmon, and pike families ; but there seem to be few or no peculiar 

Insects. — These are far le^s , numerous than in the more 
temperate districts, but are still tolerably abundant. In Canada 
there are 53 species of butterflies, viz., Papilionidee, 4; Pieridse, 
2 ; NymphalidEC, 21 ; Satyridte, 3 ; Lycffinidffi 16, and Hesperidte 
7. Most of these are, no doubt, found chiefly in the southern 
parts of Canada. That Coleoptera are pretty numerous is 
shown, by more than 800 species having been collected on the 



shores of Lake Superior; 177 being Geodephaga and 39 

Greenland.— -This great arctic island must be considered as 
belonging to the Nearctic region, since of its six land mammals, 
three are exclusively American {Myodestorguatiis,Le'pus g 
and Ovibos mosehalus), while the other three (Vulpes I 
Ursus maritimus, and Bangifer t(vrandm) are circwmpolar. Only 
fourteen land-birds are either resident in, or regular migrants to 
the country; and of these two are European (Sal-keetus albieilla, 
and Faleo peregrinus), while three are American {Anthus ludovi- 
damis, Zonotriehia Jetuxyphrys, and Lagofus rupestris), the rest 
being arctic species common to both continents. The waders 
and aquatics (49 in number) are nearly equally divided between 
both continents; but the land-birds which visit Greenland as 
stragglers are mostly American. Yet although the Nearctic 
element somewhat preponderates, Greenland really belongs to 
that circumpolar debateahle land, which is common to the two 

Concludmg remarks, — ^We have already discussed pretty fully, 
though somewhat incidentally, the status and relations of the 
Nearctic region ; lirst in our chapter on Zoological regions, then 
in our review of extinct faunas, and lastly in the.earlier part of 
this chapter. It will not therefore be necessary to go further 
into the question here ; but we shall, in our next chapter, give 
a bri^f summary of the general conclusions we have reached as 
to the past history and mutual zoological relations of all the 
great divisions of the earth. 




In drawing up these tables, showing the distritution oi' 
various clasaes of animals in the Wearctic region, the following 
sources of information have heen chiefly relied on, in addition to 
the general treatises, monographs, and catalogues used in the com- 
pilation of the 4th Part of this work. 

Mammalia. — Professor Baird's Catalogue ; Allen's List of the 
Bats; Mr. Lord's List for British Columbia ; Brown, for Green- 
land ; Packard for Labrador. 

.Sir&.—Baird, Cassin, and Allen's Lists for United States ; 
Eichardson'a Fauna Boreali Americana; Jones, for Bermudas; 
and papers by Brown, Cones, Lord, Packard, Dall, and Professor 





Names in iialics show the families which are pecuHar to tiio region. 

Kamea inclosed tiius ( ) show families which barely enter, tie region, and a 

considered properly to belong to "' 
Numbers correspond tc "^' ' 

is of numbers to the families 

Oraer and Family. 

10. PhylloBtoiiiidio 

12. Veapertiliouidte 

13. Noctilionidie . , . 


21. Talpidffi 

22. Sorieidce 


23. Felidte ... 
28. Couidfe ... 

Ursidw ., 


Mnridffl ... 

1 si I 

Tropical regions 

i, exeL Australia 

All regions but the Australifln 

All regions but the Australian 

All regions but the Australian 


Paltearctie, Onental 

N. and S. temperate zones 

N. and ST tempernta zones 

All other continents but Aui,tralia 

All regions but EtJiiopnn ind Australian 

Paloearctic, Ethiojian, Ouental 

Almost cosmopohte 
Paltearetio, Ethiopian 
Mcsiean sub region 

All regions but lu'tralian 




Ordered Family. 

Kange beyond the Upgion. 


= 1 






82. HaploodontidcE 


66. Cercolabidie ... 


69. Lagomyids ... 

70. Leporidse ... 






All regions but Auattalkn 


76. Didelphyids... 






1. TurdidK 





Almost cosmopolite 

2. SylviidR 

B. dnelid^ „. 

Almost eoamopolito 

Paliearotie, Oriental, Andes 

6. Troglodjlids 

All regions but Australiim 

7. Chrmaidie ... 

&. Certhiidffl ... 

Palsesrctic, Oriental, Australian 

9. Sittida 

Palrearctio, Orientfll, Ausfaalmi 

10. Paridas 

The Eastern Hemisphere 

19. Lanudte 

20. Comdie 


2S. (CcereHdie) ... 

Neotropical family 

27. Mniotiltidie ... 

S8. Tireonidse ... 


29. Ampelid^ ... 

Paliearctic, Antilles, Guatemala 


81. Ictatidw 


82. Tanagridw ... 


33. FringilUdM ... 

All regions but Australian 

37. AlaudidK ... 

All regions but Neotropical 

88. Motecillidffl ... 



39. Tjrannidie ., 







ei. Pieid^ 





All rEgioca but Australian 

68. Cnculidfe ... 

67. Alcadinidea ... 

74. nypseHdffl ... 

Almost cosmopolite 

75. Troohilidw ... 







80. ConuridoB 




8i. Colwnbidffi ... 











Almost cosmopolite 

88. Phasianidio ... 

Pal^aretie, Onental, Ethiopian, Hondu 

91. (Cracida} .„ 






84. Vnlturidse ... 
96. Faleonidw ... 
87. PaudioaidsB... 
98. Strigidffi 

89. Ballids 
100. Scolapmdie,.. 

HE. Anatid* 

119. Laridffi.., 

120. Procellaiiidie 

121. PelecanidEe ... 
133. ColymMdffi ... 
12*. Podjoipid^ ,. 
125. Alcidie 

B. Cdamariidie ... 

6. OUgodontidie... 

7. Colubiid^ 

8. Homalopsidie 
17. PythonidK ... 

20. Klapid£B 

24. Crotalid^ 

27. Chiratidce 

33. Teid« 

Zi. Zonuiidce 
36. Chalcid^ 
45, SoincidEe 
49. Geckotidte ,., 
GO. Iguauidie 


56. AlligatoridEe ... 

67. TestndinidfB ... 
59. Trionychidie.., 

Range beyond the Regtoc 

All regions but Australian 




Forth temperate and aretio z< 


Forth temperate and oictic zi 

All the regions 

Neotropical, Oriental, Japan 

Almost cosmopolite 

All the re^ona 

AH tropical Tenons 

All tropical regions, Jspim 

Neotropical, Palteaiotie, Oriental 



AU regions liut Australian. 


Almost cosmopolite 

Almost cosmopolite 


All continents bnt Australian 
Etliiopian, Oriental, Japan 




Order and Family. 





Range Tieyond the Region. 






2. Sirmida 

3. Proteidte 


i. Amphmmid/E 






Andes, Paliearctio 


10. BnfonidK -. 





All continents but Australia 

12. -Engyatomidie.. 

All regions bet Nearctio 

15. AlytidiB 

AH regions Ijut Oriental 

17. HyUdK 

19.' Eani^ 

All regions but Ethiopian 

AU tbe regions 








1. GasterosteidiH 






8. PareidK 


12, Scienidto 

All regions but Australian 

37. AtheriuidiB ... 







59. SUuridie 





All warm remons 
Paltearctic, Few Zealand 

70, Eeooidm 


71. UmbridfB ... 


73. Oyprinodontidte 

All regions but Australian 

76. Cyprimdfe ... 

Not in S. America or Australia 

77. Hyodoniidm ... 






93. Awiidw 





95. LepidostfMfB ... 

96. AcoipenseridiB 

97. Polydontid^.,. 






DiiriiNi (BuTiEa- 


1. Danaidffi 

All warm regions 

2. SatyridiB 


7. (Helieotiid^)... 






Oraar anS Family. 





Kaoge bcv=nd tha E*5i™. 

8. Nymplialwte... 

9. Libytheidse ... 
12. Erycinidai ... 

15. Lyoteiiidas ... 
U. Pieridte 

16. Hesperidw ... 

17. Zygfeniite .... 

18. Castniidffl ... 

22. Jigeriidtc 

23. Sptiingids ... 







Neutiopical, Aiistiilian 







Names in italics show genera peculiar to the re^on. 

Names enclosed thus (...) indicate genera which barely enter the region, and are 

considered properly to belong to it. 
Genera properly belonging to the region are numbered 


Order, Pamilj, and 


Hangs within the Eeglon, 

Eaiigo beyonS the Ecgioti, 



1 MocTotus 


Mesieo, Antilles 


2 Seotophilus 
8 Vesjieitiho 
i. Nyctioejna 

5 Laeiurns 

6 Syrtotus 

7 Aui,omis 

Universil, to Hudson's Bay 
Universal, to HudaoTv's Bay 
Soutb and East 

Temp. N. Amer. to Noya Scotia 
S. E. and Central States 
W. Coast 

Neotr., Orient., Austral. 

India, Tropical Africa, 
temperate S. America 
Tropical America 


8 Nyctinomus 


Cal, and S. Central Sub-region 

Neotropical, Oriental. P. 

9 CmidyUm 
10 "icapaTtus 

12 Utotnchus 

Eastern N. America 

How York to San Fmneiseo 

9. of Great LakesSi Brit, Columb. 

British Columbia 



IS Sores 

14 Neoaorei 

15 Blanna 


The whole region 

Vancouver's Island (a sub-gonus) 

Palicarc, Ethiop., Orieu 



16. Telia 

17. Lynx 


S. of 55° N. Latitude 
S. ,of 56" N. Latitude 

Allregs. but Australian 

VOL. 11. 



22 Gulo 

23 Lataa. 

24 Enhydns 

25 Ta'adea 

26 Mephitis 


27 Pioc^on 

3(1 Callorhinus 
31 ZalopliTis 


3^ Callooephalna 

34 Pagomj? 

36 Pagophilua 

36 Haheyon, 

37 Phoca 

88 Haliclirerua 

S"* MdUDta 

40 Cyatophoia 


41. Diootyles... 


42. Alces 


45. Bison 

46. Antilocap^a 

AH IT. America 

N. America to Arctic Ocean and 

Koeltj Mountains and Canada 
United States and Canada 
Pacific coast 

■ ' csas to 58° N. Lat. 
United States and Canada 

If. America and Greenland 

Behring'e Straits 

S. California to N". Pacific 

California to Beliring's Stmts 


B". Atlantic and N. Pacific 

N. Atlantic and H. Pacific 

"S. W. coast of America 

Northern Coast 




Texas to Ked Riper, Art 

N. E. United States & Canada 
Maine to Arctic Ocean & Greenl, 
N". America to 57° H. Lat. 

Palssaretie, Oriental 
Porn, Paliearctic, Ethio- 
pian, Oriental 
N. Pahearotio 

W. coast of S. Americii 


Paliearctic, Oriental 





S. temperate shore* 

F, Atlantic 

!N. Palsearctic 

Neotr., Palmare, Orien. 

Between Missouri k 'Botkj Mtna. E. Europe 
Central plains from Kio Grande | 
to British Colombia i 



Order, Family. beiI 



Hnn„r- bojoad tbe Begion. 

47. Aploeeras 

48. Capra 

49. Ombos 

Northern Rixln Monntim 
Uppei MihSdiii lid Eopkj 

11 untiu a nortliwaida 
Ai(,tii- tmcnuiandGiepnlaad 




60 ReithTodoa 
SI HesperomjB 
62 Meotima, 
53 Strmodm 
64. AfTuok 



N. America to Lat 39" N. 

Tempemte N. America 

Temperate S. America 

8. and S. E. States 

Texas and CaJIfornia to Hudson's 

N". United States to Arcfio Eeg. 

acd Greenland 
AH H". America 



55 Myodes 
66 Fibtr 



N. Palwarotic 


57 Ja«/r«s 


Penn^lvania to Canada and Cali- 

58 Jhpodomys 

69 P^ro9?iathm 
fiO Thomomyr, 
61 Gfeom2/3 




New Mexico to Columbia River 

and Cacoliua 
New Meiico to liritish Columbia 
Upper Missouri to Hudson's Bay 
New Mexico to Alabama aad Ne- 
N. Ameiiea 

62 bacmmi/i, 



6S Castor 


H. Mexico to Labrador 


64 Sciuroa 

66 SLinropteruB 

66 Taroina 

97 Srermophilas 

68 Oynomys 

69 Arotomrs 



K. America to Labrador 
California & E. States nortlwda. 
Mexico and Virginia to Canada 
N., W,, & Central B". America 
Bio Grajide to Missouri (Central) 
Virginia and Nebraska, nortliws. 

AH rege. but Australian 
Pal^arctic, Oriental 
Mexico, N. Asia 

S. PalKarctie 


70 Eaploodon 


California and Britiali Columbia 


71 Erfthizon 


Pennsylvania to Canada, & Paci- 
fic coast 

72 Lagomys 


Kooky Mountains, 42° to 60° N, 



7u Lepus 

All B". America to Greenland 

All regs. but Australian 



Order, Family, md 


Rai^ within tha Eegiou. 

Eaage beyond Uie Koglon. 



74. Didelphys ... 


From Hudson's Eiver & Lowev 
California, southward 



1 Turdua 

2 Hunus 

3 GaleoSLOptes 

4 Or/^oscoj/Zes 

f Harpoi hijnckua 

7 S«iZ«! 

8 Regulus 

9 Polioptila 


10 Cmdws 


11 Troglodytea 

12 ThiyopluluB 

13 Thryoftuius 

14 Cistothorns 
{ampvlor J 

hynchiis \ 

15 Salpvnetes 
IS Caiihfr^es 


17 IhamoLa 


15 Certhia 


IJ Sitti 


20 Piirua 

22 P^Uriparua 

23 Junjwi-KS 

The whole region 

All U. States and to Canada 

E of N. America 

Cahfornia and Rocky Mountains 

H America, chiefly the west 

W of Bocky Mortutains attd to 

All United States and to Canada 
AH United Siatas & to Labrador 
f antral and Southern IT. States 

Hoi^ky Mountains and British 

N America 

H W. America 

AU M. America 

N America 

(iila and Rio Grande) 

All United States and Canada 

All United States and Canada 
All United States 
t putrol & Wostj!m H". America 
Eio Orande VaUey 

Almost cosmopolito 


To Panama 

Monico and Guatemala 
Faliearc., Cent. America 

Neotropical, Palsearctic 

Paliearctic, Guatemalii, 

Paltearotie, Mexico 

Paliearc., Orien., Mexico 
Pakearntie, Mexico 
Mexico and Guatemala 





"*Genn3.^' " 


Range within the Region. 

Kange beyond tha Region. 

2i. Unhm 


All K. America 

Paliearc, Ethio., Orient, 


25. Perisoreus 


Caniula and Rocky Mountiiins 


28. Cynnocitta ... 

All United States aud to Canada, 


27. Qipiinokiaa ... 


Central and if. W. States 

28. PiciciwOTis 


Central and Western States to 

2a, Pica 


Central and "Western States to 
Arctic Ocean 


30. Corviia 


All N. America 

Cosmop,, exol. S. Amer, 




Florida; summer migi-aiit) 

Neotrapica! genus 


n MriMliUa 


Eastern States 

AutOlca, Andes of Co- 
lumbia (migrant) 

"1 Paraia 


Eastern States and Canada 


oS Protonotana 


Ohio and Bonthwards 

Neotrop. to Vciieauola 


All K. America 

Mexico to Columbia 

S. and E. States to Canada 

Mfliico to Veragua 

3 b PenasogloBBa 


Eastern United States 


tr Dendrfeca 


All N. America 

Mes to Ecuador aCliili 

3R Oporomis 


Eastern States 

Guatemala and Panama 

%9 Qeotfalypa 


All H. America 


40 '^otophaga 


E. States & Canadian snb-regioii 


41 Mvwdiadm 


United States and Canada 

Mex. to Columb. (migr.) 

42 &mru9 

S. and E. States to Canada 

Mexico to Columbia 

4 J /rf«u( 


E. and Central States to Canada 

Mexico to Costa Eica 


44, ViteosyWi^ ... 


All H. America 

Antilles and Venezuela 

46. Vireo 


All United States 

Antilles and Costa Eica 


4ii Ampclii 


All K America 

J>al«arctic, Guatemala 

47 I /ifBuojiepla 

Gila and Lower Colorado 


4-- Huunlo 


All K. America 

Almost cosmopolite 

49 Pptrucliclidoii 


All N. America 


D.I (ntjl^ 


All N". America 

All regs. but Anstraliau 

ll Stel,idopteiv\ 


Southern States 


W Pi>gnp 


AU N. America 



5a IitPinB 


All United States and Canada 


54 Doli(hon>x 


Eastern States and Canada 


55 Mulothms 

All United States and Canada 


58 Agtlaus 


All United Slntes cmd Canada 






Order, Family, and 


RBDge within Oio Ke^on. 

Range beyond the Heglon. 

67. Xan(ht)ixphalns 

The whole region 


58, SturaeUa ... 


All Uniteii States and Canada 


5&. ScoleamMgys 
60. Qmsoalua 


AilUnited States and Canada 



S. andE. States to Labrador 

Meaieo to Votieznela 


ei. Pyranga 


United Stales and Canada 



62. Chrysomitria.., 


The whole region 

Neotropical, Palffiarctic 

63. Cocoothraustes 


W. and- N, W, Amsrioa 

Pakeai'cfic, Gnatemala 


AU H. America 


66. Fipilo 

Sfi. Mnco 


All United States 

Mexico and Guatemala 

67, ZouotrichiB ... 


The whole legion 



AU United States to Sitka 

Mexico and Guatemala 


N. America 


The whole region 

Northern Asia 

71. Fasserculvs ... 


The whole region 

73. Fo<eeeUs 


An United States 


All United States 

Mexico and Guatemala 


E. and N. of N. America 


76. Peuoffia 


S. AtlflJitic States and California 


78, Oyaaospina ... 


All United States to Canada 

Central American 

77. Pooapiza 


California and S. Central States 


78. Catrmdacua ... 
70. Cardinalis ... 


The whole region 

Mexico, Pal^earctic 


S. and S. Central States 

Mexico to Venezuela 

80. FyrrMlixda .. 

Texas and Bio Grande 

81. Guiraca,,. ^,. 


Sonthern States 


82. Hedymeles ... 


AU United States 

Mexico to Columbia 



Neotropical genua 

83. Loxia 

N. of Pennsylrania 




Boreal America 





E. and N. of N. America 



Alaska to Utah 



Oalotimsphit ... 


Arizona and Texas te Mexico 



Chondeatm . . 


Weatem, Cen., & Sonthern States 





3. Eastern States 

Palteare., Columb. (mig.) 



Boreal America and E. side of 

Eocky Mountains 
Mouth of YcUowstoiie Eiver 


91, O^tronyx ... 



02. OtocoiyB 


High central plains to E. States 

Palasarc., Mexico, Andes 

and Canada 

of ColumHa 


03, Anthus 


The whole region 


94. Meosorys 




65. Sayomis 


E, States to Cafiada, California 

Mexico to Ecuador 



Gila and Rio Grande) 



Empidoiiax ... 


The whole region 

Mexico to Ecuador 



97. Conkipus 

98. Myiarchus 

99. Empidias 
100. Tyi'annuB 



_r. and E, of Koety Mountains 

E. and v. eoasts and Caaada 

Eastern States 

All United States to Canada 


Mexico to Amazonia 
Neotropical genus 

104 Lampeiihilus 

105 Bylatimius 
108 Cetitunis 

107 Melinerpes 

108 Colaptes 

Arctic zone and Rocky Mounts. 
All United States and Canada 
Brit. Columbia and PennsylvatiiB 

United States and Canaila 
E. and W. States and Canada 
The whole i-egion 
United States and S. Canada 
United States and Canada 


All regs. but Eth, !t Au«. 

Mexico and Guatemala 

Mexico to Venezuek 



108 Crotophsga 

110 Coccjzus 

111 Qeococtyi 


112 Ceiyle 

L. States froni Pennsylvani 
;. E. and Cpd. Statesto Canada 
California to New Mex. & t' 


114 Antroatoini" 


117 Trochilvs 

118 Selasphorus 

119 AUhis 


120. Conurus... 


121. Columba 

122. EdopUtes 

The whole region 
W, coast and Centre 
California and Colorado Valley 

S. and 8. E. States 

'. and Central States to C 
E. coaat to Can. plains, Canada 

and Britiah Colurobia 
■W. and S. Central States 
All United States to Canada 
California and S. E. States 

Mexico toVeragna (? mi. 
Mesioo to Vei'agua 
Mexico Xa Guatemala 

Mexico to Varagua 



OrSer, Family, and 


Range within the flegion. 

Eange beyoad Uie Regiun. 



126. Cyrotonyx .. 


9. Central Ststea 

127. Ortyx 


All United States and to Canada 

Mexieo to Hondnras and 
Costa Rica 

128. Calliiwpk ... 




12S. Lf^hoHyx ... 


Arizona and California 


Califomift and Oregon 

131. Tetrao 

N. and N. W. America 


132. Oeiarocerous ... 


Rooky Monntsuna 

133. PtMoecdes ... 


N. and N. W. America 


E.a K. Can. Statas and Canada 

135. Boiiasa 


H. United States and Canada 


136. Logopua 


Arctic zone and to 39° N. Lat. 
m Rocky Mountains 



137. MOeagris ... 


E, and Central States to Canada 

Mexico, Honduras 


(OrtaUda ... 


Hew Mexico) 

Neotropical genus 



Sub Family 
138 CaUianslB 


United States to 40^ K. Lat. 


139 PsnedogrypIuB 


United States to 48= N. LaL 


140 Polyboros 

S States to Florida & California 


141 Cirous 

AW N. America 

Nearly cosmopolite 

142 Antenor 

California and Texas 


143 Astur 

AU H. America 

Almost cosmopolite 

144 Acoipiter 

AU temperate N. America 

145 Tai-hytnoroliis 

New Mexico to California 


146 Bnteo 


AU H". America 

N. Paliearctic 

All N. America 

148 Asturina 

S E. States 


149 Aqmla 

The whole region 


150 Hali'eetus 

AU K America 

All regs. but Neotropical 

151 Hauelenis 

F. coast to Pennsylvania and 





152 Elaniia 

Southern and Western States 

153 Ictinia 

Southern States 

154 Faloo 

The whole recion 

Almost cosmopolite 

IBj Hiorotalui 

N. of N. America 

N. Paisarotic 

158 Corohneis 

All N. America 


157. Pandioii 


Temperate H". America 



Order, Family, and 

158. SornU ... 

159. Hyctsa ... 
IflO. Gkocidiiun 
161. M^alheiie 
183. Pholeoptyiii 
163. Babo ... 
104. Soops ,,. 

165. Syrniiun 

166. Asio 

167. Nyctalo... 

168. Sti-ix ... 


Ai'etic & N. Temperate America 

S. Carolina to Greenland 

Oregon und California 

Arizona and Nbw Mesioo 

H. W. America, Texas 

All N. America 

The whole region 

E. States, Caufomia, Canada 

The whole region 

All W. America 

Temperate N . America 

N. PalieaTetic 

N. Palsearctic 

Neotropical, Pal^earctie 



All regs. but Australian 

Almost Gosmopolite 

All regs. but Australian 

All regs. but Australian 


Almost cosmopolite 

Peoihar or very CharacUristic Genera of Wadiiig and Swimmiiig Birds. 



Micropelma ... 
FUloma ... 



N. America 

Eastern States to Canada 

Andes to Cldli 




W. coast of America 

■West of S. Amw 




Buc«phtaa ... 



Somateria ... 




N. America 

N. America 



Jf. E. America (? extinct) 


Arctic Seas 
North Pfllieaieiic 




California and N. Pacific coasts 




Having now closed our survey of the animal life of the whole 
eaith — a survey which has necessarily heen encumbered with a 
multiplicity of detail — we proceed to summarize the general 
conclusions at which we have arrived, with regard to the past 
history and mutual relations of the great regions into which we 
have divided the land surface of the glohe. 

All the palfeontological, no less than the geological and 
physical evidence, at present available, points to the great land 
masses of the Northern Hemisphere as being of immense anti- 
quity, and as the area in which the higher forms of life were 
developed. In going back through the long series of the Tertiary 
formations, in Europe, Asia, and North America, we iind a 
continuous succession of vertebrate forms, including all the 
highest types now existing or that have existed on the earth. 
These extinct animals comprise ancestors or forerunners of 
all the chief forms now living in the Northern Hemisphere; 
and as we go back farther and farther into the past, we meet 
with ancestral forms of those types also, which are now either 
confined to, or specially characteristic of, the land masses of 
the Southern Hemisphere. Not only do we find that elephants, 
and rhinoceroses, and hippopotami, were once far more abundant 
in Europe than they are now in the tropics, but we also find 
that the apes of West Africa and Malaya, the lemurs of Mada- 
gascar, the Edentata of Africa and South America, and the 



Marsupials of America and Australia, were all represented in 
Europe (and probably also in North America) during the earlier 
part of the Tertiary epoch. These facts, taken in their entirety, 
lead U3 to conclude that, during the whole of the Tertiary and 
perhaps during much of the Secondary periods, the great land 
masses of the earth were, as now, situated in the Northern 
Hemisphere ; and that here alone were developed the successive 
types of vertebrata from the lowest to the highest In the 
Southern Hemisphere there appear to have been three consider- 
able and very ancient land masses, varying in extent from time 
to time, but always keeping distinct from each other, and repre- 
sented, more or less completely, by Australia, South Africa, 
and South America of our time. Into these flowed successive 
waves of Kfe, as they eaeh in turn became temporarily united 
with some part of the northern land. Australia appears to have 
had but one such union, perhaps during the middle or latter part 
of the Secondary epoch, when it received the ancestors of its 
Monotremata and Marsupials, which it has since developed into 
a great variety of forms. The South African and South American 
lands, on the other liand, appear each to have had several suc- 
cessive unions and separations, allowing first of the influx of low 
forms only (Edentata, Insectivora and Lemurs) ; subsequently ot 
Eodents and small Carnivora, and, latest of all, of the higher 
types of Primates, Carnivora and Ungulata 

During the whole of the Tertiary period, at least, the Northern 
Hemisphere appears to- have been divided, as now, into an 
Eastern and a Western continent ; always approximating and 
sometimes united towards the north, and then admitting of much 
interchange of their respective faunas ; but on the whole keeping 
distinct, and each developing its own special family and generic 
types, of equally high grade, and generally belonging to the same 
Orders. During the Eocene and Miocene periods, the distinc- 
tion of the Palfearctic and Nearctic regions was better marked 
than it is now ; aa is shown by the floras no less than by the 
faunas of those epochs. Dr. Newberry, in his Report on the 
Cretaceous and Tertiary floras of the Yellowstone and Missouri 
Pavers, states, that although the Miocene flora of Central North 



America corresponds generally with that of the European Miocene, 
yet many of the tropical, and especially the Australian types, 
such as Hakea and Dryandra, are absent. Owing to the recent 
discovery of a rich Cretaceous flora in Worth America, pro- 
haUy of the same age as that of Aix-la-Chapelle in Europe, we 
are able to continue the comparison; and it appears, that at 
this early period the difference was still more marked. The 
predominant feature of the European Cretaceous flora seems to 
have been the abundance of ProteaccEe, of which seven genera 
now living in Australia or the Cape of Good Hope have heen 
recognised, hesides others which are extinct. There are also 
several species of FcmdaTvas, or screw-pine, now confined to the 
tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere, and along with these, oaks, 
pines, and other more temperate forms. The North American 
Cretaceous flora, although far richer than that of Europe, contains 
no Proteaceie or Pandam, but immense numbers of forest trees 
of living and extinct genera. Among the former we have oaks, 
beeches, wlUows, planes, alders, dog-wood, and cypress ; together 
with such American forms as magnolias, sassafras, and hrioden- 
drons. There are also a few not now found in America, as 
Araucaria and Grnnamomwm, the latter still Uvii^ in Japan. 
This remarkable flora has been found over a wide extent of 
country — ^New Jersey, Alabama, Kansas, and near the sources of 
the Missouri in the latitude of Quebec — so that we can hardly 
impute its peculiarly temperate character to the great elevation 
of so large an area. The intervening Eocene flora approximates 
closely, in North America, to that of the Miocene period ; while 
in Eiuxipe it seems to have been fuUy as tropical in character as 
that of the preceding Cretaceous period ; fruits of Nipa, Pandaims, 
Anona, Acacia, and many Proteacese, occurring in the London 
clay at the mouth of the Thames. 

These facts appear, at first sight, to be inconsistent, unless we 
suppose the chmates of Europe and North America to have been 
widely different in these early times ; but they may perhaps he 
harmonised, on the supposition of a more uniform and a some- 
what milder climate then prevailing over the whole Northern 
Hemisphere; the contrast in the vegetation of. these countries 



being due to a radical difference of type, and therefore not 
indicative of climate. The early European flora seems to have 
been a portion of that which now exists only in the tropical and' 
sub-tropical lands of the Eastern Hemisphere ; and, as much of 
this flora still survives in Australia, Tasmania, Japan, and the 
Cape of Good Hope, it does not necessarily imply more than a 
wann and equable temperate climate. The early Korth Ameri- 
can flora, on the other hand, seems to have been essentially the 
same in type as that which now exists there, and which, in the 
Miocene period, was well represented in Europe ; and it is such 
as now flourishes best in the warmer parts of the United States, 
But whatever conclusion we may arrive at on the question, of 
climate, there can be no doubt as to the distinctness of the floras- 
of the ancient Nearctic and Paltearctic regions ; and the view 
derived from our study of their existing and extinct faunas — 
that these two regions have, in past times, been more clearly 
separated than they are now — ^receives strong support from the 
unexpected evidence now obtained as to the character and muta- 
tions of their v^etable forma, during so vast an epoch as is 
comprised in the whole duration of the Tertiary period. 

The general phenomena of the distribution of living animals, 
combined with the evidence of extinct forms, lead us to con- 
clude that the Palfearctic region of early Tertiary times was, 
for the most part, situated beyond the tropics, although it pro- 
bably had a greater southward extension than at the present 
time. It certainly included much of North Africa, and perhaps 
reached far into whtit is now the Sahara; while a southward 
extension of its central mass may have included the Abyssinian 
highlands, where some truly Paljearctic forma are still found. 
This is rendered probable by the fossils of Petim Island a little 
further east, which show that the characteristic Miocene fauna 
of South Europe and North India prevailed so far within the 
tropics. There existed, however, at the extreme eastern and 
western limits of the region, two extensive equatorial land-areas, 
our Indo-Malayan and West African sub-regions— both of which 
must have been united for more or less considerable periods 
with the northern continents They would then have received 



from it such of the higher vertebrates as were best adapted for 
the peculiar climatal and oi^nic conditions which everywhere 
prevail near the equator ; and these would be preserved, under 
variously modified forms, when they had ceased to exist in 
the less favourable and constantly deteriorating climate of the 
north. At later epochs, both these equatorial lands became 
united to some part of the great South African continent (then 
including Madagascar), and we thus have explained many of 
the similarities presented by the faunas of these distant, and 
generally very different countries. 

During the Miocene period, when a subtropical climate pre • 
vailed over much of Europe and Central Asia, there would be no 
such marked contrast as now prevails between temperate and 
tropical zones ; and at this time much of our Oriental region, 
perhaps, formed a hardly separable portion of the great PalEearctic 
land. But when, from unknown causes, the climate of Europe 
became' less genial, and when the elevation of the Himalayan 
chain and the Moi^olian plateau caused aJi abrupt difference of 
climate on the northern and southern sides of that great moun- 
tain barrier, a tropical and a temperate region were necessarily 
formed ; and many of the animals which once roamed over the 
greater part of the older and more extensive region, now became 
restricted to its southern or northern divisions respectively. 
Then came the great change we have already described (vol i. 
p. 288), opening the newly-formed plains of Central Africa to the 
incursions of the higher forms of Europe ; and following on this, 
a still further deteriomtion of climate, resulting in that marked 
contrast between temperate and tropical faunas, which is now one 
of the most prominent features in the distribution of animal as 
well as of vegetable forms. 

It is not necessary to go into any further details here, as we 
have already, in our discussion of the origin of the fauna of the 
several r^ons, pointed oiit what changes most probably occurred 
in each case. These details are, however, to a great extent 
speculative; and they must remain so till we obtain as much 
knowledge of the extinct faunas and past geological history of 
the southern lands, as we have of those of Europe and North 



America. But the bioid conclusions at which we have now 
arrived seem to test on a suthciently extensive hi&is of ficts 
and they lead us to a clearer conception of the mutual relations 
ind eompantive importance of the teveral tenons than could 
be ol tamed it an earliei sta^e of our in-[uiiies 

It our views of the ongin ot the seveial regions aie collect 
it i& clear that no meie bmaxy divition — uito north and south 
or into east and west — can be altogether satiafactoiy smce it 
the div\ n of the Teitiary period we still find oui six regions oi 
whit may be termed the rudiments of them already established 
The north and south division tiulj lepreaents tbe fact that the 
gieat northern continents aie the seat and birth place tf all the 
hi£;her forms of life while the southern contments hive dcmcd 
the gieater part if not the whole of their veitcbiate fauna from 
the niith hut it implies the erroneous conclusion that the 
chief southern lands — Austi'aJia ind &outh Ameiica — aie moie 
closely related to each othei than to the northern continent 
The fact however id that the fauna of eich has been deiived 
independently and peihaps at verv different times liom the 
north with which they theiefore have a true genetic relation 
while any mtercorimunion between themiehes has been com 
pantively lecent and superficial and has m no w ly modifie 1 
the ^reat features of animal hfe in each The east and w est di\ i 
sion, lepresents— according to our view s — a more fundamental 
diversity ; since we find the northern continent itself so divided 
in the earliest Eocene, and even in Cretaceous times ; while we 
have the strongest proof that South America was peopled from 
the Nearctie, and Australia and Africa from the Palfearctic 
region: hence, the Eastern and Western Hemispheres are the two 
great branches of the tree of hfe of our globe. But this division, 
taken by itself, would obscure the facts — firstly, of the close 
relation and parallelism of the Nearctic and Paliearctic regions, 
not only now hut as far back as we can clearly trace them in the 
past; and, secondly, of the existing radical diversity of the 
Australian region from the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere. 

Owing to the much greater extent of the old Paltearctic 
r^ion (including our Oriental), and the greater diversity of 



Mammalia it appears to have produced, we can have little doubt 
that here was the earliest seat of the development of the 
vertebrate type ; and probably of the higher forms of insects 
and land-molluscs. Whether the Nearctie region ever formed 
one mass with it, or only received successive immigrations from 
it by northern land-connections both in an easterly and westerly 
direction, we cannot decide ; but the latter seems the most 
probable supposition. In any case, we must concede the first 
rank to the Palaarctic and Oriental r^ons, as representing the 
most important part of what seems always to have been the 
Great Continent of the earth, and the source from which aU the 
other regions were supplied with the higher forms of life. These 
once formed a single great region, which has been since divided 
into a temperate and a tropical portion, now sufBciently distinct ; 
while the Nearctie region has, by deterioration of climate, 
suffered a considerable diminution of productive area, and 
has in consequence lost a number of its more remarkable forms. 
The two temperate regions have thus come to resemble each 
other more than they once did, while the Oriental retains 
more of the zoological aspect of the great northern regions 
of Miocene times. The Ethiopian, from having been once an 
insular region, where lower types of vertebrates alone prevailed, 
has been so overrun with higher types from the old Palseatctic 
and Oriental lands that it now rivals, or even surpasses, the 
Oriental region in its representation of the ancient fauna of 
the great northern continent. Both of our tropical regions of 
the Eastern Hemisphere possess faunas which are, to some 
extent, composite, being made up in different proportions of 
the productions of the northern and southern continents, — the 
former prevailing largely in the Oriental, while the latter 
constitutes an important feature in the Ethiopian fauna. The 
I^eotropical region has probably undei^one great iluctuations 
in early times ; but it was, undoubtedly, for long periods com- 
pletely isolated, and then developed the Edentate type of 
Mammals and the Formicaroid type of Passerine bfrds into 
a variety of forms, comparable with the diversified Marsupials 
of Austraha, and typical Passeres of the Eastern Hemisphere, 



It has, however, received successive infusions of higher types 
from the north, which now mingle in various degrees with its 
lower forms. At an early period it must have received a. low 
form of Primates, which has heen developed into the two peculiar 
families of American monkeys ; while its llamas, tapirs, deer, 
and peccaries, came in at a later date, and its opossums and 
extinct horses prohably among the latest. The Australian region 
alone, after having been united with the great northern 
continent at a very early date (probably during the Secondary 
period) has ever since remained more or less completely isolated ; 
and thus exhibits the development of a primeval type of 
mammal, almost wholly uninfluenced by any incursions of a 
later and higher type. In this respect it is unique among all 
the great regions of the earth. 

We see, then, that each of our six regions has had a history 
of its own, the main outlines of which we have been able 
to trace with tolerable certainty. Each of them is now 
characterised — as it seems to have been in aU past time of 
which we have any tolerably fuU record — ^by weU-marked 
zoological features ; while all are connected and related in the 
complex modes we have endeavoured to unravel. To combine 
any two or more of these regions, on account of existing 
similarities which are, for the moat part, of recent origin, would 
obscure some of the most important and interesting features 
of their past history and present condition. And it seems no 
less impracticable to combiue the whole into groups of higher 
rank ; since it has been shown that there are two opposing modes 
of doing tliis, and that each of them represents but one aspect 
of a problem, which can only be solved by giving equal attention 
to all its aspects. 

For reasons which have been already- stated, and which are 
sufficiently obvious, we have relied almost exclusively on the 
distribution of living and extinct mammalia, in arriving at these 
conclusions. But we believe they will apply equally to elucidate 
the phenomena presented by the distribution of all terrestrial 
oi^anisms, when combined with a careful consideration of the 



various means of dispersal of the different groups, and the 
comparative lor^evity of their species and genera. Even insects, 
which are perhaps of all animals the farthest removed from 
mammalia in this respect, agree, in the great outlines of their 
distribution, with the vertebrate orders. The Regions are 
admittedly the same, or nearly the same for both ; and the 
discrepajieies that occur are of a nature which can be explained 
by two undoubted facta — the greater antiquity, and the greater 
facilities for dispersal, of insects. 

But this principle, if sound, must be carried farther, and be 
applied to plants also. There are not wanting indications that 
thia may be successfully done; and it seems not improbable, 
that the reason why botanists have hitherto failed to determine, 
with any unanimity, which are the most natural phytological 
rt^ons, and to work out any connected theory of the migra- 
tions of plants, is, because they have not been furnished with 
the clue to the past changes of the great laud masses, which 
could only be arrived at by such an examination of the past 
and present distribution of the higher animals as has been 
here attempted. The difficulties in the way of the study of 
the distribution of plants, from thia point of view, will be 
undoubtedly very great ; owing to the unusual facilities for 
distribution many of them possess, and the absence of any 
group which might take the place of the mammalia among 
animals, and serve as a guide and standard for the rest. We 
cannot expect the regions to be so well defined in the ease of 
plants as in that of animals ; and there are sure to be many 
anomalies and discrepancies, which will rec[uire long study to 
unravel. The Six Great Regions here adopted, are however, as 
a whole, very weU. characterised by their vegetable forms. 
The floras of tropical America, of Australia, of South Africa, and 
of ludo-Malaya, stand out with as much individuality as do 
the faunas; while the plants of the Pahearctic and Wearctic 
regions, exhibit resemblances and diversities, of a character not 
unlike those found among the animals. 

This is not a mere (question of applying to the vegetable king- 
dom a series of arbitrary divisions of the earth which have been 



found useful to zoologists ; for it really involves a fundamental 
problem ia the theory of evolution. The question we have to 
answer, is, firstly — whether the distribution of plants is, like that 
of animals, mainly and primarily dependent on the past revolu- 
tions of the earth's surface ; or, whether other, and altogether dis- 
tinct causes, have had a preponderating influence in determining 
the range and limits of vegetable forms ; and, secondly — ^whether 
those revolutioi^ have been, in their general outlines, correctly 
interpreted by means of a study of the distribution and 
affinities of the h%her animals. The first question is one for 
botanists alone to answer ; but, on the second point, the author 
ventures to hope for an affirmative reply, from such of his 
readers as will weigh carefully the facts and arguments he has 

The remaining part of this volume, will consist, of a systematic 
review of the distribution of each family of animals, and an 
application of the principles already established to elucidate the 
chief phenomena they present. The present chapter must, 
therefore, be considered as the conclusion of the argumentative 
and theoretical part of the present work ; but it must be read 
in connection with the various discussions in Parts II. and III., 
in which the conclusions to be drawn from the several groups of 
facta have been successively given ; — and especially in connec- 
tion with the general observations at the eiid of each of the six 
chapters on the Zoological Eegions, 

The hypothetical view, as to the more recent of the great 
Geographical changes of the Earth's surface, here set forth, 
is not the result of any preconceived theory, but has grown out 
of a careful study of the facts accumulated, and has led to a 
considerable modification of the author's previous views. It 
may be described, as an apphcation of the general theory of 
Evolution, to solve the problem of the distribution of animals ; 
but it also furnishes some independent support to that theory, 
both by showing what a great variety of curious facts are ex- 
i by its means, and by answering some of ths objections, 



wliicli have been founded on supposed difficulties in the disLri- 
bution of animals iu space and time. 

It also UliiStrates and supports the geological doctrine, of the 
general permanence of our great continents and oceans, by 
showing how many facts in the diatribution of animals can 
only be explained and understood ou such a supposition; and 
it exhibits, in a striking manner, the enormous influence of the 
Glacial epoch, in determining the existing zoological features of 
the various continents. 

And, lastly, it furnishes a more consistent and intelligible 
idea thaii has yet been reached by any other mode of investiga^ 
tion, of all the more important changes of the earth's surface 
that have probably occurred during the entire Tertiary period ; 
and of the influence of these changes, in bringing about the 
general features, as well as many of the more interesting details 
and puzzling anomalies, of the Geographical Distribution of 







Tn the preceding part of our work, we have discussed the 
geographical distribution of animals from the point of view of 
the geographer ; taking the different regions of the earth iu 
succession, and giving as full an account as cur space would 
permit of their chief forms of animal life. Now, we proceed 
from the standpoint of the systematic zoologist ; taking in 
succession each of the families with which we deal, and giving 
an account of the distribution, both of the entire family and, as 
far as practicable, of each of the genera of which it is composed. 
As in the former part, our mode of treatment led us to speculate 
on the past changes of the earth's surface; so here we shall 
endeavour to elucidate the past migrations of animals, and thus, 
to some extent, account for their actual distribution. 

The tabular headings, showing the range of the family in each 
region, will enable the reader to determine at a glance the 
general distribution of the group, as soon as he has familiarised 
himself, hy a study of our general and regional maps, with the 
limits of the regions and sub-regions, and the figures (1 to 4) 
by which the latter are indicated. Much pains have been taken, 
to give the number of the known genera and species in each 
family, correctly ; but these numbers must, in most cases, only 
be looked upon aa approximations ; because, owing to constant 
accessions of fresh material on the one hand, and the discovery 
that many supposed species are only varieties, on the other, such 
statistics are in a continual state of fluctuation. In the nnmher 
of genera there is the greatest uncertainty; as will be seen by 
the two sets of numbers sometimes given, which denote the 
genera according to different modern authorities. 
Vol. 11.^12 



There is also a considerable difference in the dependence to be 
placed on the details given in the different classes of animals. 
In Mammalia and Birds some degree of accuracy has, it is hoped, 
been attained; the classification of these groups being much 
advanced, and the materials for their study ample. Tn Eeptiles 
this is not th? case, as there is no recently published work 
dealing with the whole subject, or with either of the larger 
orders. An immense number of new species and new genera of 
snakes and lizards, have been described in the last twenty years ; 
and Dr. Giinther— our greatest authority on reptiles in this 
country — has kindly assisted me in incorporating such of these 
as are most trustworthy, in a general system; but until entire 
Orders have been described or catalogued on a uniform plan, 
nothing more than a general approximation to tlie truth can be 
arrived at. Still, so many of the groups are well defined, and 
have a clearly limited distribution, that some interesting and 
valuable comparisons may be made. 

For Fishes, the valuable " Catalogue " of Dr. Giinther was 
available, and it has rarely been attempted to go beyond it, A 
large number of new species have since been described, in all 
parts of the world ; but it is impossible to say how many of 
these are really new, or what genera they actually belong to. 
The pait devoted to this Class is, therefore, practically a summary 
of Dr. Giinther's Catalogue ; and it is believed that the disr 
coveries since made will not materially invalidate the conclusions 
to be drawn from such a laige number of species, which have 
been critically examined and classified on a uniform system by 
one of our most able naturalists. "When a supplement to this 
catalogue is issued, it will be easier to make the necessary altera- 
tions in distribution, than if a mass of untrustworthy materials 
had been mixed up with it. 

For Insects, excellent materials are furnished, in the Catalogue 
of Mr, Kirby for Butterflies and in that of Drs. Gemminger and 
Harold for Coleoptera. I have also made use of some recently 
published memoirs on the Insects of Japan and St. Helena, and 
a few other recent works ; and have, I believe, elaborated a more 
extensive series of facts to illustrate the distribution of insects. 



than has been made use of by any previous writer. Several 
discussions on the bearing of the facts of insect distribution, 
will also he found under the several Eegions, in the preceding 
part of this work. 

Terrestrial MoUusca form a group, as to the treatment of which 
I have most misgivings ; owing to my almost entire ignorance of 
Malacolf^, and the great changes recently made in the clarifi- 
cation of shells. There is also much uncertainty as to genera and 
sub-genera, which is very puzzling to one who merely wishes to get 
at general results. Finding it impossible to incorporate the new 
matter with the old, or to harmonise the diiferent classifieations 
of modem eonchologists, I thought it better to confine myself to 
the standard works of Martens and Pfeiffer, with such additions 
of new species as I could make without fear of going far wrong. 
In some cases I have made use of recent monographs— especially 
ou the shells of Europe, North America, the West Indian Islands, 
and 'the Sandwich Islands ; and have, I venture to hope, not 
fallen into much error in the general conclusions at which I have 




Famil!- 1.— SIMIIDiE 

(4 Genera, 12 Species). 





>ri""..| .?."=.. sss;z. 



_2 1 3.» 

The Simiidfe, or Anthropoid Apes, comprehend those forms of 
the monkey-tribe which, in general organization, approach nearest 
to man. They inhabit the tropics of the Old World, and are 
most abundant near the equator ; hut they are limited to certain 
districts, being cLuite unknown in eastern and southern Africa, 
and the whole peninsula of Hindoatan. 

The genus Troglodytes {or Mimetes, as it is sometimes named) 
comprehends the chimpanzee and gorilla. It is confined to the 
West Aiiican sub-region, being found on the coast about 12" 
North and South of the equator, from the Gambia to Benguela, and 
as far inland as the great equatorial forests extend. There are 
perhaps other species of chimpanzee ; since Livingstone met with 
what he supposed to be a new species in the forest region west 
of Lake Tanganyika, while Dr. Schweinfurth found one in the 
country beyond the western watershed of the Nile. The gorilla 
is confined within narrower limits on and near the equator. 



We have to pass over more than 70° of longitude before we again 
meet with Anthropoid Apes, in the northern part of Sumatra — 
where a specimen of the orang-utan {Simia satynis) now in the 
Calcutta Museum, was ohtained by Dr. Abel, and described by 
him in the Asiatic Mesmr ekes, vol. xv.— and in Borneo, from which 
latter island almost all the specimens in European museums have 
been derived. There are supposed to be two species of Simia in 
Borneo, a lai^er and a smaller ; but their distinctness is not ad- 
mitted by all naturalists. Both appear to be confined to the 
swampy forests near the north, west, and south coasts. 

The Gibbons, or long-armed apes, forming the genus Hyhhates, 
(7 species) are found in all the lai^e islands of the Indo-Malayan 
sub-region, except the Philippines ; and also in Sylhet and Assam 
south of the Brahmaputra river, eastward to Cambodja and 
South China to the west of Canton, and m the island of Hainan 

The Siamang {Siainanga sryndattyla) presents some anatomi- 
cal peculianties, and has the second and third toes united to the 
last joint, but in general form and 'itructuie it doe=! not differ 
from Hylobates It is the largest of the long-aimed apes, and in- 
habits Sumatra and the Malay penmsula. 

Family 2.- 


(2 Genera, 




si^™OM^ 1 ) 

Seaectic 1 Pai^aectio I Ethio 


j .ri"=. 

The SemnopithecidEe, are long-tailed monkeys without cheek- 
pouches, and with rather rounded faces, the muzzle not being 
prominent. They have nearly the same distribution as the last 
family, but are inore widely dispersed in both Africa and Asia, 
one species just entering the Paltearctic region. 

The Eastern ^-enus Presbptes or Semnopitliems (29 species), is 
spread over almost the whole of the Oriental region wherever the 
forests are extensive^ They extend along the Himalayas to beyond 
Simla, where a species has been observed at an altitude of 11,000 



feet, playing among fir-trees laden with snow wreaths. On the west 
side of India they are not found to the north of 14° N". latitude. 
On the east they extend into Arakan, and to Borneo and Java, 
but not apparently into Siam oi Cambodja. Along the eastern 
extension of the Himalayas they again occur in East Thibet ; a 
remarkable species with a large upturned nose (jS. roxellana) 
having been discovered by P^re David at Moupin {about Lat. 
32° N.) in the highest forests, where the winters are severe and 
last for several months, and where the vegetation, and the other 
forms of animal life, are wholly those of the Paltearctic region. 
It is very curious that this species should somewhat resemble 
the young state of the proboscis monkey (8. nasalis), which in- 
habits one of the most uniform, damp, and hot climates on the 
globe~-the river-swamps of Borneo. 

Colobus, the African genus (11 species), is very closely allied 
to the preceding, differing chiefly in the thumb being absent or 
rudimentary. They are confined to the tropical regions — Abys- 
sinia on the east, and from the Gambia to Angola and the island 
of Fernando Po, on the west. 

Family 3.— CTNOPITHECIDiE, (7 Genera, 67 Species). 

Gbskkal Distribution. 












- — 

— 2 — 





This family comprehends aU the monkeys with cheek pouches, 
and the baboons. Some of these have very long tails, some none ; 
some are dog-faced, others tolerably round-faced ; but there are 
so many transitions from one to the other, and such a general 
agreement in structure, that they are now considered to form a 
very natural family. Their range is more extensive than any 
other family of Quadrumana, since they not only occur in every 
part of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, but enter the Pala- 
arctic region in the east and west, and the Australian region as 
far as the islands of Timor and Eatchian, The African genera 



(MS, Cercopithecm, Cercocsbus, Tkeropithecus, and 
; the Oriental genera, Macaeus, and Cynopitkecus. 
'S (1 species), consisting of the talapoin monkey of 
West Africa, differs from the other African monkeys in the 
structure of the last molar tooth ; in the large ears, short face, and 
wide intemasal septum; in this respect, as well as in its grace 
and gentleness, resembling some of the American monkeys. 

Cercopitheous (24 species), contains all the more graceful and 
prettily coloured monkeys of tropical Africa, and comprises the 
gnenons, the white-nosed, and the green monkeys. They range 
from the Gambia to the Congo, and from Abyssinia to the Zambesi. 

Gercoeebm (5 species), the mangabeys, of West Africa, are 
very closely allied to the eastern genus Mamcus. 

Theropitkemis (2 species), including the gelada of Abyssinia 
and an allied species, resemble in form the baboons, but have the 
nostrils placed as in the last genus. 

Gynocephalus (10 species), the baboons, are found in all parts 
of Africa. They consist of animals which vaiy much in ap- 
pearance, but which agree in having an elongated dog-hke 
muzzle with terminal nostrils, and being of teirestiial habits. 
Some of the baboons are of very large size, the mandrill (C. 
maimon) beii^ only inferior to the orang and gorilla 

Macaeus (2o species), is the commonest foim of eastern monkey, 
and is found in every part of the Oriental region, as well as in 
North Africa, Gibraltar, Thibet, North China, and Japan ; and 
one of the commonest species, M. cynomolgus, has extended its 
range from Java eastward to the extremity of Timor. The tail 
varies greatly in length, and in the Gibraltar monkey {M. innus) 
is quite absent. A remarkable species clothed with very thick 
fur, has lately been discovered in the snowy mountains of 
eastern Thibet. 

Cynopitkecus (? 2 sp.) . — This genus consists of a black baboon- 
like Ape, inhabiting Celebes, Eatchian, and the Philippine 
Islands ; but perhaps introduced by man into the latter islands 
and into Batchian. It is doubtful if there is more than one 
species. The tail of this animal is a fleshy tubercle, the nostrils 
as in Macaeus, but the muzzle is very prominent ; and the 



development of the maxillaij' bones into strong lateral ridges 
corresponds to the structure of the most typical baboons. This 
species extends further east than any other quadrumanous 

Family 4.~ 


(10 Genera, 78 Species.) 

Genekal Dihtributioit. 



'L \ l';.':^;^".;^ 



3^1 — 

-I — 

1 1 1 

The CebidEe, which comprehend all the larger American 
Moiibeys, differ from those of the Old World by having an 
additional molar tooth in each jaw, and a broad nasal septum ; 
while they have neither cheek-pouches nor ischial callosities, 
and the thumb is never completely opposable. Some have pre- 
hensile tails, especially adapting them for an arboreal life They 
(u« divided into four sub-families,— Cebinse, MycetiuEe, Pithe- 
ciinse, and Kyctipithecinfe. The Cebid^ are strictly confined to 
the forest regions of tropical America, from the southern part of 
Mexico to about the parallel of 30° South Latitude, The distri- 
bution of the genera is as follows : — 

Sub-family, Cebinte ■— Cd6w« (18 sp), is the lai^est genus of 
American monkeys, and ranges from Costa Eica to Paraguay. 
They are commonly called sapajous Lagothrix (6 sp.), the 
woolly monkeys, aie rather lartjei and less active than the pre- 
ceding; they aie confined to the forests of the Upper Amazon 
Valley, and along the slopes of the Andes to Venezuela and 
Bolivia. Ateles (14 sp.), the spider monkeys, have very long 
limbs and tail. They range over the whole area of the family, 
and occur oh the west aide of the Equatorial Andes and on the 
Pacific coast of Guatemala. Eriodes (3 sp.), are somewhat inter- 
mediate between the last two genera, and are confined to the 
eastern parts of Brazil south of the equator. The three last 
mentioned genera have very powerful prehensile tails, the end 
being bare beneath ; whereas the species of GebuB have the tail 



completely covered with iiair, although prehensile, and therefore 
not so perfect a grasping organ. 

Svh-family, Mycetinaa, consists of hut a single genus, Mycetes 
(10 sp.), the howling monkeys, characterized by having a hollow 
bony vessel in the throat formed by an enlargement of the hyoid 
bone, which enables them to produce a wonderful howling 
noise. They are large, heavy animals, with a powerful and 
perfect prehensile tail. They range from East Guatemala to 
Paraguay. (Plate XIV., vol. ii., p. 24.) 

Sub-fmniltf, Pitheciinaa, the sakis, have a non-prehensile 
bushy tail. Pitheda (I sp.), has the tail of moderate length ; 
while Brachdurti^ (5 sp.) has it very short. Both appear to be 
restricted to the great equatorial forests of South America. 

Sub-family, NyctipithecinEe, are small and elegant monkeys, 
with, long, hairy, non-prehensile tails. Nyetipithecus (5 sp.), the 
night-monkeys or douroueoiilis, have large eyes, nocturnal 
habits, and are somewhat lemurine in their appearance. They 
range from Nicaragua to the Amazon and eastern Pern. Saimiris 
or Ohiysothrix (3 sp.), the squirrel-monkeys, are beautiful and 
active little creatures, found in most of the tropical forests from 
Costa Eica to Brazil and Bolivia. Callithrix (11 sp.), are some- 
what intermediate between the last two genera, and are found 
all over South America from Panama to the southern limits of 
the great forests. 

Family 5.— HAPALIDiE. (2 Genera, 32 Species.) 

Genebal Distribution. 

The Hapahd^, or marmosets, are very small monkeys, which 
differ from the true Cebida} in the absence of one premolar tooth, 
while they possess, the additional molar tooth ; so that while 
they have the same number of teeth (thirty-two) as the Old 
World monkeys, they differ from them even more than do the 



Gebidfe. The thumb is not at all opposable, and all the fingers 
are armed with sharp claws. The hallux, or thumb-like great 
toe, is very small ; the tail is long and not prehensile. The two 
genera Mapcde (9 ap,), and Midas (24 sp.), are of doubtful value, 
though some naturalists have still further sub-divided them. 
They are confined to the tropical forests of South America, and 
are most abundant in the districts near the equator. 

Family 6.— LEMUHID.^. (11 Genera, 53 Species,) 

Tiie Lemiiridce, comprehending aU the animals usually termed 
Lemurs and many of their allies, are divided by Professor Mivart 
— who baa carefully studied the group — into four sub-famOies 
and eleven genera, as follows : — 

Siol}-family Indrisinte, consisting of the genus Indris (5 sp.), 
is confined to Madagascar. 

Sub-family Lemurinje, contains five genera, viz. : — Lemw, 
(15 sp.) ; Sapalemwr (2 sp.); Microcehm (4 sp.); ( 
(5 sp.) ; and Lepilemur (2 sp.) ; — all confined to J 

Siib-family Nycticebinse, contains four genera, viz. : — Nyctic^us 
(3 sp.) — small, short-tailed, nocturnal animals, called slow-lemurs, 
— range from East Bengal to South China, and to Borneo and 
Java; Loris (1 5p.)— a verj' small, tail-less, nocturnal lemur, 
which inhabits Madras, Malabar, and Ceylon ; Ferodictims (1 sp.) 
— the potto — a small lemur with almost rudimentary fore- 
finger, found at Sierra Leone (Plate V., vol. i., p. 264); Arotocebus 
(1 sp.) — the angwantibo, — another extraordinary form in which 
the forefinger is quite absent and the first toe armed with a long 
claw, — inhabits Old Calabar. 


Suh-family Galagiuie, contains only the genus Gcdago (14 sp.), 
■which is confined to the African continent, ranging froi 
and Fernando Po to Zanzibar and Natal. 

Family 7.— TARSIID^, (1 Genus, 1 

General Distribtition. 

Bur^Q"o^ 1 SD^B^B^T™^. 

It^Tol S^ilTo™, 1 9?"^'^™., 



1 1 4 


1 1 

The curious Tarsius speetmm, which conatitutes this family, 
inhahits Sumatra, Banca, and Borneo, and is also found in some 
parte of Celebes, which would bring it into the Australian 
region ; but this island is altogether so anomalous that we can 
only consider its productions to have somewhat more afQnity 
with the Australian than the Oriental region, but hardly to 
belong to either. The Tarsier is a small, long-tailed, nocturnal 
animal, of curious structure and appearance ; and it forms the only 
link of connection with the next family, which it resembles 
in the extraordinary development of the toes, one of which is 
much larger and more slender than the rest. (Plate VIII., vol 
i. p. 337.) 

Family 8.— CHIROMYID^, (1 Genus, 1 Spe 


General Distribtition. 




— -1— --1— - — * — - 



The Aye-aye, (CMromys), the sole representative of this family, 
is confined to the island of Madagascar. It was for a long 
time very imperfectly known, and was supposed to belong to 
the Eodentia ; but it has now been ascertained to be an ex- 
ceedingly specialized form of the Lemuroid type, and must be 
considered to be one of the most extraordinary of the mammalia 
now inhabiting the globe. (Plate VI., vol. i., p. 278.) 



Not much progress has yet been made in tracing back the 
various forms of Apes and Monkeys to their earhest appearance 
on the globe ; but there have been some interesting recent 
discoveries, which lead us to hope that the field is not yet 
exhausted. The following is a summary of what is known as to 
the early forma of each family :■ — ■ 

Simiidm. — Two or three species of this family have been 
found in the Upper Miocene deposits of France and Switzerland. 
Fliopithecus, of which a species has been found at each locality, 
was allied to the gibbons {Hylobates), and perhaps to Semno- 
pithecMs. A more remarkable form, named Bryopitkecus, as large 
as a man, and having peculiarities of structure which are 
thought by G-ervais and Lartet to indicate a nearer approach 
to the human form than any existing Ape, has been found in 
strata of the same age in France. 

Semnopiiheddm. — Species of Semnopitheeus have been found 
in the Upper Miocene of Greece, and others in the Siwalik 
Hills of N, W. India, also of Upper Miocene age. An allied 
form also occiu-s in the Miocene of Wurtemburg. Mesopitheiyiis 
from Greece is somewhat intermediate between SemTwpitheiyus 
and Macacus. 

Bemains supposed to be of Semnopitkecus, have also occurred 
in the Pliocene of Montpellier. 

Cynopiiheddm. — Macacus has occurred in Pliocene deposits 
at Grays, Essex ; and also in the South of France along with 

Cehid(e.-r^xi. the caves of Brazil remains of the genera Oebus, 
Mycetes, Callitkrix, and Hapale, have been found ; as well as an 
extinct form of larger size — Protopithecus. 

Lem/wfoidea. — A true lemur has recently been discovered in 
the Eocene of France ; and it is supposed to be most nearly allied 
to the peculiar West African genera, Perodiciictis and Ardocebus. 

C(enopiihecus, from the Swiss Jura, is supposed to have aifinities 
both for the Lemuridte and the American Cebidaa. 

In the lower Eocene of North America remains have been 


cjiAP. XVII.] MAMMALIA. 179 

discovered, which are believed to belong to this sub-order : but 
they form two distinct families, — ■Lemuravidse and Liranotheridse. 
Other remains from the Miocene are believed to be intermediate 
between these and the Cebidte,— a most interesting and suggestive 
affinity, if well founded. For the genera of these American 
Lemuroidea, see vol. i., p. 133. 

General Bemarks <m the Distribulion of Primates. 

The most striking fact presented by this order, from our present 
point of view, is the strict limitation of -well-marked families to 
definite areas. The Cebidte and Hapalidas would alone serve 
to mark out tropical America as the nucleus of one of the great 
zoological divisions of the earth. In the Eastern Hemisphere, 
the corresponding fact is the entire absence of the order from 
the Australian region, with the exception of one or two outlying 
forms, which have evidently transgressed the normal limits of 
their group. The separation of tlie Ethiopian and Oriental 
regions is, in this order, mainly indicated by the distribution of 
the genera, no one of which is common to the two regions. The 
two highest families, the Simiidte and the Semnopithecida, are 
pretty ecLuaUy distributed about two ec^uatorial foci, one situated 
in West Africa, the other in the Malay archipelago, — in Borneo 
or the Peninsula of Malacca ; — while the third family, Cyno- 
pithecidte, raises over the whole of both regions, and somewhat 
overpasses their limits. The Lemuroid group, on the other 
hand, offers us one of the most singular phenomena in geo- 
graphical distribution. It consists of three families, the species 
of which are grouped into six sub-families and 13 genera. One 
of these families and two of the sub-families, comprising 7 
genera, and no leas than 30 out of the total of 50 species, are 
confined to the one island of Madagascar. Of the remainder, 
3 genera, comprising 15 species, are spread over tropical Africa; 
while three other genera with 5 species, inhabit certain restricted 
portions of India and the Malay islands. These curious facts 
point unmistakably to the former existence of a large tract of 
laud in what is now the Indian Oc«an, connecting Madagascar on 
the one hand witli Ceylon, and with the Malay countries on the 



other. About this same time (but perhaps not contempo- 
raneously) Madi^ascar must have been connected with some 
portion of Southern Africa, and the whole of the country would 
possess no other Primates but Lemuroidea. After the Mada- 
gascar territory (very much larger than the existing island) 
had been separated, a connection appears to have been loi^ 
maintained (probably by a northerly route) between the more 
equatorial portions of Asia and Africa ; till those higher forms 
had become developed, which were afterwards differentiated into 
Simia, Presbi/tes, and Gympithecm, on the one hand, and into 
Troglodytes, Colobus, and Cynocephalus, on the other. In ac- 
cordance with the principle of competition so well expounded 
by Mr. Darwin, we can understand how, in the vast Asiatic and 
African area north of the Equator, with a great variety of 
physical conditions and the influence of a host of competing 
forms of life, higher types were developed than in tlie less 
extensive and long-isolated countries south of the Equator. 
In Madagascar, where these less complex conditions prevailed 
in a considerable land-area, the lowly organized Lemnroids have 
diverged into many specialized forms of their own peculiar type ; 
while on the continents they have, to a great extent, become 
exterminated, or have maintained their existence in a few cases, 
in islands or in mountain ranges. In Africa the nocturnal and 
arboreal Galagos are adapted to a special mode of life, in which 
they probably have few competitors. 

How and when the ancestors of the Oebidje and Hapalidte 
entered the South American continent, it is less easy to conceive. 
The only rays of light we yet have on the subject are, the 
supposed affinities of the fossil Ccenopitheeiis of the Swiss, and 
the Lemuravidse of the North American Eocene, with both 
Cebidte and Lemuroids, and the fact that in Miocene or Eocene 
times a mild climate prevailed up to the Arctic circle. The dis- 
covery of an undoubted Lemuroid in the Eocene of Europe, 
indicates that the great Northern Continent was probably the 
birthplace of this low type of mammal, and the source whence 
Africa and Southern Asia were peopled with them, as it was, 
at a later period, with the higher forms of monkeys and apes. 


Order II.—CEISOPTllItA. 
Family 9.— PTEEOPIUiE. (9 Genera, 65 Species. 

Gebbral Distbibtttwn, 

NEOTROpioiL 1 iTEiKorio 1 PALffiiEOTic 1 Etriofias | Owebtal I AuarnALiAM 


1 1 4 j I.2.3.4I1.2.3.4 1 1,2,3- 

The Pfceropidffi, or fruit-eating Bats, sometimes called flying- 
foxes, are pretty evenly distributed over the tropical regions of 
the Old World and Australia. They range over all Africa and 
the whole of the Oriental Eegion, and northward, to Amoy in 
China and to the South of Japan. They are also found in the 
more fertile parts of Australia and Tasmania, and in the Pacific 
Islands as far east as the Marianne and Samoa Islands ; hut not 
in the Sand.wicii Islands or New Zealand. 

The genera of bats are exceedingly numerous, hut they are in 
a very unsettled state, and the synonymy is exceedingly eon- 
fused. The details of their distribution cannot therefore be 
usefully entered into here. The Pteropidte differ so much from 
all other bats, that they are considered to form a distinct 
suborder of Chiroptera, and by some naturalists even a disticct 
order of Mammaha. 

No fossil Pteropidee have been discovered, 

Family 10.— PHYLLOSTOMID^, (31 Genera, 60 Species.) 

General Disteieution. 

The Phyllostomidte, or simple leaf-nosed Bats, are confined to 
the Keotropical region, from Mexico and the Antilles to the 


182 GEOQEAPHIOAL ZOOLOGY. li'^^^t iv. 

southern limits of the forest regioa east of the Andes, and to 
about lat, 33° S. in Chili. None are found in the Nearctic 
region, with the exception of one species in California (Macrotus 
Californicus), closely allied to Mexican and West Indian forms. 
The celebrated blood-sucking vampyre bats of South America 
belong to this group. Two genera, Desmodus and ZHphylla, form 
Dr. Peters' family Desmodidse. Mr. Dobson, in his i-ecently 
published arrangement, divides the family into five groups ; — 
Mormopes, Vampyri, Glossophagte, Stenodermata, and Desmo- 

Numerous remains of estinct species of this family have been 
found in the bone-caves of Brazil. 

Family 11.— EHINOLOPHID^. (7 Genera, 70 

General Distributi 

I.S.3.4 I.S.; 

The Khinolophid^, or Horse-shoe Bats (so-called from a 
curiously- shaped membranous appendance to the nose), range 
over all the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, the southern part 
of the Palfearctic region, Australia and Tasmania. They are 
most abundant and varied in the Oriental region, where twelve 
genera are found ; while only five inhabit the Australian and 
Ethiopian regions respectively. Europe has only one genus and 
four species, mostly found in the southern parts, and none going 
further north than the latitude of England, vuhere two species 
occur. Two others are found in Japan, at the opposite extremity 
of the Palsearctic region. 

The genera Nycteris and Megaderma, which range over the 
Ethiopian and Oriental regions to the Moluccas, are considered 
by Dr. Peters to form a distinct family, Megadermidte ; and 
Mr. Dobson in his recent arrangement (published after our first 


volume was piinted) adopts the same family under the name of 
Nycteridte. The curious Indian genus Minopoma, which, follow- 
ing Dr. J. E. Gray, we have classed in this family, is considered 
by Mr. Dobson to belong to the Noetilionidse. 

Fossil Ehirwlophidce. — Remains of a species of Rhinolophiis 
stiil living in England, have been found in Kent's Cavern, near 

Family 12.— VESPEKTILIONID^. (18 Genera, 200 Species.) 

0eHEH4L Distribdtion. ll. a. 3. 4 l.a.3.4 l.a.3.4|l.a.3.4ll.2.3.4 

The small bats constituting the iamily Vespertilionidie, have 
no nose-membtane, but an internal eailet or tragus, and often 
very large ears. They range over almost the whole globe, being 
apparently only limited by the necessity of procuring insect food. 
In America they are found as far north as Hudson's Eay and the 
Columbia river ; and in Europe they approach, if they do not pass 
the Arctic circle. Such remote islands as the Azores, Bermudas, 
Fiji Islands, Sandwich Islands, and New Zealand, all possess 
species of this group of bats, some of which probably inhabit 
every island in warm or temperate parts of the globe. 

The genus Taphozous, which, in our Tables of Distribution in 
vol i. we have included in this family, is placed by Mr. Dobson 
in his family EmbaUonm'idfe, which is equivalent to our next 
family, Noctilionidse, 

Fossil VespertUionidcB. — Several living European bats of tliis 
family — Seotophihcs murirms, PUeotus av/rittts, Vespertilio nocttda, 
and V. pi^trdhts — have been found fo^il in bone-caves in 
various parts of Europe. 

Extinct species of Vespertilio have occurred in the Lower 
Miocene at Mayence, in the Upper Miocene of the South ot 
France, and in the Upper Eocene of the Paris basin. 

Vol. n.~13 





Family 13.— NOOTILIONID^ (14 Genera, 50 Species ) 




PiLffiiBOTir Ethiopian Obiemtal AtsiRAiiAN 



-2 l.a.3.4 4 

The NoctilionidEe, or short-headed Bats, are found in every 
region, hut are very unequally distributed. Their head-quarters 
is the Ifeotropical region, where most of the genera occur, and 
where they range from Mexico to Buenos Ayres and Chili, while 
in North America there i'5 only one species in California. They are 
unknown in Australia , but one species occm^s in New Zealand, 
and another in Norfolk Island. Several species of Dysopes (or 
MoUssws) inhabit the Onental legion, one or two species being 
widely distributed over the contment, while two others inhabit 
the Indo-Malayan Islands. A species of this same geuus occurs 
in South Africa, and another in Madagascar and in the Island of 
Bourbon ; while one inhabits Southern Europe and North Africa, 
and another is found at Amoy in China. It will be seen there- 
fore, that these are really South American bats, which have a few 
allies widely scattered over the various regions of the globe. 
Their affinities are, according to Mr. Tomes, with the PhyUos- 
tomidse, a purely South American family. The species which 
forms the connecting linlf is the Mystacina tiibermdata, a New 
Zealand bat, which may, with almost equal propriety be placed 
in either family, and which affords an interesting illustration of 
the many points of resemblance between, the Australian and 
Neotropical regions. 

Dr. Peters has separated this family into three,— Mormopidte, 
which is wholly Neoti'opical, and is especially abundant in the 
West Indian Islands ; Molossidte, chiefly consisting of the 
genus Molosms ; and Noctilionidse, comprising the remainder of 
the family,, and wholly Neotropical, Mr. Dobson, however, 
classes the Mormopes with the PhyRostomidEe, and reduces the 



Molossi to the rank of a sub-family. In our firsb volume we 
have classed Shinopoma with the Ehiuolophidre, and TaphozoiiS 
with the VespertiKonidffi ; but according to Mr. Dobson both 
these genera belong tc the present family. 

Memarks on tlie Dutributwn of the Order I 

Although the bats, from their great powers of Sight, are not 
amenable to the limitations which determine the distribution of 
other terrestrial mammals, yet certain great facts of distribution 
come out in a very striking manner. The speciality of the Neo- 
tropical region is well ahown, not only by its exclusive possession 
of one large family (PhylloatomidEe), but almost equally so by the 
total absence of two others (Pteropidie and EhinolophidEc). The 
Nearctic region is also unusually well marked, by the total ab- 
sence of a family (Ehinolophidse) which is tolerably well repre- 
sented in the PalEearctic. The Pteropidte well characterize the 
tropical regions of the Old World and Australia; while the Ves- 
pertiHonida3 are more characteristic of the Palfearetic and Nearctic 
regions, which together possess about 60 species of this family. 

The bats are a very difficult study, and it is quite uncertain how 
many distinct species are really known. Schinz, in. his S^opsis 
Mammalium (1844) describes 330, while the list given by 
Mr. Andrew Murray in his Geographical Distribution of Mam- 
malia (1866), contains 400 species. A small number of new 
species have been since described, but others have been sunk as 
synonyms, so that we can perhaps hardly obtain a nearer ap- 
proximation to the truth than the last number. In Europe there 
are 35 species, and only 17 in North America. 

Fossil Chwoptera. — The fossil remains of bats that have yet 
been discovered, being chiefly allied to forms still existing in the 
same countries, throw no light on the origin or affinities of this 
remarkable and isolated order of Mammalia ; but as species very 
simUar to those now living were in existence so far back as 
Miocene or even Eocene times, we may be sure the group is one 
of immense antiquity, aud that there has been ample time for 
the amount of variation and extinction required to bring about 



the limitation of types, j 
now find to exist. 

3 pecuKarities of distribution \ 


Family 14,— GtAI 


Genus, 2 


General Distbibution. 



1 l^'l^^. ^T^^l^.. 



1 1 

\ \ 

The singular and isolated genus Galeopithecus, or flying lemur, 
has been usually placed among the Lemuroidea, biit it is now 
considered to come best at the head of the Insectivora. Its food 
however, seems to be purely vegetable, and the very small, blind, 
and naked young, closely attached to the wrinkled skin of the 
mother's breaat, perhaps indicates some affinity with the Marsu- 
pials. This animal seems, in fact, to be a lateral oifshoot of 
some low form, which has survived during the process of develop- 
ment of the Insectivora, the Lemuroidea, and the Marsupials, 
from an ancestral type. Only two species are known, one 
found in Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo, but not in Java ; the 
other in the Philippine islands (Plate YIII. vol. i. p. 337). 

Family 15.— MACE0SCELIDIDJ5. (3 

Genen, 10 



Gbnekal Disteibutioti. 

s=.=; [ .S=., 1 £S=. .E=i 




I 1-.-- ,_3- 



The Maeroscelides, or elephant shrews, are extraordinary little 
animals, with trunk-like snout and kangaroo-like hind-legs. 
They are almost confined to South Africa, whence they extend 
up the east coast as far as the Zambezi and Mozambique. A 



single outlying species of Macroscelides inliabita Bai'bary aad 
Algeria ; while the two genera Petrodromus, and Bhyncocyon, each 
represented by a single species, have only been found at 

FA31ILY 16.— TUPAIID^. (3 Genera, 10 species,) 



s^ZT.s. sJSS™.. sT^Q^o™, 

The Tupaiidfe are squirrel-like shrews, having bushy tails, 
and often climbing up trees, but also feeding on the ground and 
among low bushes. The typical Tv/paia (7 species), are called 
ground sq^uirrels by the Malays. They are most abundant in 
the Malay islands and Indo-Chinese countries, but one species 
is found in the Khasia Mountains, and one in the Eastern Ghauts 
near Madras. The small shorter-tailed Hylomys (2 species) is 
found from Tenasserim to Java and Borneo ; while the elegant 
little Ftiloeerus (1 species) with its long penciUed tail, is confined 
to Borneo ; (Plate VIII. vol. i. p. 337). The family is therefore 
especially Malayan, with outlying species in northern and con- 
tinental India. 

Extmct Species. — Oxygonvphus, found in the Tertiary deposits 
of Germany, is believed to belong to this fanuly ; as is Omomys, 
from the Pliocene of the United States. 

Family 17.- 


(2 Genera 

15 Species.) 

General DisTRiBurios. 


™"oNt j S^ik 





The Hedgehogs, comprised in the genus Erinaeeus (14 species), 
are widely distributed over the Palfearctic, and a part of the 



Oriental regions ; Imt they only occur in the Ethiopian region in 
South Africa and in the Deserts of the north, which more properly 
helong to the Paliearctic region. They are absent from the 
Malayan, and also from the Indo-Chinese sub-regions ; except 
that they extend from the north of China to Amoy and Formosa, 
and into the tetaperate highlands of the Western Himalayas. 
The curious Oyrtmura (1 species) is found in Borneo, Sumatra, 
and the Malay peninsula. 

Extinct Species. — ^The common hedgehog has been found fossU. 
in several Post-tertiary deposits, while extinct species occur in 
the lower Miocene of Auvergne and in some other parts of 
Em"ope. Many of these remains are classed in different genera 
from the living species; — {Amphechmm, Tetracus, Galerix.) 

Family 18.- 

-CENTETIDA (6 Geneia, ,10 Species.) 

Geseeal Disteibetion. 






--" --- 


---" 1 

The Centetidfe are small animals, many of them having a 
spiny covering, whence the species of Gentetes have been called 
Madagascar hedgehogs. The genera Gentetes (2 species), Hemi- 
centetes (1 species), Urimlus (1 species), Eckinops (3 species), and 
the recently described Oryzorictes (1 species), are all exclusively 
inhabitants of Madagascar, and are almost or q^uite tail-less. 
The remaining genus, Solmodon, is a more slender and active 
animal, vi^ith a long, rat-like tail, shrew-like head, and coarse fur ; 
and the two known species are among the very few indigenous 
mammals of the West Indian islands, one being found in Cuba 
(Plate XVII., vol. ii., p. 67), the other in Hayti. Although 
presenting many points of difference in detail, the ■ 
characters of this curious animal are, according to ! 
Peters and Mivart, identical with the rest of the Centetid^a 
We have thus a most remarkable and well-estabKshed case of 
discontinuous distribution, two portions of the same family 


CHAP, xvii.] MAMMALIA. 189 

being now separated from each other by an extensive continent, 
as well as hj a deep ocean. 

Extinct Species. — Kemaina found in the Lower Miocene of the 
South of IFrance are believed to belong to the genus Hchitu^, 
or one closely allied to it. 

Family 19.— rOTAMOGALID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species,) 

Gbsbeal Distribution. 


— h—l »-l— -[- — 

The genus Potamogale was founded on a curious, small, otter- 
like animal from West Africa, first found by M. Du Chaillu at 
the Gaboon, and afterwards by the Portuguese at Angola. Its 
affinities are with several groups of Insectivora, but it is 
sufficiently peculiar to require the estahlishment of a distinct 
family for its reception. (Plate V,, vol. i., p. 264) 

Family 20.— CHEYSOCHLORID^. (2 Genera, 3 
Gbneeal Dibtp.ibution. 

The Chrysocbloridse, or golden moles, of the Cape of Good 
Hope have been separated by Professor Mivart into two genera, 
Ghrysochlor'is and Ohalcochloris. They are remartable mole-like 
animals, having beautiful silky fur, with a metallic lustre and 
changeahle golden tints. They are peculiar to the Cape district, 
but one species extends as far north as the Mozambique territory. 
Their dentition is altogether peculiar, so as to complete 
-them from the true moles. 



Family 21.— TALPID^. (8. Genera, 19 Species. 
Gbnbeal Distribution. 

The Moles comprise many extraordinary forms of small mam- 
malia especially characteristic of the temperate regions of the 
northern hemisphere, only sending out a few species of Talpa 
along the Himalayas as far as Assam, and even to Tenasserim, 
if there is no mistake ahout this locality ; while one species is 
found in Formosa, the northern part of which is almost as much 
PalEearetic as Oriental, The genus Talpa (7 species), spreads 
over the whole Pala^aretic region from Great Britain to Japan ; 
Scwptockirus (1 species) is a recent discovery in Korth China ; 
Gondylura (1 spcoiea), the star-nosed mole, inhabits ] 
North America from Nova Scotia to Pennsylyani 
(2 species) ranges across from New York to St. Francisco; 
Scalops (3 species), the shrew-molea, range from Mexico to the 
great lakes on the east side of America, but on the west only to 
the north of Oregon. An allied genus, Myogale (2 species), has 
a curious discontinuous distribution in Europe, one species being 
found in South-East Eussia, the other in the Pyrenees (Plate II., 
ToL i., p. 218). Another allied genus, Nedogale (1 species), has 
recently been described by Professor Milne-Edwards from Thibet. 
Urotrwhus is a shrew-like mole which inhabits Japan,and a second 
species has been discovered in the mountains of British Columbia; 
an allied form, UropsUvs, inhabits East Thibet. Amiroswex 
and Scwptonyx, are new genera from North China, 

Exti/nct Species. — ^The common mole has been found fossil in 
hone-caves and diluvial deposits, and several extinct species of 
mole-like animals occur in the Miocene deposits of the South of 
France and of Germany. These have been described under the 
generic names Bimylus, Geotrypus, Hi/porissus, GaUospaicix ; while 
been found in the Pliocene forest-beds of Norfolk 


CH4P. svir.] MAMMALIA. 181 

and Ostend. Species of Myogale also occur from the Miocene 

Family 22.— SOEICIDJ^l. (1 Genus, 11 Sub-genera, 65 Species.;) 

General Distribution. 



The Shrews have a wide distribution, being found throughout 
every region except the Australian and Neotropical ; although, as 
a, species is found in Timor and in some of the Moluccas, they 
just enter this part of the former region, while one found in 
Guatemala brings them into the latter. A number of species have 
recently been described from India and the Malay Islands, so 
that the Oriental region is now the richest in shrews, having 28 
speoies ; the Nearctic conies next with 24 ; while the Ethiopian 
has 11, and the PalEearctic 10 species. The sub-genera are 
Crossopiis, Amphisorex, Neosorex, Groddwra, Diplomesodon.Finulia, 
Pachyura, Blarina, Feroculiis, Anausorex. 

Extinct Species. — Several species of Sorex have been- found 
fossil in the Miocene of the South of France, as well as the 
extinct genera Mysarachne and Plesiosorex ; and some existing 
species have occurred in Bone Oaves and Diluvial deposits. 

Cfeneral Semarks on the Distribution of the Insecti-Bora. 

The most prominent features in the distribution of the Insecti- 
vora are, — their complete absence from South America and Aus- 
tralia; the presence of Solenodon in two of the West Indian islands 
while the five allied genera are found only in Madagascar ; and the 
absence of hedgehogs from North America. If we consider that 
there are only 135 known species of the order, 65 of which belong 
to the one genus ISorex; while the remaining 26 genera' contain 
only 70 species, which have to be classed in 8 distinct families, 
and present such divergent and highly speoiaHzed forms as &aleo- 
pUhmis, Erinaceus, Solenodtm, and Gondylura, it becomes evident 
that we have here the detached fragments of a much more 



extensive group of animals, now almost extinct. Many of the 
forms continue to exist only in islands, removed from the severe 
competition of a varied mammalian population, as in Madagascar 
and the Antilles ; while others appear to have escaped extermi- 
nation either by their peculiar habits — as the various forma of 
Moles ; by special protection — as in the Hedgehogs; or by a resem- 
blance in form, coloration, and habits to dominant groups in their 
own district — as the Tupaias of Malay which resemble squirrels, 
and the Elephant-shrews of Africa which resemble the jerboas. 
The numerous cases of isolated and discontinuous distribution 
among the Insectivora, offer no difficulty from this point of view ; 
since they are the necessary results of an extensive and widely- 
spread group of animals slowly becoming extinct, and continuing 
to exist only where special conditions have enabled them to main- 
tain themselves in the straggle with more highly organized forms. 
The fossil Insectivora do not throw much light on the early 
history of the order, since even as far back as the Miocene 
period they consist almost wholly of forms which can be referred 
to existing families. In Korth America they go back to the 
Eocene period, i£ certain doubtful remains have been rightly 
placed. The occurrence of fossil CentetidEe in Europe, supports 
the view we have maintained in preceding chapters, that the 
existing distribution of this family between Madagascar and the 
Antilles, proves no direct connection between those islands, bat 
only shows us that the family once had an extensive range. 


Family 23.- 

— FELID^. (8 

Genera, 14 Sub 


66 Species,) 

General Distkibbtion. 



.. 1 1'^t^ 

icrio 1 Ih-HiopiAN 1 



a 1 sijB^Bm^m 

l.a.3 - 

The Cats are very widely distributed over the earth — with 
the exception of the Australian region and the island sub-region 



of Madagascar and the Antillea— universallj ringing from the 
torrid zone to the Arctic regions and the Straits of Magellan. 
They are so tmiform in their organization that man; nituralists 
group them all under one genus, Felis, but it i', now more 
usual to class at least the lynxes as a separate genus -while the 
hunting leopard, or cheetah, forms another Di J E. Gray 
divides these again, and makes 17 generic g,ioup?, hut as this 
suhdiviaion is not generally adopted, and does not bring out any 
special features of geographical distribution, I shaU not further 
notice it. 

The genus Felis (56 species) has the same general range 
as the whole family, except that it does not go so far north; 
the Amoor river in Eastern Asia, and 55° H". Lat. in America, 
marking its Umite. Zpnms (10 species) is a more northern 
group, ranging to the polar regions in Europe and Asia, and to 
Lat, 66° N. in America, but not going further south than 
Kortbem Mexico and the European shores of the Mediterranean, 
except the caracal, which may be another genus, and which ex- 
tends to Central India, Persia, North Africa and even the Cape 
of Good Hope. The lynxes are thus almost wholly peculiar to 
the ItTearctic and Palaiarctic regions. Cpncelwms (1 species) the 
hunting leopard, ranges from Southern and Western India through 
Persia, Syria, Northern and Central Africa, to the Cape of Good 

Extinct I'eUd(s. — More than twenty extinct species of true 
Pelidte have been described, ranging in time from the epoch of 
prehistoric man back to the Miocene or even the Eocene period. 
They occur in the south of England, in Central and South Europe, 
in North- West India, in Nebraska in North America, and in the 
caves of Brazil. Most of them are referred to the genus Felis, 
and closely resemble the existing lions, tigeis, and other large 
eats. Another group however forms the genus Machairodus, a 
highly specialized form with seiiated teeth Five species have 
been described fi^m Europe, Noithem India, and both North and 
South America; and it is remarkable that they exhibit at least 
as wide a range, botli in space and time, as the more numerous 
species referred to Felis. One of them undoubtedly c 




[part iy. 

with man in England, while another, as well as the allied Dinidis, 
has been found in the Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska, associated 
with AncMtkerivm, and other extinct and equally remarkable 
forms, which are certainly Miocene if not, as some geologists 
think, belonging to the Eocene period. These facts cleaily in- 
dicate that we have as yet made little approach to discovering 
the epoch when I"elida3 or^nated, since the oldest forms yet 
discovered are typical and highly specialized representatives of 
a group which is itself the most specialized of the Camivora. 
Another genus, Pseudmlurus, is common to the Miocene deposits 
of Europe and Iforth America. 

Family 24— CEYPTOPEOCTID.^. ( 

Genus, 1 


General Distriiiution. 

NEoragpioii. Neihctic PaLeaKcnc 




The Cryptoproda ferox, a small and graceful cat-hke animal, 
peculiar to Mad^ascar, was formerly classed among the Viver- 
ridte, hut is now considered by Professor Flower to constitute a 
distinct family between the Cats and the Civets. 

Family 25.— VIVEEElDiE. 

i-33 Genera, 100 Species.) 

General Distribution. 

_a 1 

The Viverridse comprise a number of small and moderate-sized 
carnivorous animals, popularly known as civets, genets, and 
ichneumons, highly characteristic of the Ethiopian and Oriental 
regions, several of the genera being common to both. A species 
of Genetta, and one of Serpestes, inhabit South Europe ; while 
Viverra extends to the Moluccas, but is doubtfully indigenous. 
The extreme geographical limits of the family are marked by 



Qenetta in France and Spain, Viverra in Shanghae and Batcliiaii 
Island, and Serpestes in Java and the Cape of Good Hope. 

The following are the genera with their distribution as given 
by -Dr. J, E. Gray in his latest British Museum Catalogue : 

Sub-iamily VrvEEEiN.^. — Viverra {3 species), Korth and 
tropical Africa, the whole Oriental region to the Moluccas ; 
Vio&mcfula (1 species) India to Java ; O&ietta (5 species). South 
Europe, Palestine, Arabia, and all Africa ; Fossa (1 species), Ma- 
dagascar ; Linsang (2 species), Malacca to Java; Pmana (1 
species), West Africa ; Galidia (3 species), Madagascar ; Hemi- 
galea (1 species), Malacca and Borneo ; Aretictis {1 species) Kepal 
to Sumatra and Java ; Nandmia (1 species), West Africa ; Paro^ 
dcmirtcs (9 species), the whole Oriental region; Pagv/ma (3 species), 
Nepal to China, Sumatra, and Borneo ; ArdogaU (1 species), Te- 
nasaerim to Java. 

Sub- family Heepestdj.*;. — CynogaU (1 species)^ Borneo ; GaU- 
dAdis (2 species), Madagascar ; H'erpe8tes{22 species). South PalsB- 
arctie, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions ; Athylax (3 species), Tro- 
pical and South Africa ; Oalogah (13 species), all Africa, North 
India, to Cainbodja ; Gakrdla (1 species). East Africa ; Calictis 
(1 species) , Ceylon (?); Ariella {1 species), South AMca; leJmetcmia 
(4 species), Central, East, and South Africa ; Bdeogale (3 species), 
West and East Africa ; Vrva (1 species), Himalayas to Aracan ; 
TcBniogaU (1 species), Central India; OiiychogaU (1 species), 
Ceylon ; Helogale (2 species) East and South Africa ; Gynictis 
(3 species). South Africa. 

. Sub-family 'RamoGXLmM.—Bki'tiogale (1 species). East Africa ; 
Mungos (3 species), all Africa ; CrossarcMs (1 species). Tropical 
Africa; Uupleres (1 species), Madagascar; SvHcata (1 species), 
South Africa. 

Fossil Viverridce. — Several species of Viverra, and Genetta have 
been found in the Upper Miocene of Prance, and many extinct 
genera have also been discovered. The most remarkable of these 
was Iditherium, from the Upper Miocene of Greece, which has 
also been found in Hungary, Bessarabia, and Prance. Some of the 
species were larger than any living forms of Viverridfe, and 
approELched the hytenas. Other extinct genera are ThalassicUs 


196 GEOaRAPHICAL ZOOLOGY. [part iv. 

and Soricidis from the Upper Miocene, the former as large as a 
panther; Tylodoti, of small size, from the Upper Eocene; and 
FalcEonydis from the Lower Eocene, also small and showing a 
very great antiquity for this family, if really belonging to it 

Family 26.— PEOTELID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

General Distributioh. 



HOPicst 1 HEiHono 1 Pal«arotic I Ethiopian 1 Obiebtai, [ Aubthalun 

1 1 i . 1 1 

1 1 II 1 

The curious Froteles or Aard-wolf, a highly-modified form of 
hytena, approaching the ichneumons, and feeding on white 
ants and carrion, la peculiar to South Africa. 




(1 (}enus 

3 Species ) 


General Distbibution, 





re-K'SiJl Sir, 

^=«^ 1 s^^Zr. 

The Hyaenas are characteristically Ethiopian, to which region 
two of the species are confined. The third, Hycsna striata, 
ranges over all the open country of India to the foot of the 
Himalayas, and through Persia, Asia Minor, and North Africa. 
Its fossil remains have been found in France. 

Extinct Species. — The cave hyaina (H. spel<Ea) occurs abun- 
dantly in the caverns of this country and of Central Europe, 
and is supposed to be most nearly allied to the II. crocuta of 
South Africa, Another species is found in some parts of France. 
The earliest Joiown true hytenas occur in the Pliocene formation 
in France, in the Eed Crag (Older Pliocene) of England, and in 
the Upper Miocene of the Siwahk hills. In the Miocene 
period in Europe, q^uite distinct genera are found, such as 
Hymnictis and Lyemna from the Upper Miocene of Greece ; 


Ictitherium, supposed to be intermediate between Viverrida) and 
HyEenidffi; and Thalassictts, uniting the weasels and hyeenas. 

Family 28.— CANID^. (3 Genera, 17 Sub-Genera, 54 Species.) 




S^^bS^S. 1 ^U^B^ll™. 

I. a. 3 - l.a.3.« 1.2.3- 

i.a.3.4| -2;-- 

The CanidEe, comprising the animals commonly known as 
dogs, wolves, and foxes, have an almost universal range over 
the earth, being only absent from the island sub-regions of 
Madagascar, the Antilles, Austro-Malaya, Hew Zealand, and the 
Pacific Islands. With the exception, of two remarkable forms — 
the hyasna dog (Li/caon pioia), s.-ad the great-eared fox (Megalotis 
Lalandei), both from South Africa — all the species are usually 
placed in the genus Ganis, the distribution of which -will be the 
same as that of the family. Dr. J. E. Gray, in his arrangement 
of the family (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1868), subdivides it into fifteen 
genera, the names and general distribution of ■which are as 
follows : — 

Joticyon (1 species), Brazil; Oiion (4 species), Siberia to 
Java ; Xiipus (5 species), North America, Europe, India to 
Ceylon ; Dieba (1 species), North and West Africa ; Sitnenia 
(1 species), Abyssinia; GJmfsom/on (2 species), North and South 
America ; . Cants (4 species), India, . Australia . (indigenous ?) 
Z^mlopex (3 species). South America; Psmdalqpex (5 species), 
South America and Falkland Islands ; Thous (2 species). South 
America to Chili ; Vulpes (17 species), all the great continents, 
except South America and Austraha ; Feimeuvs (4 species), all 
Africa ; Lmcoc^&ji (1 species), Arctic regions ; Urocyim (2 species). 
North America ; Nyctereutes (1 species), Japan, Amoorland to Can- 
ton (Plate III., vol. i. p. 226). These are aU sub-genera according 
to Professor Carus, except Icticyon. The same author makes 
Lycaon a sub-genus, while Dr. Gray makes it a sub-family ! 

Extinct Species. — The dog, wolf, and fox, ate found fossil in 



in many parts of Europe, and several extinct species 
have been found in Tertiary deposits in Europe, North India, 
and South America. Two species have been found so far back 
as the Eocene of France, but the fragments discovered are not 
sufficient to determine the characters with any certainty. In 
North America, several species of Canis occur in the Pliocene of 
Nebraska and La Plata. The genus Galecynvs, of nie Pliocene 
of (Eninghen, and Pakeoctfon, of the Brazilian caves, are sup- 
posed to belong to the Canidse. AmpMcyon abounded in the 
Miocene period, both in Europe and North America ; and some 
of the species were as large as a tiger. Other extinct genera 
are, Cpiodictis, Gyotherium, and Galethplax, from the Eocene 
of France; Fseudocyon, Simocyon, and Hcmiayon, from the 
Miocene; but all these show transition characters to Viverridje 
or Ursidte, and do not perhaps beloi^ to the present family. 

Family 29.— MUSTELIDiE. (21-28 Oenera, 92 Species.) 


1.3.3— l.a,3.4 1,2,3- 1.2.3,4 

The Mustelidfe constitute one of those groups which range 
over the whole of the great continental areas. They may be 
divided into three sub-families — one, the Mustelinse, containing 
tho weasels, gluttons, and allied forms ; a second, the LutrinEe, 
containing the otters ; and a third, often considered a distinct 
family, the Melininte, containing the badgers, ratels, skunks, 
aird their allies. 

In the first group (Mustelinse) the genera Martes and 
Futorius (13 species), range over aU the Paliearctio region, and a 
considerable part of the Oriental, extending through India to 
Ceylon, and to Java and Borneo. Two species of Martes 
(=Mmtda of Baird) occur in the United States. The weasels, 
formii^ the genus Mnstela (20 species), have a still wider range, 
[ into tropical Africa and the Cordilleras of Peru, but 


CHAP, svii.] MAMMALIA. 1S9 

not going south of the Himalayas in India. The North American 
species are plnced in the geniis Putonus by Professor Baird. An 
allied genus, Gymnopus (4 species), is confined to the third and 
fourth Oriental sub-regions. Gulo (1 species), the glutton, is an 
arctic animal keeping to the cold regions of Europe and Asia, and 
coming as far south as the great lakes in North America. Galidis 
(2 species), the grisons, are confined to the Neotropical region. 

lie Ott s (Lutrinse) range over the whole area occupied by 
th fa u ly They have been subdivided into a number of groups, 
u 1 a Sarangia (I species), found only in Sumatra; Lontra, 

nta n n ^ South American species ; Lutra (7 species), ranging 
tl whole of the Paltearctie and Oriental regions ; Nutria 
(1 species), a sea-otter confined to the west coast of America 
from California to G)a\.o&; IJatronectes (1 species), from Japan only; 
Aonyx (5 species), found in West and South Africa, and the third 
and fourth Oriental sub-regions. Hydrogale (1 species), confined 
to South Africa; Laiasi (2 species), Florida and California to 
Canada and British Columbia ; Fteronura (1 species), Brazil and 
Surinam ; and Enhydris (1 species), the peculiar sea-otter of Cali- 
fornia, Kamschatka and Japan. The last two are the only groups 
of otters, besides Lvira, admitted by Professor Cams as genera. 

The Badgers and allies (Melinin^) have also a wide range, but 
with one exception are absent from South America. They com- 
prise the following genera: ArcfAiw>jx{\ species), Nepal to Aracan; 
MeUs (4 species), North Europe to Japan, and China as far south 
as Hongkong (Plate I., vol i, p. 195) ; Tamdea (2 species). Central 
and "Western North America to 58° N. Lat. ; Mydaus (1 species), 
mountains of Java and Sumatra; Melivora (3 species). Tropical and 
South Africa and India to foot of Himalayas; Mephitis (ISspecies), 
America from Canada and British Columbia to the Straits of Ma- 
gellan (Plate XX., vol. ii., p. 136). Idonyx (2 species). Tropical 
Africa to the Cape ; Selictis (4 species). Nepal to Java, Formosa 
and Shwighai (Plate "VII., vol. i. p. 331). 

Fossil Mustelidce. — Species of otter, weasel, badger, and glutton, 
occur in European bone caves and other Post-tertiary deposits ; 
and in North America Galictis, now found only in the Neotro- 
pical region, and, with Mephitis, occurring in Brazilian caves. 

TOL. 11.-14 



Species of Mustela have been found in the Pliocene of Prance 
and of South America; and Zutra in the Pliocene of North America. 

In the Miocene depo?its of Europe several species of Mustela 
and irtrim have been found; with the extinct genera Taxodon, 
Potamotherium, and Pakeomephiiis ; as well as Promephitis in 

In the Upper Miocene of the Siwalik Hills species of Lutra 
and MelKvora are found, as well as the extinct genera Enhydriffn, 
and Ursita^mLs. 

The family appears to have been unknown in North Amen''"" 
during the Miocene period. 

Family 30,— PEOCYONID^. (4 Genera, 8 Species.) 
Genehai DisTBiBrTioir. 


" 1 . "™". 




., 1 sf.""" 



- a.3- 

\ — 

1 1 __ 1 



The Proeyonidfe are a small, but very eurioua and interesting 
family of bear-like quadrupeds, ranging from British Columbia 
and Canada on the north, to Paraguay and the limits of the 
tropical forests on the south. 

The Eacoons, forming the genus Pmeijon, ate common all over 
North America ; a well-marked variety or distinct species inha^ 
bitii^ the west coast, and another, most parts of South America. 
The genua Nasua, or the coatis (5 species ?), extends from Mexico 
and Guatemala to Paraguay. The curious arboreal prehensile- 
tailed kinkagou {Cmxoleptes candivohm) is also found in Mexico 
and Guatemala, and in all the great forests of Peru and North 
BiazU, Bassarii (2 species), a small weasel-like animal with a 
banded tail, has been usually classed with the Viverrid^ or 
Mustehdffi, but is now found to agree closely in all important 
points of internal structure with this f amily . It is found in 
CaHfomia, Texas, and the highlands of Mexico, and belongs 
therefore as much to the Neaxctic as to the Neotropical region. 
A second species has recently been desci-ibed by Professor Peters 


CHAP, xvd.] MAMMALIA. 201 

from Coban in Guatemala, in which country it has also been 
observed by Mr. Salvin. 

Fossil Procyo'nid<6. — A species of Nasua has been found in the 
bone eaves of Brazil, and a Procyo-n in the Pliocene or Post- 
pliocene deposits of Illinois and Carolina. 

Family 31.— ^LUEID^ (2 Genera, 2 Species.) 
Geseeal DisrEiBunoN. 

The Panda (jEIwus fulgms), of. the forest regions of the 
Eastern Himalayas and East Thibet, a small cat-like hear, has 
peculiarities of organization which render it necessary to place 
it in a family by itsel£ (Plate VII. Vol. i. p. 331). An allied 
genus, Mlwopiis, a remarkable animal of larger size and in 
colour nearly all white, has recently been described by Professor 
Milne-Edwards, from the mountains of East Thibet ; so that the 
family may be said to inhabit the border lands of the Oriental 
and PalEearctic regions. These animals have their nearest allies 
in the coatis and bears 

Family 32. — UESIDiE. (5 Genera, or Snb-genera, 15 Species.) 
GeneraIi Distribution. 

The Bears have a tolerably wide distribution, although they 
are entirely absent from the Australian and Ethiopian, and almost 
so from the Neotropical region, one species only being found in 
the Andes of Peru and Chili. They comprise the following 
groups, aome of which are doubtfully ranked as genera. 

Thalassarctos, the polar bear (1 species) inhabiting the Arctic 
regions ; JJrms, the true bears (12 species), which range over 



all tlie Nearctic and Palfearctic regions as far as the Atlas Moun- 
tains, the Indo-Chinese sub-region in the mountains, and to 
Hainan and Formosa ; Eelarctos, the Malay or ami-hear (1 
species) confined to the Indo-Malayan sub-region ; Mdursus or 
I^oehiliiS, the honey-bear (1 species), confined to the first and 
second Oriental sub-regions, over which it ranges from the 
Ganges to Ceylon ; and Tr&mardos, the spectacled bear — com- 
monly known as Urgus ornatus — which is isolated in the Andes 
of Peru and Chili, and forma a distinct group. 

Fossil Ursidm. — Two. bears (Ursus ^elcms and U. priscus) 
closely allied to living species, abound in the Post-tertiary de- 
posits of Europe ; and others of the same age are found in North 
America, as weU as an extinct genus, Ardodus. 

TJrsus arvemmsis is found in the Pliocene formation of Prance, 
and the extinct genus L&ptareJws in that of North America. 

Several species of Anvphieytm, which appears to he an ances- 
tral form of this family, are found in the Miocene deposits of 
Europe and N. India; while Urms also occurs in the Siwahk 
Hdls and Nerbudda d 

Family 33.— OTAEIIDiE. (4 Genera, 8 Species.) 
Gbnebjvl Distribution. 

1 1 A 3— —2.3- 

The Otariidfe, or Eared Seals, comprehending the sea-beara and 
aea-lions, are confined to the temperate and cold shores of the 
North Pacific, and to similar climates in the Southern Hemisphere, 
where the larger proportion of the species are found. They are 
entirely absent from the N orth Atlantic shores. Mr. J. A. Allen, 
in his recent discussion of this family (Bull. Harvard Museum) 
divides them into the following genera : — 

Oidria (1 species). Temperate South America, from Chili to 
La- Plata; Oallorhinus (1 species), Behring's Straits and Kams- 
chatka ; Arctocepkaltis (3 species), temperate regions of tlie 




Southern Hemisphere ; Zalopkus (2 species). North Pacific, from 
California to Japan, and the shores of Australia and New Zea- 
land ; Humetiypias (1 species), Behring's Straits and California, 

Fossil OtariidcB.^Bemaias supposed to belong to this family 
have been found in the Miocene of France. 

Family 34.— TEICHECHIDJi. (1 Genua, 1 Species.) 

General Distribution. 

Neotbopical I Nffi/iBtTio ! PiL*:ABcnc I Ethiopian I Oriestal I Australian 


The Morse, or Walrus (Trichecm rosmarm), which alone 
constitutes this family, is a characteristic animal of the North 
Polar regions, hardly passing south of the Arctic circle except on 
the east and west coasts of North America, where it sometimes 
reaches lat. 60°. It is most abundant on the shores of Spitz- 
bergen, but is not found on the northern shores of Asia between 
Long. 80° and 160° E., or on the north shores of America from 
100° to 150° west. 

Its remains have been found fossil in Europe as far south as 
France, and in America as far as Virginia; but the small frag- 
ments discovered may render the identification uncertain. 

FAjnLY 35.— PHOCID^. (13 Cxenora, 21 Species.) 


" 1 sSiSSS.. 







, l. — > 





1 — 

The earless or true Seals aie pretty equally dnided between 
the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, frequenting almost ex- 
clusively the temperate and cold legions, e\cept two species 
said to occur among the West Indian islands The genus 
Fhoca and its close allies, as veil A.'iHfih<Jiaiv^ and Pt/uyras, are 



northern; wMIe Stenorkpnchus and M(mmga, with their alHes, 
are mostly southern. The genera admitted hy Dr. Gray in his 
catalogue are as follows : — 

CaUocephalm (3 species), Greenland, North Sea, also the 
Caspian Sea, and Lakes Aral and Baikal ; 
North Sea, North Pacific, and Japan ; 
North Pacific and North Atlantic ; Halicyon (1 species). North 
West coast of America ; Phoca, (2 species), North Atlantic and 
North Pacific, Japan ; Halichm-iis (1 species), Greenland, North 
Sea, and Baltic ; Pelagius (2 species), Madeira, Mediterranean, 
Black Sea ; Sten<yrhynchus (1 species), Antarctic Ocean, Falkland 
Islands, New Zealand; Zolodon (1 species), Antarctic Ocean; 
Lejptonyx (1 species), Antarctic Ocean, South Australia, East 
Patagonia ; Ommatophoca (1 species), Antarctic Ocean ; Monrnga 
(2 species), Cahforniaj Falkland Islands, Temperate regions of 
Southern Ocean ; Cystophora (2 species). North Atlantic, Antilles. 

Fossil Seals. — Ilemains of living species of seals have been found 
in Post-tertiary deposits in many parts of Europe and in Algeria, 
as well as in New Zealand. Pi'istvphoca occiiana. is a fossil seal 
from the Pliocene of Montpellier, while a species of Plioea is said 
to have been found in the Miocene deposits of the United States. 

General Pemarks on the IHstrtbuiion of the Oamivora. 

Terrestrial Carnivora. — For the purposes of geographical dis- 
tribution, the terrestrial and acLuatic Carnivora differ too widely 
to be considered in one view, their axeas being limited by barriers 
of a very different nature. The terrestrial Carnivora form a very 
extensive and considerably varied group of animals, having, with 
the doubtful exception of Austraha, a world-wide distribution. 
Yet the range of modification of form is not very great, and the 
occurrence of three families consisting of but one species ea«h, is 
an indication of a great amount of recent extinction. One of 
the most marked features presented by this group is its com- 
parative scarcity in tie Neotropical region, only four families 
being represented there (not counting the Ursidte, which has 
only one Andean species), and both genera and species are few 
in number. Even the Procyonidie, which are especially South 



American, have but two genera and six species in that vast area. 
We might therefore, from these considerations alone, eoncltide 
that Camivora are a development of the northern hemisphere, 
and have been introduced into the Neotropical region at a com- 
paratively recent epoch. The claim of the Nearctic region to 
be kept distinct from the Palfearctic (with which some writers 
have wished to unite it) is well maintained by its possession of 
at least six species of Mephitis, or skunk, a group having no 
close allies in any other region, — and the genera Procyon and 
Bassaris, — for the latter, ranging from the high lands of Guate- 
mala and Mexico to Texas and California, may be considered 
a Nearctie rather than a Neotropical form. In the other 
families, the most marked feature is the total ahsence of Ursidse 
from the Ethiopian r^ion. The great mass of the generic 
forms of Camivora, however, are found in the Oriental and 
Ethiopian regions, which possess all the extensive group of 
Viverridse (except a few species in the fourth Palffiarctic sub- 
region) and a large number of Eelidte and MustelidEe. 

Aquatic Oamivora.— -The aquatic Camivora present no very 
marked features of distribution, except their preference for cold 
and temperate rather than tropical seas. Their nearest approxi- 
mation to the terrestrial group, is supposed to be that of the 
Otariidfe to the Ursidte ; but this must he very remote, and the 
occurrence of both seals and bears in the Miocene period, shows, 
that until we find some late Secondary or early Tertiary formation 
rich in Mammalian' remains, we are not Ukely to get at the tran- 
sition forms indicating the steps by which the aquatic Carnivora 
were developed. The most interesting special fact of distribu- 
tion to be noticed, is the occurrence of seals, closely allied to 
those inhabiting the northern seas, in the Caspian, Lake Aral, 
and Lake Baikal. In the case of the two first-named localities 
there is little difficulty, as they are connected with the North Sea 
by extensive plains of low elevation, so that a depression of less 
than 500 feet would open a free communication with the ocean. 
At a comparatively recent epoch, a great gidf of the Arctic ocean 
must have occupied the valley of the Irtish, and extended to the 
Caspian Sea ; till the elevation of the Kirghiz Steppes cut ofF the 



communieation with the ocean, leaving an inland sea with its seals. 
Lake.Iiailial, however, offers much greater difficulties; since it is 
not only a fresh-water lake, hut ia situated in a mountain district 
nearly 2,000 feet above the sea level, and entirely separated from 
the plains hy several hundred miles of high land. It is true that 
such an amount of submergence and elevation is known to have 
occurred in Europe so recently as during the Glacial period; but 
Lake Baikal is so surrounded by moimtaius, that it must at that 
time have been filled with ice, if at anything like its present 
elevation. Its emergence from the sea must therefore have taken 
place since the cold epoch, and this would imply that an enormous 
extent of Northern Asia has been very recently under water. 

We are accustomed to look on Seals as animals which exclu- 
sively iahabit salt water ; but it is probably from other causes 
than its saltness that they usually keep to the open sea, and 
there seems no reason why fiesh-water should not suit them quite 
as well, provided they find in it a sufficiency of food, facilities for 
rearing their young, and freedom from the attacks of enemies. 
As already remarked in vol. i. p. 218, Mr, Belt's ingenious 
hypothesis (founded on personal examination of the Siberian 
Steppes), that during the Glacial period the northern ice-cap 
dammed up the waters of the northward flowing Asiatic rivers, 
and thus formed a vast fresh-water lake which might have risen as 
high as Lake Baikal, seems to offer the best solution of this 
curious problem of distribution. 

Range of Carnivora in Kme.— Carnivora have been found in 
all the Tertiary deposits, and comprise a number of extinct 
genera and even families. Several genera of Canidai occur in 
the Upper Eocene of Europe ; but the most remarkable fact is, 
that even in the Lower Eocene are found two well-marked 
forms, Pakeonydis, one of the Viverridce, and Arctocyon, form- 
ing a distinct family type of very generalized characters, but 
unmistakably a carnivore. This last has been found at La E^re, 
in the north-east of Erance, in a deposit which, according to 
M. Gaudry, is the very lowest of the Lower Eocene formation 
in Europe. Arctocyon is therefore one of the oldest, if not the 
very oldest, of the higher forms of mammal yet discovered. 


Ord&r r.—CETACEA. 

Family 36.— BAL^NIDjE. (6 Genera, 14 Species.) 

General Distribution. — Temperate and Cold Seas of both Noiihern and 

SouUiern. Hcmispliores, 

This family comprises the whalebone or " right " whales, the 
best known species being the Greenland whale (£alcena mys- 
ticetus). AlUed species are found in all parts of the southern 
seas, as far north as the Cape of Good Hope ; while some of the 
northern species are found off the coast of Spain, and even enter 
the Mediterranean. As most of the species indicated are im- 
perfectly known, and their classification hy no means well 
settled, no useful purpose will be served by enumerating the 
genera or sub-genera. 

Family 37.— BAL^NOPTEPJD^. (9 Genera, 22 Species.) 
Gbnbbai. Distribution. — Cold and Temperate Seas of both Hemispheres. 

This family comprises the fiuner whales and rorquals, and are 
characterised by possessing a dorsal fin and having the baleen 
or whalebone less developed. They are abundant in all northern 
seas, less so in the southern hemisphere, but they seem occa- 
sionally to enter the trtfpical seas. The best known genera are 
Megaptera (7 species) ; Physai'us (4 species) ; and Balmnoptera 
(2_ species) ; all of which have species in the North Sea. 

Family 38.— CATODONTID^. (4 Genera, or Sub-Genera, 
6 Species.) 

Genehau DisTiiiBUTioN.— All the Tropical Oceans, cKtending north and south 
into Temperate watei's. 

This family, comprising the cachalots or sperm whales, and 
black-fish, are separated from the true whales by having teeth 
in the lower jaw and no whalebone. They are pre-eminently a 
tropical, as distinguished from the two preceding which are 



arctic and antaretie familiea. The spermaceti whale (Catodon 
tnacrocephalm) atoimda in the Pacific Ocean and in the deep 
Molucean Sea, and also in the Indian Ocean and the Mozam- 
bique Channel. In the Atlantic it is scarce, although it occa^ 
sionolly cornea north as far as our shores. 

The genera of Catodontidje as given ty Dr. Gray are, Latodon 
(2 species ?), Warm Eastern Oceana ; Fhysetetr (1 species), " the 
hlack fish," North Sea ; Gogia (2 species), - South Temperate 
Oceans; ^wphysetes (1 species). Coast of Australia. 

Family 39.— HYPEEOODONTIDiE. (9 Genera or Sub-Genera, 
12 Species.) 

This family consists o£ the beaked whales, which have no per- 
manent teeth in the upper jaw. The genera, according to Dr. Gray, 
)don (2 species) "bottle-nosed whales," North Sea; 
etus (1 species). North Sea ; Epiodon (2 species). North 
and South Atlantic; Fetrorhynehus (2 species), Mediterranean 
Sea and Southern Ocean; Berardius {1 species). New Zealand; 
Xiphvas (1 species) North Atlantic ; Dolichodon {1 species). Cape 
of Good Hope ; NeosipMus (1 species) Mediterranean. ; Dioplo- 
don (1 species), Indian Ocean. 

Familt 40.— MONODONTIDiE. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

The " Narwhal " (Monodon monoceros) which constitutes this 
family, is placed by Dr. Gray along with the " white whales," in 
his family Belugidse. It inhabits the North Sea. 

Family 4:1.— DELPHINID^. (24 Genera or Sub-Genera, 

100 Species.) ' 
Gbnbeal Distkibution. — All Oceans, Seas, and Great Eiveis of the globe. 

This family, including the Porpoises, Dolphins, White Y 
&c., may be described as small, iiah-shaped whales, having teeth 



in both jaw3. According to Dr. Gray they form seven families 
and 24 genera; according to Professor Cams, four sub-families 
and 8 genera, but as these groups appear to be established on 
quite different principles, and often differ widely from each other, 
I shall simply enumerate Dr. Uray'a genera with their distribu- 
tion as given in his British Museum Catalogue, 

Platanista (2 species), long-snouted porpoises, inhabiting the 
Ganges and Indus ; Inia (1 species), a somewhat similar form, 
inhabiting the upper waters of the Amazonian rivers ; Stma 
(8 species), Indian Ocean, Cape of Good Hope, and "West Pacific ; 
Sotcdia (1 species), Guiana ; Ddphinus (10 species), aU the oceans ; 
Clymenia (14 species), all the oceans ; Delpkina^ierus (1 species). 
South Atlantic ; Twrsio (7 species), Atlantic and Indian Oceans ; 
Eutrop'M (2 species), Chili, and Cape of GiDod Hope ; Electro- (8 
species), all the oceans; Zeticopleurus (1 species). North Sea; 
Lagmorhynclms (1 species), Nort-h Sea; Psmdorcct (2 species). 
North Sea, Tasmania ; Orcaella (2 species), Ganges ; Acaniho- 
ddphis (1 species), Brazil ; Phocmna (2 species),' North Sea ; Neo- 
Tneris (1 species), India ; Orwnvpvs (3 species), North Sea, Medi- 
terranean, Cape of Good Hope ; GlohiocepMlus (14 species), all 
the oceans; Sphceroc^halus (1 species). North Atlantic; Orea 
(9 species). Northern and Southern Oceans ; Ophysia (1 species), 
North Pacific ; Beluga (6 species), Arctic Seas, Australia ; Pon- 
toporia (1 species), Monte Video. 

Foml Cetacea. 

JJemains of Cetacea are tolerably abundant in Tertiary 
deposits, both in Europe and North America. In the Lower 
Pliocene of England, Prance, and Germany, extinct species of 
five or six living genera of whales and dolphins have been 
found ; and most of these occur also in the Upper Miocene, along 
with many others, referred to about a dozen extinct genera. 

In the Post-pliocene deposits of Vermont and South Carolina, 
several extinct species have been found belonging to living genera ; 
but in the Miocene deposits of the Eastern United States ceta- 
cean remains are much more abundant, more than 30 species of 



extinct -whales and dolphins having been described, most of them 
belonging to extinct genera. 

The Zeuglodontidje, an extinct family of carnivorous whales, 
with double-fanged serrated molar teeth, whose affinities are 
sordewhat doubtful, are found in the older Pliocene of Europe, 
and in the Miocene and Eocene ol the Eastern United States. 
Zeuglodon abounds in the United States, and one species reached 
a length of seventy feet. A species of this genus is said to have 
been found in Malta. Squalodon occurs in Europe and North 
America ; and in the latter country four or iive other genera have 
been described, of which one, Saurocetes, has been found also at 
s Ayreg. 

Family 42.— MANATID^. (3 Genera, 5 Species ?) 


The Sea-cows are herbivorous aquatic animals living on the 
coasts or in the great rivers of several parts of the globe. Ma-- 
jiatus (2 species) inhabits both shores of the Atlantic, one 
species ranging from the Gulf of Mexico to North Brazil, and 
ascendibg the Amazon far into the interior of the continent ; 
while the other is found on the west coast of Africa. Halicore (2 
species ?), the Dngong, is peculiar to the Indian Ocean, extending 
from Mozambi^jne to the Eed Sea, thence to Western India and 
Ceylon, the Malay Archipelago and the north coast of Australia. 
Bytina (1 species), supposed to be now extinct, inhabited re- 
cently the Worth Pacific, between Kamschatka and Eehring's 

Fossil Sirenia. — Extinct species of Manatiis have been found 
:n the Post-pliocene deposits of Eastern North America from 


CHAP, xvn.] MAMMALIA. 211 

Maryland to Florida; and an extinct gemis, P?wfflS(omMs,itisome 
Tertiary depoaita in the Island of Jamaica. 

In Poat-pUocene depcraifcs in Siberia, remains of Eytma have 
teen foimd ; while several species o£ the extinct genus Hali' 
therium, perhaps intermediate between Manatus and HaJieore, 
have been found in the older Pliocene and Upper Miocene of 
France and Germany, 

Order VII.— UNGVZAT4. 
Family 43,— EQUID^, (1 Genus, 8 Species.) 


J. 2 I 1,2.3- ll. 2, 3. 4. 1.-3- 

The Horsea, Aaaea, and Zehms fona a highly specialized group 
now oonfined to the Ethiopian and Palfearctic regions, but during 
the middle and later tertiaries having a very extensive range. 
The zebras (3 species) inhabit the greater part of the Ethiopian 
region, while the asses (4 species) are characteristic of the deserts 
of the Paliearetic region from North Africa and Syria to Western 
India, Mongolia, and Manchuria. The domestic horse is not 
hnown in a wild state, but its remains are found in recent de- 
posits from Britain to the Altai Mountains, so that its disappear- 
ance is probably due to human agency. 

Extinct Eqidda:.- — Extinct forms of this family are very 
numerous. The genus Egv/m occurs in Post-pliocene and Plio- 
cene deposits in Europe, Forth America, and South America. 
In North America the species are most numerous. An allied 
genus Hippariorv. having rudimentary lateral toes, is represented 



by several species in the Pliocene of North America, while in 
Europe it occurs both in the Older Pliocene and Upper Miocene. 
Various other alHed forma, in which the lateral toea are more 
and more developed, and most of which are now classed in a dis- 
tinct iaroily, Anchitheridte, range back tlirough the Miocene to 
the Eocene period. A suf&cient account of these has already 
been given in vol. i. chap. vi. p. 135, to which the reader is 
referred for the supposed origin and migrations of the horse. 

Family 44.— TAPIRID^. (2 Genera ? 6 Species.) 




;.. ss=.\.S!=.. 









— A 


The Tapirs form a small group of animals whose discontinuous 
distribution plainly indicates their approaching extinction. For 
a long time only two species were known, the black American, 
and tiie white-banded Malay tapir, the former confined to the 
equatorial forests of South America, the latter to the Malay 
peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo (Plate VIII. vol. i. p. 337). 
Lately however another, or perhaps two distinct species (or ac- 
cording to Dr. J, E. Gray, four !) have been discovered in the 
Andes of New Granada and Ecuador, at an elevation of from 
8,000 to 12,000 feet ; wlule one or perhaps two more, forming 
the allied genus Ela^nognathas, have been found to inhabit 
Central America from Panama to Guatemala. 

ExtiTict rapm.— True tapirs inhabited Western Europe, from 
the latest Pliocene back to the earliest Miocene times ; while 
they only occur in either North or South America in the Post- 
pliocene deposits and caves. The singular distribution of the 
living species is thus explained, since we see that they are 
an Old World group which only entered the American continent 
at a comparatively recent epoch. An ancestral form of this 
group — Lopkiodon — is found in Miocene and Eocene deposits of 



Europe and North America ; while a still more ancient form of 
large size is found in the Lower Eocene of I'rance and England, 
indicating an immense antiquity for this group of Mammalia. 
There are many other extinct forms connecting these. with the 
Palasotheridse, already noticed in chapter vi.(vol. i.pp. 119-125). 

Family 45,— EHINOOEKOTID^. (1 Genus, 9 Species.) 
Genebai: Distribution. 

Living Ehinoceroses are especially characteristic of Africa, with 
Northern and Malayan India. Four or perhaps five species, all 
two-horned, are found in Africa, where they range over the whole 
country south of the desert to the Cape of Good Hope. In the 
Oriental region there are also four or five species, which range 
troia the forests at the foot of the Himalayas eastwards through 
Assam, Chittagong, and Siam, to Sumatra, Borneo and Java, 
Three of these are one-homed, the others found in Sumatra, and 
northwards to Pegu and Chittagong, two-horned. The Asiatic 
differ fram the African species in some dental characters, hut 
they are in other respects so much ahbe that they are not gene- 
rally considered to form distinct genera. In his latest catalogue 
however (1873), Dr. Gray has four g^nQiA,Skmoceros (4 species), 
and CeratorMrms (2 species), Asiatic ; RMnasler (2 species), and 
Ceratotherivm (2 species), African. 

Extmet EkinocerotidiB. — Numerous species of HMnoeeros ranged 
over Europe and Asia from the Post-pliocene back to the Upper 
Miocene period, and in North America during the Pliocene period 



only. The hornless Acerothermm is Miocene only, in hoth 
countries. Other genera are, Leptodon from Greece, and Ryra- 
codon from Kebraaka, hoth of Miocene age. More than 20 
species of extinct rhinoceroses are known, and one has even been 
found at an altitude of 16,000 feet in Thibet. 

Family 46.- 




2 Species.) 


Keotbopioil 1 





The Hippopotamus inhabits all the great rivers of Africa ; a 
distinct species of a smaller size being found on the west coast, 
and on some of the rivers flowing into Lake Tchad. 

Fossil Hippopotami. — Eight extinct species of Hippopotamus 
are known from Europe and India, the former Post-pUocene or 
Pliocene, the latter of Upper Miocene age. They ranged as far 
north as the Thames valley. An extinct genus from the Siwalik 
Hills, Mei-ycopotamus, according to Dr. Palconer connects Hippo- 
potamus with Anthracotherium, an extinct form from the Miocene 
of Europe, allied to the swine, 

Family 47.— SXJID^. (5 Genera, 22 Species.) 
Gebebai. Distribution. 

-2.3— -a. 3- 1. 

The Swine may be divided into three well-marked groups, 
rom peculiarities in their dentition, 1, The Dicotylin^, or 



peccaries (1 genus, Bieotyles). Theae offer so many stnictural 
differences that they are often classed as a separate family, 2, 
The true swine (3 genera, jSms, Potamoehcerus, and Bahii-usa) ; and, 
3. ThePhacochcerinEe, or wart hogs (1 genus, Fhacochmrtis). These 
last are also sometimes made into a separate fanuly, but they 
are hardly so distinct as the Dicofcylinie. 

The Peccaries (2 species), are peculiar to the Neotropical re- 
gion, extending irom Mexico to Paraguay. They also spread 
northwards into Texas, and as far as the Eed Eiver of Arkansas, 
thus just entering the M" earctie region ; but with this exception 
swine are whoUy absent from this region, forming an excellent 
feature by which to differentiate it from the Palsearctic. 

iSW (14 species), ranges overthe Palsearctic and Oriental regions 
and into the first Australian sub-region as far as New Guinea ; 
but it is absent from the Ethiopian region, or barely enters it oa 
the north-east. Fotamochi&nts (3 species f), is wholly Ethiopian 
(Plate V. vol i p. 278). Bahirusa (1 species), is confined to two 
islands, Celebes and Bouru, in the first Australian sub-region. 

Fhacochcerus [2 species), ranges over tropical Africa from 
Abyssinia to Caffraria. 

Dr. J. E. Gray divides true swine (£f!*s) into V genera, but it 
seems far better to keep them as one. 

Fossil Suidte.—Thesh are very numerous. Many extinct 
species of wild hog (Sus), are found in Europe and North India, 
ranging back from the Post-pliocene to the Upper Miocene for- 
mations. In the Miocene of Europe are numerous extinct 
genera, Boihriodon, Afiihracoiheriwiik, Falwochwrus, Hyothenimn, 
and some others; while in the Upper Eocene occur CebocJicerus, 
otamus, and Aeotherium, — these early forms having more 
e to the peccaries. 

None of these genera are found in America, where we have the 
living genus Bicotyles in the Post-pliocene and Phocene deposits, 
both of North and South America ; with a number of extiuet 
genera in tlie Miocene. The chief of these are, SHoth&i-ium, Fer- 
chcems, Leptochcerm, and Nanohyus, all iVom Dakota, and 
ThAnokyus, from Oregon. One extinct genus, Flatygonus, closely 
allied to Bicotyles, is found in the Post-pliocene of Nebraska. 

Vol. II.— 15 


216 GEO&RAPHIOAL ZOOLOGY. [part iv. 

Or^on, and Arkansas. Eloth&rium is said to be allied to the 
peccary and hippopotamus. Hyopotamus, from the Miocene of 
Dakota, is allied to Anihracothenum, and forma with it (accord- 
ing to Dr. Leidy) a distinct family of ancestral swine. 

It thus appears, that the swine were almost equally well re- 
presented in North America and Europe, during Miocene and 
Pliocene times, but by entirely distinct forma ; and it is a re- 
markable fact that these hardy omnivorous animals, should, like 
the horaea, have entirely died out in Forth America, except a 
few peccaries which have preserved themselves in the sub-tropical 
parte and in the southern continent, to which they are compara- 
tively recent emigrants. We can hardly have a more convincing 
proof of the vast physical changes that have occurred in the 
Worth American continent during the Pliocene and Post-pliocene 
epochs, than the complete extinction of these, along with so 
many other remarkable types of Mammalia. 

According to M. Gandry, the ancestors of all the swine, with 
the hippopotami and extiuct Anthraaotherimn, Merj/eopotamm, 
and many alhed forms, — are the Hyracothermtn and PUolopfms, 
both found only in the London clay belonging to the Lower 
Eocene formation. 

Family 48.~CAMELID^. {2 Genera, ( 

General Distribution. 



\OVtl. SDB.BEail 

Zs. S™^N«. B^"k™ 





-1 — 



The Camels are an exceedingly reatricted group, the majority 
of the species now existing only in a state of domestication. The 
genus Gamdus (2 species), is a highly characteristic desert form 



of the Palffiarctic region, from the Sahara to Mongolia, as far as 
Lake Baikal. Auchenia (4 species), comprehending the Llamas 
and Alpacas, is eq^ually characteristic of the mountains and deserts 
of the southern part of South America. Two species entirely 
domesticated inhabit the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes ; and two 
others are found in a wild state, the vicuna in the Andes of 
Peru and Chili (Plate XVI. vol. ii. p. 40), and the guanaco over 
the plains of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego. 

Extmet GamelidfB. — ITo fossU remains of camels have heen 
found in Europe, but one occurs m the deposits of the Siwalik 
Hills, usually classed as Upper Miocene, but which some natu- 
ralists think are more likely of Older Pliocene age. Meryco- 
'j, teeth of which have been found in the Siberian drift, is 
3 belong to this family. 

In North America, where no representative of the family now 
exists, the camel-tribe were once abundant. In the Post-pliocene 
deposits of California an Auchenia has been found, and in those 
of Kansas one of the extinct genus Froeameltis, In the Pliocene 
period, this genua, which was closely allied to the living camels, 
abounded, six or seven species having been described from 
Nebraska and Texas, together with an allied form Homocamelus. 
In the Miocene period different genera appear, — Pmhrothm-ium, 
and P'rotomeryx,—vi)^Q a Frocamelus has been found in de- 
posits of this age in Virginia 

In South America a species of Auchenia has been found in 
the caves of Brazil, and others in the Phocene deposits of the 
as, together ^ith two extinct genera, PalcBolama and Oamelo- 

We thus find the ancestors of the Camelidfe in a region where 
they do not now exist, but which is situated so that the now 
widely separated living forms could easily have been derived 
from it. This case offers a remarkable example of the light 
thrown by paleontology on the distribution of Kving animals; 
and it is a warning against the too common practice of assuming 
the direct land connection of remote continents, in order to ex- 
plain similar instances of discontinuous distribution to that of 
the present family. 




Family 49. 

— TEAGULIDiE. {2 Genera, 6 Species.) 


NEOTE.iiPic.1: 1 Near 

''^3. 1 Tu^e^ae. 1 E^fE^io™. | S^^e^ns. 1 Bu™Sli»a 

The Tragulidffi are a group of small, hornless., deer-like animals, 
with tuska in the upper jaw, and having some structural affinities 
with the camels. The musk-deer was formerly classed in this 
family, which it resemhles externally ; but a minute examination 
of its structure hy M. Milne-Edwards, has shown it to be more 
nearly allied to the true deer. The Chevrotaiiis, or mouse-deei', 
Tragulus (5 species), rar^e over all India to the foot of the 
Himalayas and Ceylon, and through Assam, Malacca, and Cam- 
bodja, to Sumatra, Borneo, and Java (Plate VIII., vol. i. p. 
337). Hy^moschus (1 species), is found in West Africa. 

Extvnd Tragididce, — A species of JlyomosAuB is said to have 
been found in the Miocene of the South of France, as well as 
three extinct genera, Dremotherium (also found in Greece), with 
Lophiomeryx fram the Upper Miocene, said to be allied to Tra- 
gulus ; and 4^mphiiragulus from the Lower Miocene, of more 
remote affinities, and sometimes placed among the Deer. There 
seems to be no doubt, however, that this family existed in Europe 
in Miocene times ; and thus another case of discontinuous dis- 
tribution is satisfactorily accounted for. 

Family 50.— CEKVID^. (8 Genera, 52 Species.) 




PXLS.BCT1C Ethiopian 









The CervidEe, or deer tribe, ate an extensive group of s 
gqually adapted for inhabiting forests or open plains, the Arctic 


CHAP. xviLj MAMMALIA. 219 

regions orthe Tropics. They range in fact over the whole of the 
great continents of the globe, with the one striking exception of 
Africa, where they are only found on the shores of the Mediterra- 
nean which form part of the Palsearctie region. The following 
is the distribution of the genera. 

Alces (1 species), the elk or moose, ranges all over Northern 
Europe and Asia, as far south as East Prussia, the Caucasus, and 
North China ; and over Arctic America to Maine on the East, and 
British Columbia on the west. The American species may 
however be distinct, although very closely allied to that of 
Europe. Tarandm (1 species), the remdeer, has a similar range 
to the last, but keeps farther north in Europe, inhabiting Green- 
land and Spitzbergen ; and in America extends farther south, to 
New Brunswick and the north shore of Lalie Superior. There 
are several varieties or species of this animal confined to special 
districts, but they are not yet well determined, Oerms (40 
species), the true deer, have been sub-divided into numerous sub- 
genera characteristic of separate districts. They range over the 
whole area of the family, except that they do not go beyond 
57° N. in America and a little ffltther in Europe and Asia. In 
South America they extend over Patagonia and even to Tierra 
del Euego. They are found in the north of Africa, and over the 
whole of the Oriental region, and beyond it as far as the Mo- 
luccas and Timor, where however they have probably been intro- 
duced by man at an early period. Sama (1 species), the fallow 
deer, is a native of the shores of the Mediterranean, from Spain 
and Earhary to Syria, Capreolus (2 species), the roe-deer, inhabits 
all Temperate and South Europe to Syria, with a distinct species 
in N. China, Cervulus (4 species), the muntjacs, are found in 
all the forest distcicts of the Oriental region, from India and 
Ceylon to China as far north as Ningpo and Formosa, also south- 
ward to the Philippines, Borneo, and Java. Mosckus (I species) 
the musk-deer, inhabits Central Asia from the Amoor and 
Pekin, to the Himalayas and the Siamese mountains above 
8000 ft. elevation. This is usually classed as a distinct family, 
but M. Milne-Edwards remarks, that it differs in no important 
points of organisation from the rest of the Cejridse. 



(1 species) inhabits China from the Yang-tse Kiang northwards. 
This new genus has recently been discovered by Mr. Swinhoe, 
who says its nearest affinities are with Moschus. Other new 
forms are Lophotragus, and Elaphodiis, both inhabiting North 
China ; the former is hornless, the latter has very small horns 
about an inch long. 

Extinct Dbbt. — Numerous extinct species of the genus Cervus 
are found fossn in many parts of Europe, and in all formations 
between the Post-pliocene and the Upper Miocene. The Elk 
and Eeindeer are also found in caves and Post-pliocene deposits, 
the latter as far south as the South of France. Extinct genera 
only, occur in the Upper Miocene in various parts of Europe : — 
Micromeryx, Palceomeryx, and Dicroeercus have been described ; 
with others refeiTed doubtfully to Moschus, and an allied genus 

In N. America, remains of this family are very scarce, a Cer- 
vus allied to the existing wapiti deer, being found iu Post-plio- 
cene deposits, and an extinct genus, Leptomeryx, in the Upper 
Miocene of Dakota and Or^on. Another extinct genus, Mery- 
codus, from the Phocene of Oregon, is said to be allied to camels 
and deer. 

In South America, several species of Cervus have been found 
in the Brazilian caves, and in the Pliocene deposits of La 

It thus appears, that there are not yet sufficient materials for 
determining the origin and migrations of the Cervidai. There 
can be little doubt that they are an Old World group, and a com- 
paratively recent development ; and that some time during the 
Miocene period they passed to North America, and subsequently 
to the Southern continent. They do not however appear to have 
developed much in Worth America, owing perhaps to their find- 
ing the country already amply stocked with numerous forms 
of indigenous Ungulates. 



Family 51.— CAJIELOPAEDALID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 


-i' — !-— i 

The Camelopardalidfe, or giraffes, now consist of "but a single 
species which ranges over all the open country of the Ethiopian 
region, aaid is therefore almost absent from West Africa, which 
is more especially a forest district. During the Middle Tertiary 
period, however, these animals had a wider range, over Southern 
Europe and Western India as far as the slopes of the Hima- 

EaMmt ^mies. — Species of Oamelopardatis have been found 
in G-reece, the Siwalik Hills, and Perim Island at the entrance 
to the Red Sea; and an extinct genus, HeUadothsrium, more 
bulky but not so tall as the giraffe, ranged from the south of 
France to Greece and North-west India. 

Family 52.— BOVID^. (34 Genera, 149 Species.) 


l.a — 4 l.S.3.4 1.2.3- 

This large and important family, includes all the animals com- 
monly known as oxen, buffaloes, antelopes, sheep, and goats, 
which have been classed by many naturalists in at least three, 
and sometimes four or five, distinct families. Zoologically, they 



are briefly and accurately defined as, " hollow-homed mminants ;" 
and, although they present wide differences in external form, 
they grade so insenaihly into each other, that no satisfactory 
definition of the smaller family groups can he found. As 
a whole they are almost coniined to the great Old World 
continent, only a few forms extending along the highlands and 
prairies of the Nearctic region ; while one peculiar type is found in 
Celebes, an island which is almost intermediate between the 
Oriental and Australian regions. In each of the Old World 
regions there are found a characteristic set of types. Antelopes 
prevail in the Ethiopian region ; sheep and goats in the Palse- 
arctic ; while the oxen are perhaps beat developed in the Oriental 

Sir Victor Brooke, who has paid special attention to this 
family, divides them into 13 sub-familiea, and 1 here adopt the 
arrangement of the genera and species which he has been so 
good as to communicate to me in MSS, 

Sub-family I. Bovine {6 genera, 13 species). This group is 
one of the best marked in the family. It comprises the Oxen 
and Buffaloes with their allies, and has a distribution very 
nearly the same as that of the entire family. The genera are as 
follows : JBos (1 sp,), now represented by our domestic cattle, the 
descendants of the Bos primigenius, which ranged over a large 
part of Central Europe in the time of the Eomans. The Chil- 
lingham wild cattle are supposed to be the nearest approach to 
the original species. Bison (2 sp.), one still wild in Poland and 
the Caucasus; the other in Worth America, ranging over the 
prairies west of the Mississippi, and on the eastern slopes of the 
Eocky Mountains (Plate XIX., vol. ii., p, 129). Bibos (3 sp.), 
the Indian wild cattle, ranging over a large part of the Oriental 
region, from Southern India to Assam, Bnrmah, the Malay 
Peninsula, Borneo, and Java. Po^hagtts (1 sp.), the yak, con- 
fined to the high plains of Western Thibet. Buhalus (5 sp.), the 
buffaloes, of which three species are African, ranging over aU the 
continental parts of the Ethiopian region ; one Northern and 
Central Indian ; and the domesticated animal in South Europe 
and North Africa. Anoa (1 sp.), the small wild cow of C 


CHAP. XVII.] Mammalia. 223 

a very peculiar form more nearly allied to the buffaloes tlian 
to any other type of oxen. 

Sub-family IL Teagelaphin^ (3 genera, 11 species). The 
Bovine Antelopes are large and handaome auimala, mostly 
Ethiopian, but extending into the adjacent parts of the Palte- 
arctic and Oriental regions. The genera are: Oreas (2 sp.), 
elands, inhabiting all Tropical and South Africa. Tragela.- 
phus (8 sp.), including the bosch-bok, kudu, and other large 
antelopes, ranges over all Tropical and South Africa (Plate IV., 
vol. it., p. 261). Fortax (1 sp.) India, but rare in Madras and 
north o£ the Ganges. 

Sub-family III. Oetgik^ (2 genera, 5 species). Oryx (4 sp,) is 
a desert genus, ranging over all the African deserts to South 
Arabia and Syria ; Addax (1 sp.) inhabits North Africa, North 
Arabia, and Syria. 

Sub-family IV. HrppOTBAGIN-ffii (1 genus, 3 species). The 
Sable Antelopes, ITippotragtis, form an isolated group inhabiting 
the open country of Tropical Africa and south to the Cape. 

Sub-family V. GazblliSjE (6 genera, 23 species). This is 
a group of small or moderate-sized animals, most abundant in 
the deserts on the borders of the Paltearctic, Oriental, and 
Ethiopian regions. Gasdla (17 sp.) is typically a Palseaictic 
desert group, ranging over the great desert plateaus of North 
Africa, from Senegal and Abyssinia to Syria, Persia, Beloo- 
chistan, and the plains of India, with one outlying species in 
South Africa. Procapra (2 sp.). Western Thibet and Mongolia 
to about 110° east longitude. Ajitilope (1 sp.) inhabits all the 
plains of India, ^pyceros (1 sp.) the pallah, inhabits the open 
country of South and South-east Africa. Saiga (1 sp.) a singular 
sheep-faced antelope, which inhabits the steppes of Eastern 
Europe and Western Asia from Poland to the Irtish Eiver, 
south of 55° north latitude. (Plate II., vol. i., p. 218.) Pan- 
(halops (1 sp.) coniined to the highlands of Westeni Thibet and 
perhaps Turkestan. 

Sub-family VI. Antilocapein-e (1 genus, 1 species), Aidilo- 
capra, the prong-horned antelope, inhabit both sides of the 
Eoeky Mountains, extending north to the i 



ColumlDia Eiver, west to the coast range of California, and east 
to the Missouri. Its remarkable deciduous horns seem to indi- 
cate a transition to the CervidEe. (Plate XIX., vol. ii., p. 129.) 

Sub-family VII. Ceeticapein^ (5 genera, 21 species). This 
group of Antelopes is wholly confined to the continental portion 
of the Ethiopian region. The genera are: Geroicapra (4 sp.), 
Airica, south o£ the ec^uator and Abyssinia ; Kobus (6 sp.), grassy 
plains and marshes of Tropical Africa ; Pdea (1 sp.), South 
Africa; NaThotragus (9 species), Afiica, south of the Sahara; 
Neotragus (1 sp.) Abyssinia and East Africa. 

Sub-family YIII. Cephalophin-s; (2 genera, 24 species), Africa 
and India; Gephalophus (22 sp.), continental Ethiopian region; 
Tetracm-os (2 sp.) hilly part of aU India, but rare north of the 

Sub-family IX. Aloephalin^ (2 genera, 11 species), large 
African Antelopes, one species just entering the Palfearctie 
region. The genera are : Alcephalvs (9 sp.) all Africa and 
north-east to Syria; GaioU&pas (2 sp.), gnus, Africa, south of 

Sub-region X BuDOE0iN.a; (1 genus, 2 species) Budorcas in- 
habits the high Himalayas from Nepal to East Thibet. 

Sub-family XI. 'EdpicapriNjB (1 genus, 2 species) the Cha- 
mois, Mtt^oapra, inhabit the high European Alps from the 
Pyrenees to the Caucasus. (Plate L, vol. i., p. 195.) 

Sub-falnily XII. N'EMORHEDiN.ffi (2 genera, 10 species). These 
goat-like Antelopes inhabit portions of the Paltearctic and 
Oriental regions, as well as the Roclcy Mountains in the Nearctic 
region. Nmiorhedus (9 sp.) ranges from the Eastern Hima- 
layas to N. China and Japan, and south to Formosa, the Malay 
Peninsula and Sumatra, Aplocerus (1 sp.), the mountain goat 
of the trappers, inhabits the northern parts of California and the 
Eoeky Monniains. 

Sub-family XIII. Capbihje (3 genera, 23 species). The Goats 
and Sheep form an extensive series, highly characteristic of the 
Pabearctic region, but with an outlying species on the Neilgher- 
ries in Southern India, and one in the Eocky Mountains and 
California. The genera are Oapra (22 sp.) and Ovibos (1 sp.). 


CHAP, xvir.] MAMMALIA. 225 

The genus GoJpva, consists of sereral auli-groups which have 
heen named as genera, hut ib is unnecessary here to do more than 
divide them into " Goats and Ibexes " oil the one hand and 
" Sheep " on the other — each comprising 11 species. The former 
range over aH the South European Alps from Spain to the Cau- 
casus ; to Abyssinia, Persia, and Sciade ; over the high Himalayas 
to E. Thihet and N. China; with an outlying species in the 
Neilgherriea. The latter are only found in the mountains of Cor- 
sica, Ssirdinia, and Crete, in Europe ; in Asia Minor, Persia, 
and in Central and North-Eastern Asia, with one somewhat 
isolated «peues m the Atlas mountains ; while in America a 
species 13 found in the Eocky Mountains and the coast range 
of Cihiomia Chibos (I sp,), the musk-sheep, inhabits Arctic 
Ameuca north of lat. 60; but it occurs fossil in Post-glacial 
gravels on the Yuna and Obi in Siberia, in Germany and ^France 
along with the Mimmoth and with flint implements, and in 
caves of the Keindeer period ; also in the brick earth in the . 
south of England, associated with Mkinoceros megarkinm and 
Mephas antiquiis. 

Sxtinct Bovidce. — In the caverns and diluviums of Europe, of 
the Post-Pliocene period, the remains are found of extinct species 
oi Bos, Bison, &.a.&Capra'; and in the caverns ofthe south of Eiance 
E'V/picapra, and an antelope near Hippotragus. Bos and Bison 
also occur in PHocene deposits. In the Miocene of Europe, the 
only remains are antelopes closely allied to existing species, and 
these are especially numerous in Greece, where remains referred 
to two hving and four extinct genera have been discovered. In 
the Miocene of India numerous extinct species of Bos, and two 
extinct genera, Kemibos and Amphihos, have been found, one of 
them at a great elevation in Thibet. Antelopes, allied to Hvii^ 
Indian species, are chiefly found in the Nerbudda deposits. 

In North America, the only bovine remains are those of a 
Bison, and a sheep or goat, in the Post-pliocene deposits ; and 
of two species of musk-sheep, sometimes classed in a distinct 
genus Bootherium, from beds of the same age in Arkansas and 
Ohio. Casoryx, from the Pliocene of Nebraska, is supposed to he 
allied to the antelopes and to deer. 



In the cavea of Brazil remains of two animals said to be ante- 
lopes, have been discovered. They are classed by Gervais in the 
genera Aniilope and L&ptofhermm, but the presence of true ante- 
lopes in S. America at this period is so improbable, that there is 
probably some error of identification, 

. The extinct family Sivatheridse, containing the extraordinary 
and gigantic fonr-horned Sivatheriv/m and Bramafherium, of the 
Siwalik deposits, are most nearlyallied to the antelopes. 

From the preceding feets we may conclude, that the great 
existing development of the Eovidte is comparatively recent. 
The type may have originated early in the Miocene period, the 
oxen being at first most tropical, while the antelopes inhabited 
the desert zone a little further north. The sheep and goats seem 
to be the most recent development of the bovine type, which 
was probably long confined to the Eastern Hemisphere. 

General Remarks on the Distributiort of the Unr/tdata. 
With the exception of the Australian region, from which this 
order of mammalia is almost entirely wanting, the Ungulata are 
almost universally distributed over the continental parts of all the 
other regions, Of the ten families, 7 are Ethiopian, 6 Oriental, 5 
Pahearctie, 4 Neotropical, and 3 Nearctic. The Ethiopian region 
owes its superiority to the exclusive possession of the hippo- 
potamus and giraffe, both of which inhabited the Pahearcfcic and 
Oriental regions in Miocene times. The excessive poverty of the 
Nearctic region in this order is remarkable ; the swine being 
represented only by Dicotyles in its extreme southern portion, 
while the Bovidte are restricted to four isolated species. Deer 
alone are fairly well represented. But, during the Eocene and 
Miocene periods, North America was wonderfully rich in varied 
forms of Ungulates, of which there were at least 8 or 9 families ; 
while we have reason to believe that during the same periods the 
Ethiopian region was excessively poor, and that it probably re- 
ceived the ancestors of all its existing families from Europe or 
Western Asia in later Miocene or Pliocene times. Many types that 
once abounded in both Europe and North America are now pre- 
served only in South America and Central or Tropical Asia, — as 



the tapirs and camels ; while othei'S once confined to Europe and 
Asia have found a refuge in Africa,— as the hippopotamus aud 
giraffe ; so that in no other order do we find such striking ex- 
amples of those radical changes in the distribution of the higher 
animals which were eifected during the latter part of the Tertiary 
period. The present diatrihution of this order is, in fact, utterly- 
unintelligible without reference to the numerous extinct forma 
of existii^ and allied families ; but as this subject has been sufR- 
ciently discussed in the Second Part of this work (Chapters VI. 
and VII.) it is unnecessary to give further details here. 


Family 53.— ELEPHANT! DiE. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 
General Disteibution. 


l.a.3- 1,2. 3. 4 

1,2 .2.3.4 1 1-3- -■■ 

The elephants arc now represented by two species, the African, 
which ranges aU over that continent south of the Sahara, and 
the Indian, which is found over all the wooded parts of the 
Oriental region, from the slopes of the Himalayas to Cey- 
lon, and eastward, to the frontiers of China and to Sumatra and 
Borneo. These, however, are but the feeble remnants of a host 
of gigantic creatures, which roamed over all the great conti- 
nents except Australia during the Tertiary period, and several of 
which were contemporary with man. 

Extinct Elephants. — -At least 14 extinct species of El&phas, 
and a rather greater number of the allitid genus Mastodon (dis- 
tinguished by their leas complex grinding teeth) have now been 



discovered. Elephants ranged over all the Palfearctic and 
Keaictic regions in Post-Pliocene times ; in Europe a,nd Central 
India they go back to the Pliocene ; and only in India to the 
Upper Miocene period ; the number of speciea increasing as we 
go liack to the older formations. 

In N^orfch America two or three species of Mastodon are Post- 
pliocene and Pliocene ; and a species is found in the caves of 
Brazil, and in the Pliocene deposits of the pampas of La Plata, 
of the Bolivian Andes, and of Honduras and the Bahamas. 
In Eiuxjpe the genus is Upper Miocene and Pliocene, but is espe- 
cially abundant in the former period. In the East, it extends 
from Perim island to Burmah and over all India, and is mostly 
Miocene, but with perhaps one species Pliocene in Central 

An account of the range of such animals as belong to extinct 
families of Prohoaeidea, will be found in Chapters VI. and VIT. ; 
from which it will he seen that, although the family Elephantidte 
undoubtedly originated in the Eastern Hemisphere, it is not 
improbable that the first traces of the order Proboscidea are to 
be found in N. America. 


Family 54.— HTEACID^. (1 Genus. 10-12 Species.) 

General DisimBTiTiON. 

The genus Hyrax, which alone constitutes this family, consists 
of small animals having the appearance of hares or marmots, 
but which more resemble the genus Bhinoceros in their teeth and 
skeleton. They range all over the Ethiopian region, except Mada- 
gascar ; a peculiar species is found in Fernando Po, and they 
just enter the Paliearctic as far as Syria. They may therefore 
be considered as an exclusively Etliiopian group. In Dr. Gray's 



last Catalogue (1873) he divides the genus into three— Zfyrtftc, 
HvM/rax and Dendrohyrax — the latter consisting of two speciea 
confined apparently to West and South Africa. 

No extinct forms of this family have yetheen discovered; the 
Hyracotherium, of the London clay (Lower Eocene) which was 
supposed to resemble Hyrax, is now believed to be an ancestral 
type of the Suidte or swine. 

T^AMiLY 55.— MUEID^. (37 Genera, 330 




The Muridffi, comprising the rats and mice with their allies^ are 
almost universally distributed over the globe (even not reckon- 
ing the domestic species which have been introduced almost 
everywhere by man), the exceptions being the three insular 
groups beloi^ug to the Austrahan region, from none of which 
have any species yet been obtained. Before enumerating the 
genera it will be as well to say a few words on the peculiarities 
of distribution they present. The true mice, forming the genus 
Mus, is distributed over the whole of the world except N. and S, 
America where not a single indigenous species occurs, being 
replaced by the genus Hesp&romys ; five other genera, compre- 
hending all the remaining species found in South America are 
peculiar to the Neotropical region. Three genera are confined to 
the Paltearctic region, and three others to the Kearctic. JTo less 
than twelve genera are exclusively Ethiopian, while only three 
are exclusively Oriental and three Australian. 

Mus (100-120 sp.) the Eastern Hemisphere, but absent from the 
Pacific and Austro-Malayan Islands, except Celebes and Papua; 
Lasiomys (1 sp.) Guinea; Acatithomys (5-6 sp.) Africa, India and 



N. Australia ; Ci-icetomys (1 sp.) Tropical Africa ; Saccostamus (2 
sp.) Mozambique ; Cricettis (9 sp.) PalEearctic region and Egypt ; 
Cn'ceiW«5(lsp.,Mibie-Mward8, 1870) Peldn; PsmdomysQ. sp.) 
Australia ; Hapaiotis (13 sp.) Australia ; Phlceomys (1 ap.) Philip- 
pines ; Flatacanthomys (1 sp., Blyth, 1865) Malabar ; Dendromys 
(2 ap.) S. Africa; Nesomys {1 sp. Peters, 1870) Madagascar; 
Steatoniys (2 sp.) N. and 8. Africa ; Peloinys (1 ap.) Mozambique ; 
Edfhrodon (9 sp.) K. America, Lat. 29° to Mexico, and south to 
Tierra del Fuego ; Aeodon (1 ap.) Peru ; Myxomys (1 sp.) Guate- 
mala; ^eg3er(W«.js(yO sp.) North and South America ; Holochilus 
(4 sp.) South America ; Oasymyeterm (4 sp.) Brazil and La Plata ; 
N^eotoma. (6 sp.) U.S., East coast to California ; Sigmodon (2 sp.) 
Southern United States ; Drymomys (1 sp.) Peru ; Meotomys (2 sp.) 
S. America ; Otomys (6 sp.) S. and E. Africa ; Merionea = Gerbillus 
{20-30 sp.) Egypt, Central Asia, India, Africa; Bhombomys {Q 
sp.) S. R Europe, N. Africa, Central Asia ; Malacotkrix (2 sp.) 
South Africa ; Mysiromys (1 sp.) South Africa ; Psammomys (I 
sp.) Egypt ; Spaiacomys (1 sp.) India ; Sminthm (1-3 sp.) East 
Europe, Tartary, Siberia ; Hydromys (5 sp.) Australia and Tas- 
mania ; Hypogeomys (1 sp., Grandidier, 1870) Madagascar ; Bra- 
chytarsomys (1 sp., Giinther, 1874) Madagascar; Fiber {2 sp.) N. 
America to Mexico; Armcola (50 sp.) Europe to Asia Minor, 
North Asia, Himalayas, Temp. N. America; Oumculus (1 sp.) 
JT. E. Europe, Siberia, Greenland, Arctic America ; Myodes\i sp.) 
Europe, Siberia, Arctic America, and Northern United States ; 
Myospalax = Siphnem (2 sp.) Altai Mountains and N. China^; 
Lophiomys (1 sp.) S. Arabia, and N. E. Africa ; Echiothrix 
(1 sp.) Australia. 

Extinct Muridm. — Species of Mas, Gncekts, Arvicola, and 
Myodes, occur in the Post-Pliocene deposits of Europe ; Arvicola, 
Merionea, and the extinct genus Cricetodon, Trith some others, in 
the Miocene. 

In Worth America, Mber, Arvicola, and Neotoma, occur in cavea ; 

^ Myospalax has hitherto formed part of the next family, SpalaciiiK ; but 
a recent examination of its anatomy by M. Milne-Edwards shows that it 
belongs to the Muridfe, and comes near Arvicola. 



an extinct genus, Eumys, in the Upper Miocene of Dakota, and 
anothei", Mys&ps, in the Eocene of Wyoming. 

In South America Mus, or more probably He^eroniys, is 
abundant in Brazilian caverns, and Oxymyctems in the Pliocene 
of La Plata ; wMle Arvieola ia said to have occurred both in the 
Pliocene and Eocene deposits of the same country. 

Family 56.— SPALACID^. (7 Genera, 17 Species.) 



" 1 > "£S 

SS, \ avG-IIEQIONS. SUB-nEr,TON». | 

S?^"e™«,. I 





■ 1 — 

- 1 1.2.3- 1 l.a.3- 

1 -3.4 



The Spalacidce, or mole-rats, have a stra^ling distribution over 
the Old World continents. They are found over nearly the whole 
of Africa, but only in the South-east of Europe, and West of 
Temperate Asia, but appearing again in North India, Malacca, 
and South China. 'Mldbius (1 sp.), is found in South Bussia 
and South-west Siberia ; Spalax (1 sp.), Southern Eussia, West 
Asia, Hungary, Moldavia, and Greece (Plate II., voL i. p. 218) ; 
I, Abyssinia, North India, Malacca, South China ; 
s (1 sp.), Abyssinia ; Bathyerges (= Oryct&ms 1 sp.), 
South Africa; G'eon/(;AMs,(6sp.),Sonth, Central, and East Africa; 
Beliaphobus (1 sp.), J 


■ 57.- 


(3 Genera, 22 


General Distribution. 

SuTeZo^^": 1 S. 


m. I luB.'^Di™", 1 1 

£"■=.. 1=?= 


-— 1' 



l.a.3-j --- 

-! — 

The Jerboas, or jumping mice, are especially characteristic of 
the regions about the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean, 
being found in South Eussia, the Caspian district, Arabia, Egypt, 

TOL. IL— 16 



and Abyssinia ; but they also extend over a large part of Africa, 
and eastward to India; while isolated forms occur in North 
America, and the Cape of Good Hope. Dipus = GerhiUus {20 
sp.), inhabits North and Central Africa, Soutb-East Europe, and 
across Temperate Asia to North China, also Affghanistan, India, 
and Ceylon ; Peddes (1 ap,), South Africa to Mozacabique and 
Angola ; Jaculus = Meriones (1 ap.). North America, from Nova 
Scotia and -Canada, south to Pennsylvania and west to California 
and British Columbia (Plate XX., vol. ii. p. 135). 

t Dipodidcc. — Dipus occurs fosaR in the Miocene of the 
d an extinct genua, Issiodromys, said to be allied to 
f the Cape of Good Hope, is from the Pliocene forma- 
tions of Auvergne in Franca 

Family 68.— MYOXlDiE. (1 Genus, 12 Species.) 
General Distribution. 

1.2. 3. 41. 3. 3- ~"" 

The Dormice (Mt/oxus), are amaU rodents found over all the 
temperate parts of the PaliEarctic region, from Britain to Japan ; 
and also over most parts of Africa to the Cape, but wanting in 
India. Some of the African species have been separated under 
the name of Grapkidwrus, while those of Europe and Asia form 
the sub-genera fflis, Miiscwrdinus, and Eliomys. 

Extinct Myoxidm. — Myoxics ranges from the Post-pliocene of 
the Maltese caverns to the Miocene of Switzerland and the 
Upper Eocene of France ; and an extinct genus Srackymys ia 
found in the Miocene of Centiul Europe. 



Family 59,— SACCOMYID^. (6 Genera, 33 Species.) 











The Saccomyidsi, or pouched rata, are ahnost wholly confined 
to our second Nearctic sab-vegion, comprising the Kocky Moun- 
tains and the elevated plains of Central North America. ■ A few 
species range from this district as far as Hudson's Bay on the 
north, to South Carolina on the east, and to Oalifomia on the 
west, while one genus, doubtfully placed here, goes south' as far 
as Honduras and Trinidad. The group must therefore be consi- 
dered to be pre-eminently characteristic of the Nearctic region. 

The genera 3,m,-—l>ipodomys (5 sp.), North- Mexico, California, 
the east slope of the Eocky Mountains to the Columbia Eiver, and 
one species in South Carolina ; Perognathus (6 sp.). North Mexico, 
California, east slope of the Eocky Mountains to British 
Columbia; ThovKymys (2 sp.), Upper Missouri, and Upper 
Columbia Kivers to Hudson's Bay ; Geomys (5 sp.). North Mexico, 
and east slope of Eocky Mountains to Nebraska (Plate XIX., 
vol, ii. p. 129) ; 'Saccomys (1 sp.). North America, locality un- 
known ; Jleteromys (6 sp.), Mexico, Honduras, and Trinidad. 
Geomys and Thomomys constitute a separate family Geomyidie, 
of Professor Carua ; but I follow Professor LUljeborg, who has 
made a special study of the Order, in keeping them with this 

In the Post-Pliocene deposits of Illinois and Nebraska, remains 
ot an existing species of Geomys have been found. 




Family 60.— CASTOEIDJi:. (1 Genus, 2 Speciea.) 

Gekebal Distribution. 


^7om^ 1 SuB^E "oSs. j svf-t^aw^l a^l'Silcu^. sS^kTq™. J\rB™X 


The Beavers, forming the genus Castor, consist of two species, 
the American (Castor canadmsis) ranging over the whole of 
Worth America from Labrador to North Mexico ; while the 
European [Castor jUjer) appears to be confined to the temperate 
regions of Europe and Asia, from France to the Etver Amoor, 
over which extensive region it doubtless roamed in prehistoric 
times, although now becoming rare in many districts. 

Extinct Oastoridce. — Extinct species of Castor range bact 
from the Post-pliocene to the Upper Miocene in Europe, and to 
the Hewer Pliocene in North America. Extinct genera in Europe 
are, TrogonQarium, Post-Pliocene and Pliocene ; Chalicomys, 
Older Pliocene ; and Steneofiher, Upper Miocene. In North 
America Castoroides is Post-Pliocene, and PalKocastor, Upper 
Miocene. The family thus first appears on the same geological 
horizon in both Europe and North America. 

Family 61 

.— SCIUEIDiE.-. 

-(8 Gene™, 




Gekerai. Dibthibution. 


?B^N5, 1 l«B.Hm"^ 




,. ff=Z. 





The Squirrel family, comprehending also the marmots and 
prairie-dogs, are very widely spread over the earth. They are 
especially abundant in the Nearctic, Paltearctic, and Oriental 
regions, and rather less frequent iu the Ethiopian and Neotro- 
pical, in which last region they do not extend south of Paraguay. 
They are absent from the West Indian islands, Madagascar, and 
Australia, only occurring in Celebes which doubtfully belongs 
to the Australian region. The genera are aa follows ;— 



Sdurus (100 — 120 sp., including the sub-genera Spermosdunia, 
Xema, Macroxus, Eheithroseiurus, and Ebinosciunia), comprises 
the tme squirrels, and occupies the area of the whole family 
wherever woods and forests occur. The approximate number of 
species in each region is as follows : Nearctic 18, Paltearctic 6, 
Ethiopian 18, Oriental 50, Australian (Celebes) 5, Neotropical 30. 
Sdwropt&iiis (16—1 9 sp.), comprises the flat-tailed flying squirrels, 
which range from Lapland and Finland to North China and Japan, 
and southward through India and Ceylon, to Malacca and Java, 
with a species in Formosa ; while in North America they occur 
from Labrador to British Columbia, and south to Minnesota and 
Southern California. Pteromys (12 sp.), comprising the round- 
tailed flying squirrels, is a more southern form, being confined to 
the wooded regions of India irom the Western Himalayas to Java 
and Borneo, with species in Formosa and Japan. Tamias{5 sp.), 
the ground squirrels, are chiefly North American, ranging from 
Mexico to Puget's Sound on the west coast, and from Virginia to 
Montreal oa the Atlantic coast; while one species is found overall 
northern Asia, Spermophilus (26 sp.), the pouched marmots, are 
confined to the Nearctic and Pahearctic regions ; in the former ex- 
tending from the Arctic Ocean to Mexico and the west coast, but 
notpassir^ east of Lake Michigan and the lower Mississippi ; in the 
latter from Silesia through South Eussia to the Amoor and Kams- 
chatka, most abundant in the desert plains of Tartavy and Mon- 
golia. Arctomys (8 sp.), the marmots, are found in the northern 
parte of North America as far down as Virginia and Nebraska 
to the Eocky Mountains and British Columbia, but not in Cali- 
fornia; and from the Swiss Alps e^tward to Lake Baikal and 
Kamschatka, and south as far as the Himalayas, above 8,000 feet 
elevation. GyTwiwys (2 sp.), the prairie-dogs, inhabit the plains 
east of the Eocky Mountains from the Upper Missouri to the 
Eed Eiver and Eio Grande (Plate XIX., vol. ii. p. 129). Anoma- 
lurus (5 sp.), consists of animals which resemble flying-aquirrels, 
but differ from all other members of the family in some points of 
internal structure. They form a very aberrant portion of the 
SciuridEe, and, according to some naturalists, a distinct family. 
They inhabit West Africa and the island of Fernando Po. 



Extinct Sdwridce. — These are tolerably abundant. The genus 
Sdurm appears to be a remarkably ancient form, extinct species 
being found in the Miocene, and even in the Upper Eocene 
formations of Eurape. Spermophilus goes back to the Upper 
Miocene ; Arctomys to the Newer PKocene. Extinct genera are, 
Brachymys, Zithomys and Phsiantomys, from the European 
Miocene, the latter said to be intermediate between marmots 
and squirrels. 

In North America, Sciunis, Tamias, and Arctomys occur in the 
Po9t-plioeene deposits only. The extinct genera are Ischyronvys, 
from the Upper Miocene of Nebraska ; Paraviys, allied to the 
marmots, and Sduraims, near the squiiTels, from the Eocene of 

Here we have unmistakable evidence that the true squirrels 
(Sciurus) are an Old World type, which has only recently entered 
North America ; and this is in accordance with the comparative 
scarcity of this group in South America, a country so well 
adapted to them, and their great abundance in the Oriental 
region, which, with the Paltearctic, was probably the coun- 
try of their origin and early development. The family, how- 
ever, has been traced equally far back in Europe and North 
America, so that we have as yet no means of determining where 




2 Species. 


Genbeal Distribution. 


NElBCTio 1 P»i,«AKCrit Ethiopian 




— 1 


-| — 


The genus ffaploodon or Aplodantia, consists of two curious 
rat-like animals, inhabiting the west coast of America, from the 
southern part of British Columbia to the mountains of Califor- 
nia. They seem to have affinities both with the beavers and 
marmots, and Professor Lilljeborg constitutes a sepaiate family 
to receive them. 


CHAP. XVI r,] 



Family 63.- 


(3 Genera, 

6 Species) 

General Distributiok. 


1 SUB^l 

J^7ok 1 Sui^i™! 1 s^^ 

.PI»B 1 01.11PBT 

Sns. 1 s^T^L 


1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 



■ The ChinchillidEe, including the chinchillas and viscachas, are 
confined to the alpine zones of the Andes, from the houndaiy of 
Ecuador and Peru to the southern parts of Chili ; and over the 
Pampas, to the Eio Negro on the south, and the Eiver Uruguay 
on the east. Chinchilla (2 ap.), the true chinchillas, are found 
in the Andes of Chili and Peru, south of 9° S. lat., and from 
8,000 to 12,000 feet elevation (Plate XVI. vol. ii. p. 40) ; Laffi- 
dium (3 sp.), the alpine viscachas, inhabit the loftiest plateaus 
and mountains from 11,000 to 16,000 feet, and extend furthest 
north of aaiy of the family ; while Zagostomm (1 sp.), the vis- 
cacha of the Pampas, has the range above indicated. The family 
is thus coniined within the limits of a single sub-region. 

Extinct Ch/inchilMdce. — Lagostomus has been found fossil in 
the caves of Brazil, and in the Pliocene deposits of La 
Hata. The only known extinct forma of this family are Amlly- 
rhiza and Lm-omylus, found in cavern-deposits in the island of 
Anguilla, of Post-Pliocene age. These are very interesting, as 
showing the greater range of this family so recently ; though its 
absence from North America and Europe indicates that it is a 
peculiar development of the Neotropical region. 

Family 64.- 

-OCTODONTID^. (8 Genera, 19 Species.) 



=.. 1 £™= .s=i [ s2=i. 1 ,rs= 

— 1 - 

1 _2 !■ 1 



The OctodontidEe include a number of curious and obscure 
rat-like animals, mostly confined to tbe mountains and open 
plains of South America, but having a few stragglers in other 
parts of the world, as wiU be seen by our notes on the genera. 
The most remarkable point in their distribution is, that two 
genera are peculiar to the West Indian islands, while no species 
of the family inhabits the northern half of South America. 
The distribution of the genera is as follows : — HabroBom/us (2 
sp.), Chili ; Capromys (3 sp.), two of which inhabit Cuba, the 
third Jamaica (Plate XVII. vol. ii. p. 67) ; Plagiodontia (1 sp.). 
only known from Hayti; Spalacopus, including Schkodon (2 
sp.), Chili, and east side of Southern Andes ; Octodon (3 sp.), 
Peru, Bolivia, and Chili ; Ctenomys (6 sp.), the tuco-tuco of the 
Pampas, the Campos of Brazil to EoHvia and Tierra del Fuego ; 
Ctenodactylus (1 ap,), Tripoli, North Africa ; Pectinator (1 sp.). 
East Africa, Abyssinia, 4,000 to 5,000 feet 

Oapromys and Plagiodontia, the two West Indian genera, 
were classed among the Echimyidfe by Mi, Waterhouse, but 
Professor Lilljeboig removes them to this family. 

Extinct Octodontidce. — Species of Ctenomys have been found 
in the Pliocene of La Plata, and an extinct genus Megamys, said 
to be allied to Ca^roi/iys, in the Eocene of the same country. 
In Europe, Palceomys and Archceomys from the lower Miocene of 
Germany and Erance, are also said to be alHed to Capromys. 

Family 65.- 


(10 Genera, 





S'.™.. 1 tZZ 



■•— 1 — 

--| 1 

1-3- |-- 



The Echimyidse, or spiny rats, are a family, chiefly South 
American, of which the Coypu, a large beaver-lite water-rat 
from Peru and Chili is the best known, Two of the genera are 
found in South Africa, but all the rest inhabit the continent of 
South America, East of the Andes, none being yet known north 


CHAP, xvii,] MAMMALIA. 239 

of Panama- The genera are as follows : — Dactylomys (2 sp.), 
G-uiana and Brajzil ; Gercomys (1 sp.), Central Brazil ; Lasiuromys 
(1 sp.), San Paulo, Brazil; Petromys (1 sp.), South Alrica; Myqpo- 
tam-as {1 8p.), the coypu, on the East side of the Andes from 
Peru to 42° S. lat., on the West side from 33° to 48° S. lat.; 
Cart&rodon (1 ap.), Minaea Geraes, Brazil; Aviaeodes (1. sp.). 
West and South Africa; Mesomys (1 sp.), Eorba on the Amazon; 
Echimys (11 sp.), from Guiana and the Ecuadorian Andes to 
Paraguay ; Zoncheres (10 sp.), New Granada to BrazU. 

Fossil and Extinct EcMmyidw. — The genus Carterodon was 
established on hones found in the Brazilian caves, and it was 
several years afterwards that specimens were obtained showing 
the animal to be a living species. Extinct species of Myopo- 
tamus and Zoncheres have also been found in these eaves, with 
tlie extinct genera LoncTioplwrus aad Phyllomys. 

No remains of this family have been discovered in North 
America ; but in the Miocene and Upper Eocene deposits of 
France there are many species of an extinct genus Theridomys, 
which is said to be allied to this group or to the next (Cercola- 
bidte). Aulacodon, from the Upper Miocene of Germany, is 
allied to the West Airican Aulaeodes ; and some other remains 
from the lower Miocene of Auvergne, are supposed to belong to 

-CERCOLABTD^. (3 Genera, 13-15 Specips.) 


The Cercolabidfe, or arboreal porcupines, are a group of rodents 
entirely confined to America, where they range from the northern 
limi t-, of trees on the Mackenzie River, to the southern limit of 
forests in Paraguay. There is however an intervening district, 
the Southern United States, from wliich they are absent Ere- 
thizon (3 sp,), the Canadian porcupine, is found throi^hout 



Canada and as far south as Northern Pennsylvania, and west to 
the Mississippi (Plate .XX., vol. ii. p. 135) ; an allied species in- 
habiting the west coast from California to Alaska, and inland to 
the head of the Missouri Eiver ; while a third is found in the 
north-western part of South America ; Gercolabes (12 sp.), ranges 
from Mexico and Guatemala to Paraguay, on the eastern side of 
the Andes ; Gkmtomys (1 sp.), North Brazil 

Mxtiiict Cercolabidw. — A large species of G&rcolabes has been 
found in the Brazihan caves, but none have been discovered in 
North America or Europe. We may concliide therefore that 
this is probably a South American type, which has thence spread 
into North America at a comparatively recent epoch. The 
peculiar distribution of Gercolabes may be explained by suppos- 
ing it to have migrated northwards along the west coast by means 
of the wooded slopes of the Eocky Mountains. It could then 
only Teach the Eastern States by way of the forest region of the 
great lakes, and then move southward, This it may be now 
doing, but it has not yet reached the Southern States of I 
North America. 

Family 67.— HYSTEICIDJi:. (3 Genera, 12 Species.) 


-a 11,2,3- 

The true Porcupines have a very compact and well-marked 
distribution, over the whole of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions 
(except Madagascar), and the second PalaBarctio sub-region. 
There is some confusion as to their sub-division into genera, but 
the following are those most usually admitted : — Hy&trva (5 sp.). 
South Europe to the Cape of Good Hope, all India, Ceylon, and 
South China; Atherura (5 sp.), "brush-tailed porcupines," in- 
habit West Africa, India, to Siam, Sumatra, and Borneo ; Acaii- 
tkion (2 sp.), Nepal and Malacca, to Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. 

Extinct HyslriddM. — Several extinct species of Hyatrix have 


teen found in the Pliocene and Miocene deposits of Europe, and 
one in the Pliocene of Nebraska in North America. 

Family 68.— CAVIID^. (6 Genera, 28 Species.) 

General Distbibution, 


..«.a.*| j 1 1 1 

The Caviea and Agoutk were placed in distinct families by 
Mr. "Waterhonse, in which he is followed by Professor Carus, but 
they have been united by Professor Lilljeboi^, and without pre- 
tending to decide which classification is the more correct I follow 
the latter, because there is a striking external resemblance he- 
tween the two groups, and they have an identical distribution in 
the Neotropical region, and with one exception are all found east 
of the Andea. Dasyp-ocla, (9 sp.), the agouti, ranges from Mexico 
to Paraguay, one species inhabiting the small West Indian islands 
of St. Vincent, Lucia, and Grenada ; Calogmya (2 sp.), the paca, is 
found from Guatemala to Paraguay, and a second species (some- 
whatdoubtful)inEastern Peru; Hydrochcents {1 sp.), the capybara. 
inhabits the banks of rivers from Gnayana to La Plata ; Cavia 
(9 sp.), the guinea-pigs, Brazil to the Straits of Magellan, and one 
species west of the Andes at Y^a in Peru ; Kerodon (6 sp.), Brazil 
and Peru to Magellan ; DoHchotis (1 sp,), the Pat-agonian cavy, 
from Mendoza to 48° 30' south latitude, on sterile plains. 

Extinct Oaviidie.—HydToduerus, Cwlogenys, Dasyproeta, and 
Kerodon, have occurred abundantly in the caves of Brazil, and 
the last-named genus in the Pliocene of La Plata. Eydrocharus 
has been found in the Post- Pliocene deposits of South Carolina. 
Cavia and Dasyprocta. are said to have been found in the Mio- 
cene of Switzerland and France. No well-marked extinct genera 
of this family have been recorded. 

IE the determination of the above-mentioned fossil species of 
Cavia and Basyprocta are correct, it would show that this now 



exclusively South American family is really derived from Europe, 
where it has long been extinct. 

Family 69.— LAGOMYIDiE. (1 Genus, 11 Species.) 


The Lagomyidse, or pikas, are smaE alpine and desert animals 
which range from the south of the Ural Mountains to Cashmere 
and the Himalayas, at heights of 11,000 to 14,000 feet, and 
northward to the Polar regions and the north-eastern extremity 
of Siberia, They just enter the eastern extremity of Europe as 
far as the Volga, but with this exception, seem strictly limited 
to the third Palsearctic sub-region. In America they are con- 
fined to the Eocky Mountains from about 42° to 60' north latitude. 

JExtinct LagomyidcE. — Extinct species of Lagomys have occurred 
in the southern parts of Europe, from the Post-Pliocene to the 
Miocene formations. TitanoTnys, an extinct genus, is found in 
the Miocene of France and Germany. 



-LEPOEIC^. (1 Genus, 





iL Distribution. 

l^Z^m. 1 s 



ICTIO I Ethiophs 1 

ITONS. aiIB.niTO.0K3. 



;».. 1 s* bTeo" n" 

— a. 3— 1.3.3. 1-3— 1,2.3— 

The Hares and Rabbits are especially characteristic of the 
Nearctic and Palsearctic, but are also thinly scattered over the 
Ethiopian and Oriental regions. In the Neotropical region they 
are very scarce, only one species being found in South America, 
in the mountains of Brazil and various parts of the Andes, while 
one or two of the North American species extend into Mexico 



and Guatemala. In the Kearctic region, they are most abundant 
in the central and westem parts of the continent, and they ex- 
tend to the Arctic Ocean and to Greenland. They are found in 
every part of the Palfearctic region, from Ireland to Japan ; three 
species mige over all India to Ceylon, and others occur in 
Haman Formosa, South China, and the mountains of Pegu ; the 
Ethiopian legion has only four or five species, mostly in the 
southern extremity and along the East coast. An Indian species 
18 now wild in some parts of Java, hut it has probably been in- 

Extinct Leporidm. — Species of JJepus occur in the Post-Plio- 
cene and Newer Pliocene of France; but only in the Post- 
Pliocene of North America, and the caves of Brazil. 

General Bem.arhs on the Dtstriimdon of the Sod&ntia, 
With the exception of the Australian region and Madagascar, 
where Mnridee alone have been found, this order is one of the most 
universally and evenly distributed over the entire globa Of the 
sixteen families which compose it, the Paltearctic region has 10 ; 
the Ethiopian, Nearctic, and Neotropical, each 9 ; and the Orien- 
tal only 5. These figures are very curious and suggestive. We 
know tliat the rodentia are exceedingly ancient, since some of 
the living genera date back to the Eocene period ; and some an- 
cestral types might thus have reached the remote South Ameri- 
can and South. African lands at the time of one of their earliest 
unions with the northern continents. In both these countries 
the rodents diverged into many special forms, and being small 
animals easily able to conceal themselves, have largely survived 
the introduction of higher Mammalia. In the Paltearctic and 
Nearctic regions, their small size and faculty of hibernation may 
have enabled them to maintain themselves during those great 
physical changes which resulted in the extermination or banish- 
ment of so many of the larger and more highly organised Mam- 
malia, to which, in these regions, they now bear a somewhat 
inordinate proportion. The reasons why they are now less 
numerous and varied in the Oriental region, may be of two 
kinds. The comparatively small area of that region and its 



uniformity of climate, would naturally lead to less development 
of such a group as this, than in the vastly more extensive 
and varied and almost equally luxuriant Paheaictic region of 
Eocene and Miocene times ; while on the other hand the greater 
number of the smaller Carnivora in the tropics during the Plio- 
cene and Post- Pliocene epochs, would he a constant check upon 
the increase of these defenceless animals, and no doubt exter- 
minate a number of them. 

The Eodents thus offer a striking contrast to the Ungulates ; 
and these two great orders affoid an admirable illustration of the 
different way in which physical and organic changes may affect 
large and small herbivorous Mammalia ; often leading to the 
extinction of the former, while favouring the comparative develop- 
ment of the latter. 

Family 71— BEAD n'ODID ^ (3 Genen 12 Species) 


The Sloths are a- remarkable group of arboreal mammals, 
strictly confined to the great forests of the Neotropical region, 
from Guatemala to Brazil and Eastern Bolivia. None are found 
west of the Andes, nor do they appear to extend into Paraguay, 
or beyond the Tropic of Capricorn on the east coast. The genera 
as defined by Dr. Gray in 1871 are ; — Vholaspus (2 sp.), " Sloths 
with two toes on fore limbs, sexes alike," Costa Kiea to Brazil ; 
Bradypus (2 sp.), "Sloths with three toes on fore limbs, sexes 
alike," Central Brazil, Amazon to Eio de Janeiro ; ArdopUhecns 
(8 sp.), " Sloths with three toes on fore limbs, males with a 
coloured patch on the back," Costa Eica to Brazil and Eastern 
Bolivia (Plate XIV., vol. ii. p. 24). 


cuAi'. XVII.] MAMMALIA. 245 

Exiinet Bradypodidce.- — In the caves of Brazil are found three 
extinct genera of Sloths — Ccdodon, Sphenodon, and Ockotheriv/m. 
More distantly allied, and probably forming distinct faniiKes, 
are Scelidoihenmn, and Megathermm, from the caves of Brazil 
and the PKocene deposits of La Plata and Patagonia. 

Family 72.- 

-MANIDIDjE. (1 Genus, 8 Species.) 

General Distrieuiion. 

SuB-BEaiOBR, 8uB-HEC10t 

;., j S==. 1 £-=.. 1 .?.-=,. j SZ 


1 .a. 3 - i.fl.: 

The Manididffi, or scaly ant-eaters, are the only Edentate 
Mammalia found out of America. They are spread over the 
Ethiopian and Oriental regions ; in the former from Sennaar to 
West Africa and the Oape ; in the latter from the Himalayas to 
Ceylon, and Eastward to Borneo and Java, as well as to South 
China, as far as Amoy, Hainan, and Formosa, They have been 
sub-divided, according to diiferences in the scaly coveiing, into 
five groups, Manis, Phatagm, Smutsia, PJwUdotvs and Pati^olin, 
the three former being confined to Africa, the last common to 
Africa and the East, whCe Phalidotm seems confined to Java. 
It is doubtful if these divisions are more than sub-genera, and 
as such they are treated here. 

Wo extinct species referable to this family are yet known. 

Family 73.— DASYPODID^. (6 Genera, 17 Species.) 
■ General DisTRiiiUTioN. 

The "Daaypodidte, or armadillos, are a highly characteristic Neo- 
tropical family, ranging from the northern extremity of the region 



in south Texas, to 50" south latitude ou the plains 
The distrihution of the^eittjra is aa follows: — Taiusia (5 sp.), 
has the range of the whole family from the lower Eio Grande of 
Texas to Patagonia; Prionodontes (1 sp.), the giant armadillo, 
Siirinam to Paraguay; Dasypit^ (4 sp.), Brazil to Bolivia, Chili, 
and La Plata ; Xeniinis (3 sp.), Guiana to Paraguay ; Tolypeutes 
(2 sp.), the three-banded armadillos, Bolivia and La Plata; 
Chlaviydopkorus {2 sp.), near Mendoza in La Plata, and Santa 
Cruz de ^a Sierra in BoUvia, 

Hxtind Armadillos. — Many species of Basypus and Xewwnis 
have been found in the caves of Brazil, together with many 
extinct genera — Ifoplc^horus, Ev/ryodon, Het&rodon, Pachy- 
therium, and Chlamydoiherium, the latter as Jai^e as a rhino- 
ceros. Eutatus, aUied to Tolypeutes, is from the Pliocene de- 
posits of La Plata. 

Family 74.— ORYCTEROPODID^. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 


The Aaid-vart, or Cape ant-eater [Oryderopiis capmsis) is a 
curious form of Edentate animal, with the general form of an 
ant-eater, but with the bristly skin and long ottuse snout of a 
pig. A second species inhabits the interior of North-East 
Africa and Senegal, that of the latter country perhaps forming a 
third species (Plate IV. vol. i. p. 261). 

Extinct Orycteropodidce.—The genus Macrotherium, remains of 
which occur in the Miocene deposits of France, Germany, and 
Greece, is allied to this group, though perhaps forming a sepa- 
rate family. The same may he said of the Ancylotkerivm, a 
huge animal found only in the Miocene deposits of Greeca 


CHAP. xvn.l 




(3 Genera, 

6 Species.) 


S^Km^O^ I ( 



1 iiTs^O^B. 

i.a.3- 1 ■ 






The true ant-eaters are strictly confined to the wooded portions 
of tlie Neotropical region, ranging from Honduras to Paraguay on 
the East side of the Andes. The three genera now generally 
admitted are : Myrmecophaga (1 sp.), the great ant-eater. 
Northern Brazil to Paraguay; Tamandua (2 sp.), 4-toed ant- 
eaters, Guatemala, Ecuador to Pari^ay (Plate XIV. vol. ii. p. 
24) ; Cyolothurus (2 sp.), 2-toed ant-eaters, Honduras and Costa 
Hica to Brazil. 

Extmd Ant-eaters. — The only extinct form of this family 
seems to be the Glossotheriv/m,, foimd in the caves of Brazil, and 
the Tertiary deposits of Uruguay. It is said to be aUied to 
i and Manis. 

! on the, Distribidion of the Edentata. 

These singular animals are almost confined to South America, 
vfhere they constitute an important part of the fauna. In 
Africa, two family types are scantily represented, and one of 
these extends over all the Oriental region. In Pliocene and Post- 
Pliocene times the Edentata were woudetfiiUy developed in South 
America, many of them being huge animals, rivalling in bulk, 
the rhinoceros and hippopotamus. As none of these forma 
resemble those of Africa, while the only European fossil Edentata 
are of African type, it seems probable that South Africa, like 
South America, was a centre of development for this group of 
mammalia ; and it is in the highest degree probable that, should 
extensive fluviatile deposits of Pliocene or Miocene age be dis- 
covered in the former country, an extinct fauna, not less strange 
and grotesque than that of South America, will be brought to 

Vol. IL— 17 



light. From the fact that so few remains of this order occur 
in Europe, and those of one family type, and in, Miocene 
deposits only, it seems a faii' conclusion, that this represents an 
incurBioii of an ancient Ethiopian form into Europe analogous to 
that which invaded North America from the south during the 
Po3t-Pliocene epoch. The extension of the Manididse, or scaly 
ant-eaters, oveo' "tropical Asia may have occurred at the same, or 
a somewhat later epoch. 

Por a summary of fhe Numerous Edentata of North and 
South America which belong to extinct families, see vol. i. p. 147. 

Family 76.— DIDELPHYID.^. (3 Genera, 22 
General Dietbibiition. 

The Didelphyida?, or true opossums, range throughout all the 
wooded districts of the Neotropical region from the southern 
boundary of Texas to the Eiver La Plata, and on the west coast 
to 42° S. Lat., where a species of Didel2)hys was obtained by 
Professor, Cunningham. One species only is found in the Nearctic 
region, extending from Elorida to the Hudson Eiver, and west to 
the Missouri, The. species named JDiddfhys califomica inhabits 
Mexico, and only extends into the southern extremity of Cali- 
fornia. The species are most numerous in the great forest region 
of, and they have been recently found to the west of the 
Andes near Guayaquil, as well as in Chili. The exact number 
of. species is very doubtful, owing to the difBculty of determining 
them from dried skins. All but two belong to the genus ZHdel- 
•phys, which has the range above given for the family (Plate XIV., 
vol. ii. p. 24) ; Chironeetes (1 sp.), the yapock or water opossum, 
inhabits G-uiana and Brazil; JTyracodon (1 sp.), is a small 



rat-like animal discovered by Mr. Praser in Ecuador, and which 
may perhaps belong to another family. 

Extinct Biddphyidm. — Ifo less than seven species oiDidelphys 
have been found in the caves of Brazil, but none in the older 
formations. In North America the living species only, has been 
found in Post-Phocene deposiljs. In Europe, however, many 
species of smaU opossums, now classed as a distinct genus, Pera- 
thermin, have been found in various Tertiary deposits from the 
Upper Miocene to the Upper Eocene. 

We have here a sufficient proof that the American Marsupials 
have nothing to do with those of Australia, but were derived from 
Europe, where their ancestors lived during a long series of ages. 

Family T7.— DASYUEIT)^. (10 Genera, SO Species.) 
General Distkibittion. 

The Dasyuridte, or native cats, are a giwup of carnivorous or 
insectivorous marsupials, ranging from the size of a wolf to that 
of a mouse. They are found all over Australia and Tasmania, 
as well as in New Guinea and the adjacent Papuan islands. 
Several new genera and species have recently been described by 
Mr. G. Krefft, of the Sydney Museum, and are included in the 
following enumeration. PluugogaU (3 sp.). New Guinea, West, 
East, and South Australia; Antech-inomT/s (1 sp.). Interior of 
South Australia; AntecMnus (12 sp.}. Am Islands, all Aus- 
tralia, and Tasmania ; CJu^ocercus (1 sp.), South Australia ; 
Dadylopsila. (1 sp.), Aru Islands and North Australia ; Podah-us 
(5 sp.), West, East, and South Australia, and Tasmania ; Myoictis 
(1 sp.), Aru Islands ; Sarcophilus (1 sp.), Tasmania ; Dasyv/rus (4 
sp.). North, East, and South, Australia, and Tasmania ; Thyla- 
dnus (1 sp.), Tasmania (Plate XL, vol, i, p, 439). 

Extinct species of Dasywrus and Thyladnus have been found 
in the Post-Pliocene deposits of Australia. 



Family 78.— MYEMECOEIID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 
Genbeal Distbibution. 

The only representative of this family is the Mipmecobius fas- 
eiaius, or native ant-eater, a small bushy-tailed squirrel-like 
animal, found in the South and West of Australia. 

Family 79.- 


(3 Genera. 

10 Species.) 

Qenekal Djstribdtion. 


tZZi^ s™!b' 


[lomM 1 ORif 




__ 1 

1 1-a 




The PeramdlidEe, or bandicoots, are small insectivorous Mar- 
supials, liavirig^ something of the form of the kangaroos. They 
range over the whole of Australia and Tasmania,, as well as the 
Papuan Islands. The genus Ferameles (8 sp.), has the range 
of the family, one species being found in New Guinea and the 
Aiu Islands (Plate XI., vol i. p. 440) ; PeragaUa (1 sp.), inha- 
bits West Australia only ; and ChtBi-opus (1 sp.), a beautiful little 
animal with something of the appearance of a mouse-deer, is 
found in both Soutii, East, and West Australia. 

Family 80.- 


(10 Genera, 




General DrsrEiBUTioif. 


iHCriO 1 PiLSiRCTIP 1 Etei 



1 ajE^e" 


1 1 



1 1 



Tlj,e well-kaowii Kangaroos are the most largely developed 
family of Marsupials, and they appear to he the form hest adapted 
for the present conditions of life in Australia, over every part of 
which they ranga One genus of tme terrestrial kangaroos {Dor- 
eopsis), inhabits the Papuan Islands, as do also the curious tree 
kangaroos (I)endrolagus) which, without much apparent modifica- 
tion of form, are able to.climh trees and feed upon the foliage. 
The genera, as, established by Mr. Waterhouse, are as follows : 
Macropus (4 sp.), West, South, and East Austraha, and Tasmania 
(Plate XII., vol. i. p. 441) ; Osphranter (5 sp.), all Australia ; 
Halmatwras (18 sp.), all Austi'alia and Tasmania ; Petrogale (7 
sp.), all Australia ; D&ndrolagus (2 sp.), New Guinea (Plate X., 
vol. i. p. 414) ; Dorcopsis {2 sp.) Aru and Mysol Islands, and 
New Guinea ; Onyahogalea (3 sp,). Central Australia ; Lagor- 
ehestes (5 sp.). North, West, and South Australia ; Bettongia (6 
sp.). West, South, and East, Australia, and Tasmania ; Sypsi- 
prymnus (4 sp.). West and East Australia, and Tasmania. 

Extinct MaerofoMdcB. — Many species of the genera Macrofus 
and Sypsiprymnus have been found in the cave-deposite and 
other Post-Tertiary strata of Australia. Among the extinct genera 
are Protemnodon and Sihenurm, which are more allied to the 
tree -kangaroos of New Guinea than to living Australian species ; 
the gigantic Diprotodon, a kangaroo nearly as laige as an elephant ; 
and Notoikermm, of si 

Family 81.— PHALANGISTIDiE. (8 Genera, 27 Species.) 




1 1 j 

- ■ 

The Phalangistidie, or phalangers, are one of the most varied 
and interesting groups of Marsupials, being modified in a variety 
of ways for an arboreal life. We have the clumsy-looking 
tail-less koala, or native sloth; the prehensile-tailed opossum-like 
's; the beautiful flying oppossums, so closely resembling 



in form the flying squirrels of Nortli America and India, but 
often no laiger than a mouse; the beautiful doi-mo^se-like 
.Dromiciix, one species of which i3 only 2^ inches long or less 
than the harvest-mouse ; and the little Tarsipes, a true honey- 
sucker with an extensile tongue, and of the size of a mouse. 
These, extreme modifications and specializations within the range 
of a single family, are sutficient to indicate the great antiquity 
of the Australian fauna ; and they render it almost certain that 
the region it occupied was once much more extensive, so as 
to supply the variety of conditions and the struggle between 
competing forms of life, which would he required to develop so 
many curiously modified forms, of which we now probably see 
only a remnant. 

The Phalangistid^ not only range over all Australia and 
Tasmania, but over the whole o£ the Anstro- Malayan sub-region 
from New Guinea to the Moluccas and Celebes. The distribu- 
tion of the genera is as follows : — Phascolarctos (1 sp.), the 
koala, East Australia; Fhalant/ista (5 sp.). East, South, and West 
Australia, and Tasmania ; Guseus (8 sp.), woolly phalangera. 
New Guinea, North Australia, Timor, Moluccas and Celebes ; 
Peiaurista (1 sp.) large flying phalanger. East Australia ; 
Belideus (5 sp.), flj^ng opossums. South, East, and North Aus- 
traUa, New Guiana and Moluccas ; A<yrohata (1 sp,), pigmy 
flying opossum. South and East Australia; Dromida (5 sp.), 
dormouse-phalangers. West and East Australia, and Tasmania; 
Tarsipes (1 sp.), West Australia. 

Thylacoleo, a large extinct marsupial of doubtful affinities, 
seems to be somewhat intermediate between this family and the 
kangaroos. Professor Owen considered it to be carnivorous, and 
able to prey upon the huge Diprotodon, while Professor Elower 
and Mr. Gerard Kreffl, believe that it was herbivorous. 

Family 82.~PHASC0L0MYID.,S:. (1 Genus, 3 Species.) 

Gbnebal Dihtbibution. 


CHAP, xvii.] MAMMALIA. 253 

The Wombats are tail-less, terrestrial, burrowing animals, about 
the size of a badger, but feeding on roots and grass. They 
inhabit South Australia and Tasmania (Plate "XT. vol. i. p. 439). 

An extinct wombat, as lai^e a3 a tapir, has been found in the 
Australian Pliocene deposits. 

General Semarks on the Distribution of Marswpialia. 

We have here the most remarkable case, of an extensive and 
highly varied order being confined to one very limited area on 
the earth's surface, the oaly exception being the opossums in 
America. It has been already shown that these are compara- 
tively recent immigrants, which have survived in that country 
long after they disappeared in Europe. As, however, no other 
form but. that of the Didelphyidfe occurs there during the 
Tertiary period, we must suppose that it was at a far more 
remote epoch that the ancesti-al forms of all the other Marsupials 
entered Australia ; and the curious little mammals of the Oolite 
and Tiias, offer valuable indications as to the time when this 
really took place. 

A notice of these extinct marsupials of the secondary period 
will be found at vol. i. p. 159. 


Family 83.— OENITHOEHYNCHID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 
General Disthibittiok. 

The Ornith>rhynchits, or duck-billed Platypus, one of the most 
remarkable and isolated of existing mammalia, is found in East 
and South Australia, and Tasmania. 



Family 84.— ECHIDNIDiE. (1 Genua, 2 Species.) 


The Echidna, or Australian Hedgehog, although quite as re- 
markable in intfimal structure as the Omithorhynchus, is not so 
peculiar in external appearance, having very nmeh the aspect of 
a hedgehog or spiny armadillo. The two species of this genus 
are very closely allied ; one inhabits East and South Australia, 
the other Tasmania. 

Extinct EcM^,nid(e.—RBmdA-a& of a very large fossil species of 
Echidna have lately (1868) been discovered at Darling Downs 
in Australia. 

Eemarh on the Distribution, of the Monotremata. 

This order is the lowest and most anomalous of the mammalia, 

and, nothing resembling it has been found among the very 

numerous extinct animals discovered in any other part of the 

world than Australia. 




drier I.—PASSDBES. 
Tamilt 1.— TUEDID^. {21 Genera, 205 Species.) 


BEornonmi. I Dkirctic I Pat.s.bctio I Ethiopiam I Objrntai. I Adsthaliah 
SDB-HKuioira. Sua-BEnions. | RuB-HECio:)a. SuB-REaioss. [ Sub-beiihjb3. SuB-nEa.uNS. 

J. 3. 3. ill. a. 3. 4 l.a.3.4 4 1.2.3 — 

The extensive and familiar group of Thrushes ranges over 
every region and sub-region, except Kew Zealand. It abounds 
most in the North Temperate regions, and has its least develop- 
ment in the Australian region. Thrushes are Mnong the most 
perfectly organized of birds, and it is to this cause, perhaps, as 
well as to their omnivorous diet, that they have been enabled to 
establish themselves on a number of remote islands. Peculiar 
species of true thrush are found in Norfolk Island, and in the 
small Lord Howes' Island nearer Australia ; the Island of St. 
Thomas in the Gulf of Guinea has a peculiar species ; while the 
Mid-Atlantic island Tristan d'Acunha, — one of the most remote 
and isolated spots on the globe, — has a peculiarly modified form 
of thrush. Several of the smaller West Indian Islands have 
also peculiar species or genera of thrushes. 

The family is of somewhat uncertain extent, blending insensibly 
with the warblers (Sylviidffi) as well as with the Indian bulbuls 



(PycnoiiotidEe), wMIe one genus, usually placed in it (Myiophomis) 
seems to agree better with Enicurus among the Cinclidfe. The 
genera here admitted into the thrash family are the following, the 
numbers prefixed to some of the genera indicating their position 
in Gray's Hand List of the Genera and SpecieB of Birds : — 

(i'*3) Braehypteryx (8 sp.), Nepaul to Java and Ceylon (this 
may belong to the Timaliidse) ; Furdus (100 sp.) haa the range of 
the whole family, abounding in the Palsearctie, Oriental and 
Neotropical regions, while it is leas plentiful in the Nearctic 
and Ethiopian, and very scarce in the Australian; (^*) Oreocinda 
(11 sp.), Pal^arctic and Oriental regions, Australia and Tas- 
mania; 1^^ BAodinooichla (X sp.),. Venezuela; (^) Melanoptila 
(1 sp.), Honduras ; (^' ^^) Catharus (10 sp.) Mexico to Equador ; 
jflw B60J Margarops (4 sp.), Hayti and Porto Eico to St. Lucia ■ 
(**•) Nesocichla (1 sp.), Tristan d'Acunha; (^^ QcocicJila (8 sp.), 
India to Formosa and Celebes, Timor and North Australia; 
^954 B66J Monticola (8 ep.). Central Europe to South Africa and to 
China, Philippine Islands, Gilolo and Java ; (J^") Orocmtes (3 sp.), 
Himalayas and W. China ; Zoothera (3 sp.) Himalayas, Araean, 
Java, and Lombolc ; Mimvs (20 sp.) Canada to Patagonia, West 
Indies and Galapagos ; (^^) Oreoscopies (1 sp.), Eocky Mountains 
and Mexico; (*^) Melanotis (2 sp.). South Mexico and Guatemala ; 
(®^) Qaleoseoptes (1 sp.), Canada and Eastern United States to 
Cuba and Panama ; (^^ ***) Mimodchla (5 sp.), Greater Antilles ; 
(«ei 96SJ Harporhynchus (7 sp.), North America, from the great 
lakes to Mexico ; Cindocerfhia (3 sp.), Lesser Antilles ; f^^") 
Ehainphodnchis (1 sp.), Lesser Antilles; Chaitops (3 sp.), South 
Africa; Oossypha = Bessonornis (15 sp.) Ethiopian region and 

Family 2.— SYLVIIDiE. (74 Genera, 640 Species.) 


~a. 3. 41. 2. 3. A 1.2. 3. 4 1.2. 3. 4 1.2. 3. 4 



This immense family, comprising all the birds usually known 
as "warblers," is, as here constituted, of almost universal distri- 
bution. Yet it is so numerous and preponderant over the whole 
Eastern Hemisphere, that it may be well termed an Old-World 
group ; only two undoubted genera with very few species belong- 
ing to the Nearctic region, while two or three others whose posi- 
tion is somewhat doubtful, are found in California and the 
Neotropical region. 

Canon Tristram, who has paid great attention to this difficult 
group, has kindly communicated to me a MSS. arrangement of 
the genera and species, whicli, with a very few additions and 
alterations, I implicitly follow. He divides the Sylviidie into 
seven sub-families, as follows : 

1, Drymcecinre (15 genera 194 sp.), confined to the Old World 
and Australia, and especially abundant in the three Tropical 
regions. 2. CalamoherpinEe (11 genera, 75 sp,), has the same 
general distribution as the last, but is scarce in the Australian and 
abundant in the Pahearetic region ; 3. PhylloscopinEe (11 genera, 
139 sp.), has the same distribution as the entire family, but is 
most abundant in the Oriental and Paltearctic regions. 4 Syl- 
yiinte (6 genera, 33 sp.), most abundant in the Palasarctic region, 
very scarce in the Australian and Oriental regions, absent from 
America. 5. Euticilliuffi (10 genera, 50 sp.); entirely absent from 
America and Australia ; abounds in the Oriental and Palsearctic 
regions. 6. Saxicolinas (12 genera, 126 sp.), absent from America 
(except the extreme nortli-west), abundant in the Oriental region 
and moderately so in the Palsearctic, Ethiopian, and Australian. 7. 
Accentoi-inje (6 genera, 21 sp.), absent from the Ethiopian region 
and South America, most abundant in Australia, one small genus 
(Sialia), in North America. 

The distribution of the several genera arranged under these 
sub-families, is as follows : 

1. Dr¥M(boin^.'— (™) Orthotoni'm (13 sp.), all the Oriental 
region; C^^) Prinia (11 sp.), all the Oriental region ; ('^^ '*" ''*^ 
748J Drymceco, (83 sp.), Ethiopian and Oriental regions, most 
abundant in the former ; t^^ *° '*^ ""'' ''*^ ^ '^^) CisHcola (32 sp.), 
Ethiopian and Oriental regions, with South Europe; China 



and Australia ; ('^^) Suya (5 sp.), Nepal to South China and 
Formosa; C'^) SpMnceaiyas (7 sp.), Australia, New Zealand, and 
Chatham Island, with one species (?) in South AMca ; ("'** ^'^) 
Megalwms (4 ep.), Central India to Java and Timor ; ("* "*) 
Poodytes (2 sp,), Australia ; ('^) Amytis (3 sp.), Australia ; ('^) 
Sphmwa (4 sp.), Auatraha ; (J^) Malurua (16 sp.), Australia and 
Tasmania ; Q^^ '^) Ohthonicola (3 sp.), AuatraUa ; ('^'■) Calaman- 
thiis (2 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Q^^) Camaroptera (5 sp.), 
Africa and Fernando Po ; (J^) Apalis (1 sp.). South Africa. . 

2. Calamoherpin^.— C^' '° '^1 ""' '^' ^^) Aeroec!phaius (35 sp.), 
Paliearctic, Ethiopian, continental part of Oriental region, Mo- 
luccas, Caroline Islands, and Australia ; ('^^ ^^^ Bvmetieola (4 sp.), 
Nepal to East Thihet, Central Asia, high regions ; (^^^ ''^'*) Fota- 
modus (3 sp.). Central and South Europe, and East Thibet; 
^ B^ ^ 2969^ lusciniola (1 sp.), South Europe ; (^^^ ™) loom- 
tella (8 sp.), Paltearctic region to Central India and China ; C^^ 
Sorites (5 sp.), Nepal to North-west China and Eormosa ; ("^ 
— '86J Bradyptetus = Gettia (10 sp.). South Europe, Palestine, and 
South Africa; ("' ''*^) Catriscm (3 sp.). Tropical and South 
Africa; Bemieria (2 sp.), and (^^^) Ellisia (3 sp.), Madagascar; 
^33 •) Mystacom/is (1 sp.), Madagascar ; (^') Galamodus (2 sp.}, 
Europe and Palestine ; ('^) Tatars (2 sp.) Samoa to Marquesas 

3. Phylloscopin^.^ — Pkylloscopus (18 sp.), all Palasarctic and 
Oriental regions to Batchian; ('^^ ''^ ^^'') Er&momela (16 sp.). Tro- 
pical and South Africa ; C**) Eroessa, (1 sp.), Madagascar -^ Hy- 
polais (12 sp.), Paltearetic region, all India, Timor, North and 
South Africa ; (^^^ ^^ ^*) Ahromis (26 sp.). Oriental region ; (^^*) 
Reguloides (4 sp.), Palsearctic and continental Oriental regions ; 
(^^^) Sericomis (7 sp.), Australia and Tasmania (^^ ^^ ^^^) Acan- 
thiza (14 sp.), Australia and New Caledonia ; (^^) Begulus (7 sp.), 
all Palfearctic and Nearctic regions and south to Guatemala ; 
^sfloj Polioptila (13 sp.), Paraguay to New Mexico; (^^^) Oei-ygone 
(22 sp.), Australia, Papuan and Timor groups. New Zealand 
and Norfolk Island, 

■ The species of the genera Phylloscoptis and Rypolais are so mixed up in 
the Sand List, that Mt. Tristram has furnished me with the following 


CHAP, xviii.] BIRDS. 259 

4. Sylviih^. — (^^) Aidm. (9 sp.), Spain and Palestine, to East 
and South AMca; (^^^iM/motZes (2 sp.), Australia ; i^'Pyro'ph- 
thalma (2 sp.). South Europe and Palestine ; 1^''^) MdizopMhis 
(3 sp.). South-west Europe and Korth-east Africa ; (8«2smj gyMa 
= Alseeus (8 sp.), Palfearcfcic region to India and Ceylon, and 
North-east Africa ; (^^ ^^) Curruca (V sp.), Central and South 
Europe, Madeira, Palestine, Central India, North-east Africa, and 
South Africa. 

5. RuTioiLLiN.^ — (^) Luscinia (2 sp.), West Asia, Europe, 
North Africa ; (^) Cyanecuia (3 sp.), Europe, North-east Africa, 
India, Ceylon, and China ; (^*'') CaUictpe (2 sp.). North Asia, 
Himalayas, Central . India, and China ; (^^) Eritluwus (3 sp.), 
Europe, North-east Africa, Japan, and North China ; (^^^ ^^ ^') 
Itutmlla (20 ap.), PalEearctie and Oriental regions to Senegal 
and Abyssinia, and east to Timor ; abounds in Himalayas ; (^^} 
ChcmiMTrhorms (1 ap.), Himalayas ; (^^ ^^^ ®*) Zarvivora (10 sp.), 
Oriental region and Japan ; (^) Notodela (3 ap.), Himalayas, 
Pegu, Formosa, Java ; (^^^) Tarsigm- (2 sp.), Nepal ; (^") 6ran- 
dala (1 sp.). High Himalayas of Nepal. 

6. Saxicolin^. — (8'^) Copsyehm (7 sp.), all Oriental region 
and Madagascar ; (*'^) Kittadnda (5 sp,). Oriental region to 

n his view properly belong to them, by the 










Ceylon, Andaman Islands, EormoSa, and Borneo ; (™* " '*') Tham- 
nohia (10 ap.), Ethiopian region and India to. foot of Himalayas; 
C") Gervasia (2 sp.), Madagascar and Seychelle Islands ; (^^ ^') 
Bror/wlma (18 sp.), Africa to South Europe, Palestine, North- 
west India, and North China ; C*^ ^ ^) Savkola (36 sp.), Africa, 
North-west India, whole Palsearetic region, migrating to Alaska 
and Greenland ;.(**^,^ Oreieola (5 sp.), Timor, Lombob, and 
Burmah; (***) Cercomela (6 sp.). North-east Africa to North-west 
India ; (^^'') Pratmeola (15 sp.), Europe, Ethiopian, and Oriental 
regions to Celebes and Timor ; C^^ Ephthianura (3 sp.), Aus- 
tralia ; (^" - ^^) Petrcsm (17 sp.), Australian region, Papua to New 
Zealand, Chatham and Auckland Islands, and Sa,moa ; (^^''} Miro 
(2 sp.). New Zealand (doubtfully placed here). 

7. AccENTOEm.,E. — C''^) Cinclorkamphns (2 sp.), Austraha ; 
(^ OW^'wid (I sp.), East Australia; (*^) Sialia, (8 sp.). United 
States to Guatemala; (^^) Accentor (12 sp.), Palfearctic region to 
Himalayas and North-west China ; C***) Orthonyx (4 sp.). East 
Australia and New Zealand (doubtfully placed here). 

The following two genera, which have been usually classed as 
Ampelidte, are arranged by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin in the 
Sylviidje : — 

^iB62j Myiadestes (8 sp.), Peru and Bolivia, along the Andes to 
Mexico and CaUfornia, also the Antilles ; (^^*) GicMopm (1 sp,), 

Family 3.— TIMALIID^. (35 Genera, 240 Species.) 

Genkbai, Distribution. 



Su'^'^BEO™ i S^f ™o™ Su™e"o^ I S^B-klS^^N. 1 ^u"eT^^"k"^ 


-a-A 1.2. 3. 4! 1.2 -4 

The Timaliidfe, or babbling thrushes, are a group of small 
atrong-legged active birds, mostly of duU colours, which are 
especially characteristic of the Oriental region, in every part of 
which they abound, while they are much less plentiful in 



Australia and Africa. The Tndo-Cbinese sub-region is the head 
quarters of the family, whence it diminishes rapidly in aU 
directions in variety of both generic and specific forma. Yiscount 
Walden has kindly assisted me in the determination of the 
limits of this family, as to which there is still much difference 
of opinion. The distribution of the genera here admitted is as 
follows; and aa the genera are widely scattered in the Kand 
List, reference numbers are prefixed in every case. 

^0-23 - 1020 looaj PomaiorMnus (27 sp.), the whole Oriental region 
(excluding Philippines), Australia and New Guinea ; (^''^') 
Pterohinus (3 sp.), North China, East Thibet ; (^'^ i"^) Mala- 
codrcua (9 sp.), Continental India and Ceylon, Arabia, Nubia ; 
(I'Ki) Okatarrhosa (5 sp.), Abyssinia, Palestine, India, Nepal, 
Burmah, and Philippines ; i}"^^) Layardia (3 sp.), India and Cey- 
lon ; Q-"^) Acanthoptila (1 sp.), Nepal ; Q^"^) Cindosoma (4 sp.), 
Australia and Tasmania : Q"^ ^''^) Crateropus (18 sp.), aU Africa, 
Persia ; f}"^) Rypergerus (1 sp.). West Africa : C-"^) Giehladusa 
(3 sp,). Tropical Africa ; Q-"^^) Qan-vlax (23 sp.), the Oriental 
region (excluding Philippines) ; ('"*") Jantkomida (10 ap.), Nepal, 
to East Thibet, Sumatra, Formosa ; Q-**"- '**^) Gamfsorhynchus (2 
sp.), Himalayas ; (?^***) Grammatoptila (1 sp.) North India ; Q"^^ - 
1046J Trockalopt&roii (24: sp.), all India to China and Formosa ; Q'**^) 
Actinodura (4 sp.), Nepal to Eurmah, 3,0130 - 10,000 feet ; (^"O 
Pdlorneum (4 sp.), Nepal to Ceylon, Tenasserim ; (^^ ^i'^) Timalia 
(12 sp.), Malaya ;^ (^^™) Dumetid (2 sp.). Central India and Cey- 
lon ; ("^) Stackyris (6 sp.), Nepal to Assam, Sumatra, Formosa ; 
^iM^ Pyatorhis (3 sp.), India to Ceylon and Burmah; Q-'^^^) Muomis 
(8 sp.), Himalayas and Malaya ; Q^^ Malacopt&ron (3 sp.), Ma- 
laya ; Q-'^^ ^^*^) Alcippe (15 sp.), Ceylon and South India, Hima- 
layas to Aracan, Malaya, Formosa, New Guinea ; ("'"') Macronus 
(2 sp.), Malaya ; Q^'^) Gacopitta (5 sp.), Malaya ; ("'^) Trichastoma 
(11 sp.), Nepal, Burmah, Malaya, Celebes; ("'*) N'apothera (6 ap.), 
Malaya ; (^^") DrynweatapMis (8 sp.), Burmah, Malaya, Ceylon, 

.' The term "Malaja" is used here to include the Malay Peninsula, 
Snmatra, Borneo, and Java, a district to which many species and genera are 
confined. " Malay Archipelago'' will be used to include both Indo-Malaya 
and Austro-Malaya. 



Timor ; (^^'^) Twdinus (5 sp.), Khaaia Hilla, Malacca, Tenas- 
serim ; ("™) TncMxos (1 sp.), Borneo, Malacca ; (^''"'*) Sibia (6 sp.), 
Nepal to Assam, Tenaisserim, Forraoaa ; (^^" ^^'^ Alethe (4 sp.). 
West Africa; (ii^^') Oxylaies (1 sp.), Madagascar; (^'^'')Pso~ 
plwdes (2 sp.), South, East, and West Australia ; (^***^) Turnagra 
(3 sp.). New Zealand, 

Family 4.— PANUEIDiE. (4 Genera, 13 Species). 
GENIHjIL Distribjttion. 

This new family is adopted, at the suggestion of ] 
Newton, to include some peculiar groups of Himalayan birds 
whose position has usually been among the Timaliidie or the 
Paridie, but which are now found to be aUied to our Bearded 
EeedUng. The supposed af&nity of this bird for the Tits has 
been long known to be erroneous, and the family Panuridte was 
formed foe its reception (Ya,Y^e\\'5 British Birds, 4th edit. p. 512). 
The geuera having hitherto been widely scattered in systematic 
works, are referred to by the numbers of Mr. G. E. Gray's 
Sand List. 

^jBoij Paradoxorms (3 sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet ; C^"*) 
Oonostoma (1 sp.), Himalayas and East Thibet ; (^'^) Sutkora (8 
sp ), Himalayas to North-west China, Formosa ; (^'^ Chlenasicm 
(1 sp.), Daijeeling ; (^') Panurus (1 sp,). Central and Southern 
Europe ; Q-^'^) HderomffrpJia (1 sp.), Nepal, 10,000 feet altitude ; 
Cholomis (1 sp.), Moupin in East Thibet. 

Family 5.— CINCLID^. (4 Genera, 27 Species.) 
General Distribution. 


-2.3- -a-4 ?4 1.2.3. 4 1 


CHAP, xvui.] BIRDS. 2C3 

Tht Cinclidse consist of a nmriber of more or less thrush-like 
ground birds, of which the most remarkable are the Dippers, 
toimmg the genus Oiitclvs. These are curiously distributed, from 
the Pal'eiictic region as a centre, to the alpine districts of North 
and South America ; while the three genera which are here in- 
cluded as somewhat allied to Cinclus, all inhabit the Oriental 
region. The genera which I class in this family are the 
following :— 

("^) Cinclm (9 sp.), PalEearctie region to West China and For- 
mosa, Eocky Mountains, and Mexico in North America, and 
southward to the Andes of Peru ; (^^) Enicu/rus (9 sp.), Hima- 
layas to Java and West China ; (^") Ewpetes (4 sp.), Indo-Malay 
sub-region and New Guinea ; ('''^) Myiophonus (5 sp.), Himalayas 
to Ceylon, Java, South China, and Formosa. 

(^^J MesUes (1 sp.), Madagascar, is an anomalous bird placed 
with Eupetes by Mr, G. E. Gray, but of very uncertain aflinities. 



(17 Genera, 



General Distributiok. 


1 S^^hSb. I Ic'n™™" I Su" 




i.a.3.4i.a.3.'ii.a.3.4i.a.3- — 3.4. i 

The Troglodytidie, or Wrens, are small birds, rather abundant 
and varied in the Neotropical region, with a few species scattered 
through the Nearctio, Palisarctic, and parts of the Oriental re- 
gions, and one doubtful genus in Africa, The constitution of 
the family is by no means well determined. The South American 
genera are taken from Messrs. Sclater and Salvia's Ncrnien- 
clator Avium Neotropicaliv/m. 

Tesia (2 sp.), Eastern Himalayas ; Pnoepyga (6 sp.), Himalayas 
to East Thibet, Java ; C^* ""* '^*) Troglodytes (15 sp.). Neotropical, 
Nearctic, and Paliearctic regions to the Higher Himalayas ; {™') 
Eimalor (1 sp.), Darjeeling ; Thryothoras (13 sp.), South Brazil 
to Mexico, Martinique, and Nearctic region; Tkryophiltis (13 
sp.), Brazil to Mexico, and North-west America; Cistothonts 
Vol. 11.-18 



(5 sp.), Patagonia to Greenland ; Xfro])sila (1 sp.), Mexico ; Do- 
nacobius (2 sp.), Tropical America ; Owmpylorhynch'm (18 sp.), 
Brazil, and Bolivia to Mexico and the Gila valley ; Ot/phorhinm 
(5 sp.), Ec[Tiatorial South America to Costa Eica; Microcereulus 
(5 sp.), Brazil and Peru to Mexico ; ReiiioorMna (2 sp.), Peru 
and Guiana to Costa Eica ; Salpindes (1 sp.), H^h Plains o£ 
Eocky Mountains ; Catherpes (1 sp.), Mexico and Eio Grande; 
Cmnicerthia (2 sp.), Ecuador and Columbia. ("") Sylvidta 
(2 sp,). Tropical and South Africa, — is placed m this family by 
Mr. Tristram. 

Family 7 

— CHAM.^ID^. fl Genus, 1 Species). 

Gebeeal Distribution. 



bS=S.: Sii 


The bird which forms the genus Ckamcea inhabits California ; 
and though allied to the wrens it has certain peculiarities of struc- 
ture which, in the opinion of many ornithologists, rec|_uire that 
it should he placed in a distinct family. 


LT° ^ 

EPTHIIP E {6 Cenori IS <^ppnp^ ) 

Cenbbal D sth b t on 




\i.^'^^ ^\l ™ 8.bVo \s%.^^ 



— 1-3.4 1.2- 


The Certhiidte, or Creepers, form a small family whose species 
are thinly scattered over North America from Mexico, the Palte- 
arctic region, parts of the Oriental region, and Australia, where 
they are somewhat more abundant. The distribution of the 
genera is as follows : 

Certhia (6 sp,), Nearctic and Palsearctic regions, Nepal, and Sik- 
him; Salpomis (1 sp.), Central India; Tichodroma (1 sp.). South 


3 to Abyssinia, Nepal, and North China ; Bhabdomis (1 
sp.), Philippine Islands; Climacteris (8 sp.), Australia and New 

Family 9,— SITTID,^. (6 Genera, 31 Species.) 
General DisTEiBrmoN.| 1.2 — 4 

The Sittidffi, or Nuthatches, are another small family of tree- 
creeping birds, "whoae distribution is very similar to that of the 
CerthiidEe, but with a more uniform range over the Oriental 
region, and extending to New Zealand and Madagascar. The 
genera are as follows : — 

Sitta (17 sp.), Palffiarctic and Nearetic regions to South India 
and Mexico ; Dmdrophila (2 sp.), Ceylon and India to Burmah 
and Malaya ; Hypherpes (1 sp.), Madagascar ; Sittella (6 sp.), 
Australia and New Guinea, Acanthisitta (1 sp,) and Xenwus 
(i sp.). New Zealand, are placed with some doubt in this family. 

Family 10.— PAEID^ . (14 Genera, 92 Species.) 





0R.KKTA1 1 



— 3- 

l.S.3.4 i.a.3- 1 




The ParidEB, or Tits, are very abundant in the Nearetic and 
Paltearetic regions ; many fine species are found in the Himalayas, 
but they are sparingly scattered through the Ethiopian, Oriental, 
and Australian regions. The genera usually admitted' into this 
family are the following, hut the position of some of them, 
especially of the Australian forms, is doubtful. 

^864-867 sToj p^Miis (46 8p.), North America, from Mexico, 
Paltearctic, and Oriental regions. Tropical and South Africa; 



1^668 869J Lfyphophanes (10 sp.), Europe, the Higher Himalayas to 
Sikhim, North America to Mexico ; Afyredula = Orites (6 sp.), 
Palsearctic region; MdanoeKlora (2 sp.), Nepal to Sumatra; 
Psaltria (1 sp.), Java; Psaltriparus (3 sp.), Guatemala to Cali- 
fornia, and Eocky Mountains ; Auriparus (1 sp,), Eio Grande ; 
(SSI 882J PariBOTiia (5 sp.). Tropical and Soutli Africa ; (^ ^'**) 
j^gilhalvs (fi sp.). South-east Europe to South. Africa; (^^ 3«9j 
j^githaliscus (6 sp.), Afghanistan and Himalayas to Amoy ; 
Cephalopyrus (1 sp.), North-west Himalayas ; Sylviparus (1 sp.), 
Himalayas and Central India ; Certhvpams (2 sp.), New Zealand ; 
(m 890-j SpiKjiostoma (2 sp.). East and South Australia. 

Family 11.— LIOTEICHIDiE. (11 Genem, 35 Species.) 


The Liotrichidte, or HUl-Tits, are small, active, delicately- 
coloured birds, almost confined to the Himalayas and tlieir ex- 
tension eastward to China. They are now generally admitted to 
form a distinct family. The genera are distributed as foUows : 

(i»«) Liothrix (3 sp.), Himalayas to Chma ; Siva (3 sp.), Hima- 
layas ; Minla (4 sp.), Himalayaa and East Thibet ; Propanis (7 
sp.), Nepal to East Thibet and Aracan ; ("s') Pteruthms (6 sp.), 
Himalayas to Java and West China ; (^^^) Cviia (2 sp.), Nepal ; 
(loie^ Yuhina (3 sp.). High Himalayas and Moupin ; ('^'^ Ixidua 
(3 sp.), Himalayas to Tenasserim ; C^"^^) Myzorms (1 sp.), Dar- 

Family 12.— PHYLLOENTTHIDiE. (3 Crenera, 14 Species.) 

Gbnbkal, Distribution. 


CHAP, sviii.] BIEDS. 267 

The PhyllomithidEe, or " Green Bulbuls," are a small group of 
fruit-eating birds, strictly confined to the Oriental region, and 
ranging over the whole of it, with the one exception of the Philip- 
pine Islands. The genera are ; — 

^ceaj pjiyllomia (12 ap.), India to Java, Ceylon, and Hainan ; 
.^6ff) jffy^ ^4 gpj^ ^|jg -whole Oriental region; C^'^^) Erpornis (2 
sp.), Himalayas, Hainan, Formosa, and Borneo, 

Family 13.— PYONONOTID^. (9 Genera, 139 Species.) 
Geneeal Distbibutioh. 

h— I- 

a — 4 1 

The Pycnonofcidie, Bulbuls, or fruit-thrushes, are highly charac- 
teristic of the Oriental region, in every part of which they abound ; 
less plentiful in the Ethiopian region, and extending to Palestine 
and Japan in the Palasarctic, and to the Moluccas in the Aus- 
tralian region, but absent from the intervening island of Celebes. 
The genera are :-— 

Mieroseelis (G sp-), Burmah, the Indo-Malay Islands, and 
Japan ; Fyenonotu& (52 sp., in many sub-genera), Palestine to 
South Africa, the whole Oriental region, China and Japan ; 
Aleurus (1 sp.), Himalayas ; Eemiims (2 sp.), Nepal, Bootao, 
Hainan; Phyllastrephu^ (4 sp.), West and South Africa; Sypd- 
petes (20 sp.), tlie whole Oriental region, Madagascar and the 
Masearene Islands ; Tplas (1 sp.), Madagascar ; Grmiger (30 sp.), 
the whole Oriental region (esclnding Philippines), West and 
South Africa, Moluccas ; Ixonofus (7 sp.). West Africa ; ('"^^ ^''") 
Setomis (3 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo; loU (4 sp.), 
Aracan and Malaya; Andropadus (9 sp.). Tropical Africa ; ("") 
IdoptUiis (1 sp.), South Africa. 




Family 14— OEIOLID^. (5 Genera, 40 Species,) 

General Distribvtion. 






l.a-4 l.a.3.4 1 1 1.2 

The Orioles, or Golden Thrushes, are a small group charac- 
teristic of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, migrating into the 
western Paltearctic region, and witli some of the less typical 
forms in Australia. The genera are :■ — 

Oriolus (24 sp.). Central Europe, throughout Africa, and the 
whole Oriental region, northward to Pekin, and eastward to 
Flores ; Q"'^) Anakipics (3 sp.), Himalayas, Formosa, Java and 
Borneo ; Mimeia (9 sp.), the Moluccas and Australia ; Sphecotheres 
(3 sp.), Timor and Australia, Artam'M-(l sp.), Madagascar, — 
perhaps belongs to the next family or to Laniidte. 

Eamily 15.— CAMPEPHAGID^. (3 Genera, 100 Species.) 
General DisTEiBriioH 


11234 12341. 2.3 — 

The Campephagidie, or Cuckoo Shrikes, (CampephaginEe of 
the Hand List, with the addition of Cochoa) are most abundant 
in the Australian region (especially in the Auatro-Malay sub- 
region) less so in the Oriental, and still less in the Ethiopian 
region. The genera, for the most part as adopted by Dr. Hart- 
laub, are as follows : — 

Perieroeohis (23 sp.), the whole Oriental region.exteOding north 
to Pekin, and east to Lombok ; (™* - ^*) Lanictems (4 sp,), 
West and South Africa ; (^^*^ ^^^) Graiicalus (25 sp.), the whole 
Oriental region, and eastward to Austro-Malaya, the New 


CHAP, xvm.] BIRDS. 2C3 

Hebrides, and Tasmania ; Artamides (1 sp.), Celebes ; Pteropo- 
doays (1 sp.), Australia ; (^^^ ^^^ i^' ^ Gampephaga (16 sp.), 
Austro-Malaya, aiid New Caledonia, Phnippines, tbe Ethiopian 
region; Volvocwora (8 sp.) the Oriental regijii (excluding 
Philippines); Lalage (18 sp.), the whole Malay Archipelago to 
New Caledonia and Australia; Symmorphus (1 sp.), Australia; 
O^notus (2 sp.), Mauritius and Bourbon ; Q-^^) Cochoa (3 sp.), 
Himalayas, Java. The position of this last genus is doubtfiil, 
Jerdon puts it in the ^jiotriehidfe ; Sundeval in the Sturnidse ; 
Bonaparte in the Dicruridse ; Professor Newton suggests the 
Pyenonotidte ; but it seems on the whole best placed here. 

Family 16.- 

-DICEURID^. (6 Genera, 58 Species.) 

GHNERiL Distribution. 

NEOTnopiCAi, yvM 

| — 

1 l.a. 3.4 l.a. 3. 4 l.a 

The DicmridaB, or Drongo Shrike (Dioruridai of the ffand 
List, omitting the genus Melcenomis), have nearly the same 
distribution as the last family, with which they are sometimes 
united. They are, however, most abundant and varied in the 
Oriental region, much less so both in the Australian and Ethio- 
pian regions. The distribution of the genera is as follows : — 

Dicrurm (46 sp., in several suh-genera), has tbe range of the 
whole family, extending east to New Ireland, and one species in 
Australia; Chmtorhynehus (1 sp.). New Guinea; Bhringa (2 sp.), 
Himalayas to Borneo (Plate IX. vol. i. p. 339) ; OUUa (2 sp.) 
Himalayas eastward to North China; Chaptia (3sp,),all India to 
Malacca and Formosa ; Zrma (4 sp.), Central India, Assam, and 
Burmah to Borneo and the Philippine Islands. This last genus 
is placed by Jerdon among the Pycnonotidfe, but seems to come 
most naturally here or in the last family. 



Family 17.- 

-MUSCICAPID^. (44 G-enera, 283 Species.) 


BUB-aEuioss. Sub-] 

^^L. 1 iiltZt^.. 1 sf."«'^Z^. 1 s^J^k^o!;. 1 s^i^'ir. 

l.a.3.4 l.a.i 

The MuscicapidEe, or Flycatehei^ (Muscicapime and Myiagrince 
of the. Hand List, omittiog Cochoa and including Pogonoeickla) 
form an extensive family of usually small-sized and often hright- 
coloured birds, very abundant in the warmer regions of the Old 
"World and Australia, but becoming scarce as we approach the 
temperate and colder regions. They are wholly absent from 
North and South America. The genera, many of which are not 
well defined, are distributed as follows : — 

Fdtops (1 sp.), Papuan Islands ; Mbnarcha (28 ap.), Moluccas 
to the Carolines and Marq^uesas Islands, Australia and Tas- 
mania; Leucophantes (1 sp.), Ifew Guinea; Butalis (4 sp.), 
Ethiopian and Paliearctic regions, Moluccas and Forinosa ; Mus- 
eicapa (12 sp.), Europe and Africa; Mtisdeapula (6 sp.), India to 
Western China; Alseonax (1 sp.). South Africa; Erythrostema 
(7 sp.), Europe to China and Java ; Newtonia (1 sp.), Madagaacar ; 
Xanthopygia (2 sp.), Japan, China, Malacca; Hemipus (1 sp.), 
India and Ceylon ; Pycmyphrys (1 sp,), Java ; Hyliota (2 sp.). 
West Africa ; Erythrocereus (2 sp.), "West Africa and Zambesi ; 
Micrwca (6 sp.), Australia, Timor, and Papuan Islands ; Artomyias 
(2 sp.). West Africa ; Psmdobias (1 sp.), Madagascar ; Memiche- 
lidon (3 sp.), the Oriental region and North China ; Smithornis 
(2 sp.). West and South Africa; MegaUas (1 sp.), West Africa; 
Cassinia (2 sp.). West Africa; Bias, (1 sp.), Tropical Africa; Mltava 
(3 sp.), Himalayas to West China ; Cyomis (16 sp.), the whole 
Oriental region ; Cya^opiila (1 sp.), Japan, China, Hainan ; 
Ewmyias (7 ap.), India to South China, Ceylon, and Sumatra ; 
Qm ^ im^ SipMa (8sp.), North India, Formosa, Timor; An- 
Ihipes (1 sp.), Nepal ; Seisura (5 sp.), Australia and Austro- 


CHAP, xviii.] BIEDS. 271 

Malaya (excluding Celebes) ; (Myiagra (16 sp.), Australia and 
Moluccas to CaxoKne and Samoa Islands : Hypoihymis (2 sp,). 
Oriental region and Celebes ; Mlminia (2 sp,), Tropical Africa ; 
Muscitodus (2 sp.), Fiji Islands ; Machcenrhynchus (4 sp.), Papuan 
Islands and Korth Australia ; Platystira (12 sp.), Tropical and 
South Africa ; Bkipidura (45 sp.), the Oriental and Australian 
regions to the Samoa Islands and Tasmania ; Chelidoi-ynx (1 sp.), 
Korth India ; Myialestes (2 sp.), India to Ceylon, China, Java 
and Celebes ; Tchitrea (26 sp.), the entire Ethiopian and Oriental 
regions, and to North China and Japan ; Phihntoma (4 sp.) 
Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, and Philippine Islands ; Todopsis 
(6 sp.), Papuan Islands ; (^^) Pogorwciehla (1 sp.), South Africa ; 
(1061 - v>^)Bradyomis (7 sp.). Tropical and South Africa ; (^*^) 
Chasiempis (2 sp.). Sandwich Islands. 

Family 18.— PACHYCEPHALID.^. (5 Genem, 62 Species.) 
General Distributioit. 

The PachyeephalidEe, or Thick-headed Shrikes (Pachycepba^ 
linffi of the Sand List omitting CoUuridnda,, Gracticus, and 
Pardaloius) are almost confined to the Australian region, a single 
species extending to Java and Aracan, and another (?) to Mada- 
gascar, The family has generally been united with the Laniidte, 
but most modern ornithologists consider it to be distinct. The 
distribution of the genera is as follows : — 

Oremta (1 sp.), Australia ; Falmnculm (2 sp.), Australia ; 
Pachycephala (44 sp.), Sula Islands (east of Celebes) to the Fiji 
Islands, and Australia ; Hylochans (4 sp.}, Timor, Celebes, Indo- 
Malaja, and Aracan ; Calicalicus (1 sp.), Mad^scar ; Eopsaltria 
(14 sp.), Australia, New Caledonia, and the New Hebrides ; Ar- 
twrnia (4 sp.), Madagascar, — may belong to this family, or to 
laniidee, Oriolidte, or Artamidse, according to different authors. 



Family 19- 


(19 Genera 



Gbkekal, DrsTEiturroif. 


= 1 — 

iV sSS= 

^ErmopivH 1 ^ 


'™a j 




.4 1 1 

I 1 1 1 




The Laiiiida^, or Shrikes {LaniinEe and Malaconotinte of the 
Hwnd List, and including Golluridncla), are most abundant 
and varied in Africa, less plenbifal in the Oriental, Australian, 
and Palffiarctic regions, with a few species in the Nearctie region 
as far as Mexico. The constitution of the family is, however, 
somewhat uncertain. The, genera here admitted are : — 

Collurieinda (4 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Rectes (18 sp,J, 
Papuan Islands, Korth Australia, to Pelew and Fiji Islands ; 
^m - UM 14M im 1471 - 147S) Lcinius (50 sp.), the whole ISfearctic, 
Palsearefcic, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions, one species reaching 
Timor, none in Madagascar ; ZaTmUws (1 sp.), Java ; Hypocolivs 
(1 sp.), Abyssinia and Upper Nile ; Oorvinella (1 sp.). South and 
West Africa; Umlestes (1 sp.). South and East Africa; T&phro- 
domis (4 sp.). Oriental region to Hainan and Java ; Hypodes {1 
sp.). West Africa; Fraseria (2 sp.). West Africa; Cuphopterus 
(1 sp.). Princes' Island ; NUaus (1 sp.). South and West Africa ; 
Prionops (9 sp.), Tropical Airica; Euroc&phaius (2 sp.). North, 
East, and South Africa, and Abyssinia ; Ohaunonotm (1 sp.). 
West Africa ; Vanga (4 sp.), Madagascar (Plate VI. vol. i. p. 278); 
Laniarius (36 sp,), the whole Etiiiopian region ; Tdephotius {10 
sp.), all Africa and South Europe ; Meristes (2 sp.). Tropical 
and South Africa ; Nicator (1 sp.). East Africa. 

Family 20.- 


(24 Genera, 190 Species.) 





,S-rri|s?"~. sSr.: 



;.3.4 I1.8.3 



CHAP, xviii.] BIEDS. 273 

The Corvicfe, or Crows, Jays, &c., form an extensive and 
somewhat heterogeneous group, some members of which inhahit 
almost every part of the globe, although none of the genera are ' 
cosmopolitan. The true crows are found everywhere but in 
South America ; the magpies, choughs, and nutcrackers are 
characteristic of the Palsearctic region; the jays are Palseai'ctic, 
Oriental, and American ; while the piping crows are peculiarly 
Australian, The more detailed distribution of the genera is as 
follows : — 

Sub-family I. Gymnorhininje (Piping Crows). — Strepera (4 
sp,), and Qynm&rhina (3 sp.)^ are Australian only; Graciicus (9 
sp.), rai^s from New Guinea to Tasmania (this is usually put 
with the Shrikes, but it has more affinity with the preceding 
genera) ; Pityriasis (1 sp.), Borneo (an extraordinary bird of verj' 
doubtful aflinities) ; Grallina (1 sp.), Australia, is put here by 
Sundevall, — among Motacillid^e, by Gould. 

Sub-family II. Garrulinas (J&ys).—Plaiylopkus = Lophodtta, 
(4 sp.), Malaya ; Gan-ulm (12 sp.), Paltearctic region, China and 
Himalayas ; Perisoreus (2 sp.), North of Palfearctic and Nearctic 
regions ; Cpanw-us (22 sp.), American, from Bolivia to Canada, 
most abundant in Central America, biit absent from the Antilles ; 
Cyanocorax (15 sp.), La Plata to Mexico ; Calodtta (2 sp.), Gua- 
temala and Mexico ; Pdlorhinus (3 sp.), Costa Eica to Texas ; 
Urocissa (6 sp.), Western Himalayas to China and Formosa ; 
Cissa (3 sp.), South-eastern Himalayas to Tenaaserim, Ceylon, 
Sumatra, and Java. 

Sub-family III. Dendrocittime (Tree Crows). — Temnurus (3 
sp.), Cochin China, Malacca to Borneo (not Java) ; Dmdro- 
eitta (9 sp.), the Oriental region to Sumatra, Hainan, and For- 
mosa ; CrypsirhiTM (3 sp.), Pegu, Siam, and Java ; Ptilostomus 
(2 ep-), West, Eaat, and South Africa. 

Sub-family IV. Corvinje (Crows and Magpies). — Jff'ucifraga (4 
sp.), Palfearctie region to the Himalayas and North China; Pki- 
corous (1 sp.), the Eocky Mountains and California; Gymiwhitta 
(1 sp.), Eocky Mountains and Arizona (Plate XYIII,, Vol. II., 
p. 128); Pica (9 sp.), Paltearctic region, Arctic America, and 
California; Gyanopica (3 sp.), Spain, North-east Asia, Japan; 



Streptocitta (2 sp.), Celebes ; Charitomis (1 ap.), Sula Islands ; 
Corvus (55 sp.), universally distributed except South America 
and New Zealand, but found in Guatemala and the Antilles 
to Porto Eico ; reaches the extreme north of Europe and Asia ; 
Gfymnocorvus (2 sp.), Papuan Talands ; Picatkartes {1 sp.), West 
Africa ; Corvultur (2 sp.). Tropical and South Africa. 

Sab-faraily V. TVegilinse (Choughs). — Fregilus (3 sp.), inouD- 
tains and cliffs of Palfearctic region from West Europe to the 
Himalayas and North China, Abyssinia (Plate I., Vol. I., p. 
195) ; Corcorax (1 sp.), Australia. 

Family 21.— PAEADISEID^. (19 Genera, 34 Species.) 


The Paradiseidffi, or " Birds of Paradise," form one of the most 
remarkable families of birds, unsurpassed alike for the singularity 
and the beauty of their plumage. Till recently the family waa re- 
stricted to about eight species of the more typical Paradise birds, 
but in his splendid monograph of the group, Mr. Elliot has 
combined together a number of allied forms which had been 
doubtfully placed in several adjacent families. The various 
species of true Paradise hirds, having omamental plumes deve- 
loped from different parts of the body, are almost wholly confined 
to Nevi' Guinea and the adjacent Papuan Islands, one species 
only heing found in the Moluccas and one in North Australia ; 
while the leas typical Bower-biiiSa, having no such developments 
of plumage, are most characteristic of the north and easf of 
Australia, with a few species in New Guinea. The distribution 
of the genera according to Mr. EUiot'a monograph is as follows : — 

Sub-family I. Paradiseinaa. — Pavadisea (4 sp.), Papuan Is- 
lands ; Manucodia (3 sp.), Papuan Islands and North Australia ; 
Astrapia (1 sp.), New Guinea; Farotia (1 ep.), New Guinea; 
ZopJwrhina (1 sp.). New Guinea ; Biphyllodes (3 sp.), Papuan 


CHAP, xviil] birds. 275 

Islands; Xanth,omel%is (1 ap.). New Guinea; Cidnnurvs (1 sp.), 
Papuan Islands ; Faradigalla (1 sp.). New Guinea ; Semioptera 
(1 sp.), Grilolo and Batchian. 

Sub-family II, EpimachinEe. — Epimaohus (1 sp.). New Guinea ; 
Drepwnomis (1 sp.), New Guinea ; Sdeucides (1 sp.), New Gui- 
nea (Plate X., Vol. I., p. 414) ; Ftilorkis (4 sp.), New Guinea and 
North Australia. 

Sub-family III. Tectonarchinas (Bower-birds). — Sericuhis (1 
sp.), Eastern Australia; Ptilmiorliynchm (1 sp.). Eastern Aus- 
tralia; Chlamydodera (4 sp.), North and East Australia; j^lu- 
Tcedus (3 sp.), Papuan Islands and East Australia; Amhlyornis 
(1 sp.). New Guinea, 

Family 22.— MELIPHAGID^, (23 Genera, 190 Species.) 

Geneiul Dibtmbuiion. 

■ (As in the Hand List, but omitting Zosterops, and slightly 
altering the arrangement.) 

The extensive group of the MeKphagid^, or Honey-suckers, 
is wholly Australian, for the genua Zosterops, which extends 
into the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, does not naturally 
belong to it. Several of the genera ^re confined to Australia, 
others to New Zealand, while a few range over the whole Aus- 
tralian region. The genera are distributed as follows : — 

Myzomela (18 sp.), has the widest range, extending from Ce- 
lebes to the Samoa Islands, and to Timor and Eastern Australia ; 
Entomo^Mla (4 sp.), Australia and New Guinea ; GlidphUa (10 
sp.), Australia, Timor, New Guinea, and New Caledonia ; Acan- 
tJwrhynchus (2 sp.), Austraha and Tasmania ; Meliphaga (1 sp.), 
Australia ; PtUotis (40 sp.), GUolo and Lombok to Australia and 
Tasmania, and to the Samoa and Tonga Islands ; Mdiomis (5 ap.), 
Australia and Tasmania; Prosthemadera (1 sp.), Pogmiomis (1 
sp.), New Zealand ; Anthorwis (4 sp,), New Zealand and Chatham 
Islands; Anthochcera (4 ap.), Australia and Tasmania; jfaa- 



tlwtis (4 sp.), Papuan Islanda and Australia ; Leptomts (2 sp.), 
Samoa Islands and New Caledonia; Philemon = Tropidorhyncus 
(18 sp.), Moluccas and Lombok to New Guinea, Australia, Tas- 
mania and New Caledonia ; Untomiza (2 sp.), Australia ; Mano- 
rhina (5 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Muthyrhynchiis (3 sp,). 
New Guinea ; Melirrhophe,tes (2 sp.), New Guinea ; Mdidectes 
(Isp.), New Guinea; Melipotes (1 sp-). New Guinea; MditKrep- 
tus (8 ap.). New Guinea, Australia, and Tasmania; (^^') Moho (3 
sp.), Sandwich Islands ; Ghmtoftila, (1 sp.). Sandwich Islands. 

(11 Genera, 



Gbnbeal DlSTEIBUnOW. 


."=,\ s'lS=.° ,s=:i 



1 ^u'SreoiX 

— I- 

— 1 -=-- >. 

— 1 



j 1.2 

The Nectariniidffi, or Sun-birds, form a rather extensive group 
of insectivorous honey-suckers, often adorned with brilliant me- 
tallic plumage, and bearing a superficial resemblance to the 
American humming-birds, although not in any way related to 
them. They abound in the Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian 
regions, as far east as New Ireland, and south to Queensland, 
while one species inhabits the hot Jordan Valley in the Palte- 
aietic region. For the Eastern genera I follow Lord Walden's 
classification (Ibis, 1870); the Airican species not having been 
so carefully studied are mostly placed in one genus. The genera 
3 follows : — 
s (1 sp.), South Africa ; I^ectarinia (60 sp.), the whole 
Ethiopian region ; Cinnyndndus (5 sp.), West Africa ; Neodre- 
panis (1 pp.), Madagascar; Aracknedhra (13 sp.), Palestine, 
all India to Hainan, the Papuan Islands, and North-east Aus- 
tralia ; ^thopyga (15 sp,), Himalayas and Central India to West 
China, Hainaji, Java, and Northern Celebes; Nedan^hUa (5 sp.). 
Central India and Ceylon, Assam and Aracan to Java, Celebes 
and the Philippines ; Chalcostetha (6 sp.), Malay Peninsula to 
New Guinea; AnihrepPs (1 sp.), Siam, Malay Peninsula to 


Sula Islands, and Flores ; Cosmetdra (1 ap.), Papuan Islands ; 
Araehnotkera (15 sp.), the Oriental region (excluding PhiUppines) 
Celebes, Lombok, and Papuan Islands. 

Famk^y 2i.--'D\GMlDM. (5 Genera, 107 Species.) 

Gbnekal Di 



'! 1 Su^™o 

\ s'rss j 





BS. S*UB^K^^ 


1.4 l.a.S.A 1 .S .3 . 

The DicEeidie, or Flower-peckers, consist of very small, gaily- 
coloured birds, rather abundant over the whole Oriental and 
much of the Australian regions, and one genus extending over 
the Ethiopian region. The genera here adopted are the fol- 
lowing : — 

(^2^) Zosterops (68 sp.), the whole Ethiopian, Oriental, and 
Australian regions, as far east as the Fiji Islands, and north to 
Pekin and Japan ; (**"• — '"^ Diemv/m (25 sp.), the whole Oriental 
region, except China, with the Australian region aa far as the 
Solomon Islands; (*"*) PoGKyglos&a, (2 sp. i*^^ "''^j Nepal and 
Northern Celebes ; i^"^) Fiprisoma (2 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon 
and Timor; (^*™) Pardalotus (10 sp,), Australia and Tasmania ; 
(*"' - *'*) PHoTweMlus (5 sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region and Papuan 

Family 25.— -DKEPANIDID^. (4 Genera, 8 Species.) 







The DrepanididEe are confined to the Sandwich Islands, and I 
foUow Mr. Sclater's suggestion in bringing together the following 
genera to form this family : — 

Drepanis (3 sp.) ; Hemignathus (3 sp.) ; Loxops (1 sp,) ; Psit- 
tirodra (1 sp.). Tf these are correctly associated, the great 



differences in the bill indicate that they are the remains of 
a larger and more varied family, once inhabiting more extensive 
land surfaces in the Pacific. 

Family 26.— CCEEEBIDJ5. (11 Genera, 55 Species.) 

General Distribution. 

3^^'m^ s 

£s=. .';sr=,|sr.=. 



1 11 






(According to the arrangement of Messrs. Selater and Salvin.) 
The Cterebidte, or Sugar-birds, are delicate little birds alhed to 
the preceding families, but with extensile honey-suckmg tongues. 
They are almost wholly confined to the tropical parts of America, 
only one species of CertMola ranging so far north as i"]orida. 
The following is the distribution of the genera : — 

Diglossa (14 sp.), Peru aud Bolivia to Guiana and Mexico ; 
Diglossopis (1 sp.), Ecuador to Venezuela; Oreomanes (1 sp.), 
Ecuador ; Conirostrwnh (6 sp.), Bolivia to Ecuador and Columbia ; 
Hemidacnis (1 sp.). Upper Amazon and Columbia ; Sacnis (13 
sp.), Brazil to Ecuador and Costa Eica ; Gerthidea (2 sp.), Gala- 
pagos Islands ; Ohlorophanes (2 sp.), Brazil to Central America 
and Cuba ; Gcereha (4 sp.), Brazil to Mexico ; Certhiola (10 sp.), 
Amazon to Mexico, West Indies, and Florida ; GlossoptUa (1 sp.), 

Family 27, 


(18 Genera, 



Gkkeeal Distribuiiok. 

Sde-BEOIOHS. 81 

™"".. 1 Sii^Zl I B 

Sm", 1 S?."." 



(Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are followed for the Neotropical, 

Baird and Allen for the Nearctic region.) 

The Mniotiltidfe, or Wood-warblers, are an interesting group of 

small and elegant birds, aJlied to the preceding family and io the 

ts, and perhaps also to the warblers and tits of I 


CHAP, xviii.] BIRDS. 279 

They range over all North America from Panama to the Arctic 
TegioQS, but do not extend far beyond the tropic in Southern 
America. They are almost as ahundant in the Nearctic aa in 
the Neotropical regioii ; and considering the favourable condi- 
tions of existence in Tropical America, this fact, in connection 
with their absence from the South Temperate zone would lead us 
to suppose that they originated in North Temperate America, and 
sufaseq.uently spread southward into the tropics. This supposi- 
tion is strengthened by the fact that their metropolis, in the 
breeding season, is to the north of the United States, The 
genera adopted by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are as follows:— 
(^) Siwus (4 sp.), Venezuela and West Indies to Eastern States 
and Canada ; Miiiotilta (1 sp.), Venezuela, Mexico, and Antilles 
to the Eastern States ; Parula (5 sp.), Brazil to Mexico, and the 
Eastern States, and Canada ; Protonotaria (1 sp,), Antilles to 
Ohio ; Hdrmnthffphaga (8 sp.), Columbia to Arctic America 
Helminth&nis (2 sp.). Central America to Eastern States ; Peris- 
soglosm (1 sp,), Antilles and Eastern States ; Sendrceca (33 sp,), 
Amazon to Antilles, and Arctic America, and south to Chili ; 
O^'twoi'Ji'is (2 sp.), Guatemala to Eastern States; Geothlypis (11 
sp,). all North America and Brazil ; Myiodioctes (fi spij, aH North 
America and Columbia ; Basileuterus (22 sp.), Bolivia and Brazil 
to Mexico ; Setophaga (15 sp,), ErazU to Canada ; Ergaticiis (2 
sp.), Guatemala and Mexico ; Carddlina (1 sp,), Guatemala and 
Mexico ; (^**') Qranatdlus (3 sp.), Amazon to Mexico ; Q^'^) Tere- 
tristis (2 sp,), Cuba; ("^) Icteria (2 sp.), Costa Kica and United 
States to Canada. 

Family 28.— VIEEONID^.. (7 Genera, 63 Species.) 


(Messrs. Sclater and Salvin are followed for the Neotropical 
genera ; Professor Baird and Mr. Allen for those of the Nearctic 

Vol. II.-19 



The VireonidEe, or G-reeiilebs, are a family of small fly-catching 
hirda wholly restricted to the American continent, where they 
range from Paraguay to Canada. They are allied to the Mniotil- 
tidje and perhaps also to the Australian Pachycephalidfe. Only 
two of the genera, with about a dozen species, inhabit the 
Neaxetic region. The distribution of the genera is as follows : — 

Vireosylvia (13 sp.), Venezuela to Mexico, the Antilles, the 
Eastern States and Canada ; Vi/reo (14 ap,), Central America and 
the Antilles to Canada ; Ifeoc/doe (1 sp.), Mexico ; SylophUus 
{20 sp.), BraaU to Mexico ; LaUtes (1 sp.), Jamaica ; FHreolanim 
(5 sp.), Amazonia to Mexico ; Gychlorhis (9 sp.), Paraguay to 

Family 29.- 

-AMPELID^. (4 






^"™^ 1 s?£^^ 


iOm, SUB^I 



3 4 1 1.S.3 

.4 1 



-i — 

The AmpeUdse, represented in Europe by the waxwing, are a 
small family, characteristic of the Nearctic and Paljearctic re- 
gions, but extending southward to Costa Rica and the West 
Indian islands. The genera are distributed as follows : — 

(1539J A-m'pelis (3 sp.), the Palfearetic and Nearetic regions, and 
southward to Guatemala ; (^^'*) Ptilogonys (2 sp.). Central 
America ; (^"^ Ihdus (2 sp.), West Indian Islands ; (i^') Phtmo- 
p&pla (1 sp.), Mexico and the Gila Valley. 

Family 30.— HIKUNDINID^. < 9 Genera, 91 Species.) 
General Distkibutioh. 1.2.3. 4 I.Z.3.' 



The HirundinidEe, or Swallows, are true cosmopolites. Al- 
though they do not range quite so far north (except aa stragglers) 
as a few of the extreme polar hirds, yet they paas beyond the 
Arctic Circle both in America and Europe, Gotyle riparia having 
been observed in the Parry Islands, while Hi/rv/ndo rmtica has 
been seen both in SpitEbei^en and Nova Zembla. Cotyhrifaria 
and Chelidort urhica also breed in great numbers in northern 
Lapland, latitude 67° to 70° north. Many of the species also, 
have an enormous range, the common swallow (Rirundo ntslica) 
inhabiting Europe, Asia and Africa, from Lapland to the Cape of 
Good Hope and to the Moluccaa. The genera of swallows are 
not well determined, a number having been established of which 
the value is uncertain. I admit the following, referring by 
numbers to the Hand List : — 

(■ais - aa E26 - 328^ Swundo (40 sp.), the range of the entire 
family ; (^^ ^ Psalidoprogne (10 sp,}, Tropical and South Africa ; 
(^) Pkedvna (1 sp.), Madagascar and Mascarene Islands ; (^^^) 
PetroahelidQn (5 sp.). North and South America and Cape of Good 
Hope ; (2M - S32 'S34J Aiticora (8 sp.), the Neotropical region and 
1 Australia ; Q^^ ^^') Cotyk (11 sp.), Europe, India, Africa, North 
America, Antilles and Ecuador ; (^) Utelgidopterryx (5 sp.), La 
Plata to tTnited States ; (^^^ ""^ ^^^) Chdidon (6 sp.), Palsearotie 
r^ion, Nepal, Borneo ; (^'* - ^^) Prognt (5 sp.), all North and 
South America. 

Family 31.— ICTEEID^ (24 Genera, 110 Species.) 

General Disteibution, 

Neotkdpical 1 Hejkctcio I PiLfflaKcric | Ethiofiah 


1 .2.3.4 i.a.^ 

The Icteridje, or American hang-nests, range over the whole 
continent, from Patagonia and the Falkland Islands to the 
Arctic Circle. Only about 20 species inhabit the Nearctic 
region, while, as usual with exclusively American families, the 
larger proportion of the genera and species are found in the 



tropical pai-ts of South America. The genera adopted by Messrs. 
Sclater and Salvin are the following ; — 

Glypeieterm (1 sp.). Upper Amazon ; Ocyalus (2 sp.), Upper 
Amazon to Mexico ; Ostin&ps (8 sp.), Brazil and Bolivia to 
Mexico; CasBimliis (1 sp,), Mexico; Gassicus [IQ sp.), Sontii 
Brazil and BoKvia to Costa Eiea ; Icterus (34 sp.), La Plata to 
the AntiUea and United States; BoUchonyx (1 sp,), Paraguay 
to Canada; Molothrus-{8 sp.), la Plata to Northern United 
States ; Agelmus (V sp,). La Plata and Chili to Northern United 
States ; Xauthocephahis {1 sp.), Mexico to California and Canada ; 
Xanthosorrms (4 sp,), La Plata to Venezuela ; Amhlyrhamphus 
(1 sp.), la Plata and Bolivia ; Gymnomystax (1 sp.), Amazonia 
andG-uiana; Psmdoleistes (2 sp.). La Plata and Brazil; Leistes 
{3 sp,). La Plata to Venezuela ; Stwrndla (5 sp.), Patagonia and 
Falkland Islands to Middle United States; Curmts (1 sp.), 
Chili ; Nesopsar (1 sp,), Jamaica ; Scolecophgaus (2 sp.), Mexico to 
Arctic Circle ; Iiampropsar (4 sp.), Amajjooia and Ecuador to 
Mexico; Quiscalm {10 gp.), Venezuela and Columbia to South 
and Central United States; Rypopyrrhus (1 sp,), Columbia; 
Aphobvs (I sp,), Brazil and_ Bolivia ; Oassidix (2 sp.), Brazil to 
Mexico and Cuba. 

Family 32.— TANAGRIDiE. (43 Genera, 304 Species.) 

Gbnbkal Distribution. 



pAL«»KCrio BrmopiAB 


S3. Bde-bed 



- — 

- -— 


The Tanagers are an extensive family of varied and beautiful 
fruit-eating birds, almost peculiar to the Neotropical region, only 
four species of a single genus {Fyranga) extending into the 
Eastern United States and Kocky Mountains. Southward they 
range to La Plata. They are especially abundant in the forest 
regions of South America east of the Andes, where no less 
than 40 out of the 43 genera occur; 23 of the genera are 
peculiar to this sub-region, while only 1 (HUogothra'wpis) is 


CHAP, sviii.] BIRDS. 283 

: to Central America and Mexico, and 2 {Spindalis and 
Phmtic&pMlus) to the West Indian islands. The genera adopted 
by Messrs. Sclater and Salvin with their distribution will be 
found at Vol II., p. 89, in our account of Neotropical Zoology. 

Family 33.— FRINGILLID.^ (74 Genera, 509 Species.) 


.3.1-ll .1 

The great family of the FrmgUlidie, or finches, is in a very un- 
settled state as regards their division into genera, the most di- 
vergent views being held by ornithologists as to the constitution 
and affinities of many of the grroups. All the Australian finch- 
like birds appeal' to belong to the PloceidEe, so that the finches, 
as here conatituted, are found in every region and sub-region, 
except the Australian region from which they are entirely absent 
— a peculiar distribution hardly to be foiind in any other family 
of birds. 

Many European ornithologists separate the EmberizidEe, or bun- 
tings, as a distinct famUy, but as the American genera have not 
been so divided I am obliged to keep them together ; but the 
genera usually classed as "buntings " are placed last, as a sub- 
family. In the following arrangement of the genera, I have done 
what I could to harmonize the views of the best modern writers. 
For convenience of reference the succession of the genera is that 
of the Rand List, and the numbers of the sub-genera are given 
whenever practicable : — ■ 

^793 1705^ Fringilla (6 sp.), the whole Palsearctic region, includ- 
ing the Atlantic Islands ; {^''^) Acanthis (3 sp,), Europe to Siberia, 
Persia, and North- West Himalayas ; Q''^) Procardudis (1 sp.). 
High Himalayas and East Thibet ; ("^ - ^™) Ghrysomitris (18 
sp.). Neotropical and Nearctic regions, Europe, and Siberia; (^^*) 
Meli^tmia (1 sp.). East Europe to North West Himalayas ; (^* 
■nd 1809J Chlorospiza (9 sp.), Pahearctic region and Africa to the 



Cape of Good Hope ; Q^"^ " ^^^) Dryospiza (14 sp.). South Europe, 
Palestine, Canaries, and aU Africa ; (^^'*) Symlis (18 sp,), the 
whole Neotropical region ; (^*" - ^^^ ^^^ - *^) Fyrgita (34 sp.), 
PalEearctic and Oriental regions, and aU Africa ; Q^^) Montifrirt^ 
gilla (4 sp,), Paltearctie region ; (^^) Fringili(mda (2 sp.), North- 
West Himalayas to East Thibet ; (^^° — ^^^^) Coccothrmistes (6 sp.), 
Palffiarctic region and Nepal, Nearctic region to Mexico ; (^^') 
Eophona (2 sp.), China and Japan; (^^*) Mycetrdbas (2 sp.). Cen- 
tral Asia to Persia, High Himalayas, and East Thibet; (^™) 
GhcmnoproGtus (1 sp.), Benin Islands, south-east of Japan, 
(probably Paleearctie) ; (^^) Cfeospka (7 sp.) .Galapagos Islands ; 
(1S37J Cama/rhynchus (5 sp,), Galapagos Islands ; (^^^) Cadomis 
(4 sp.), Galapagos Islands ; {^«^ ~ ^^') Phrygilus (10 sp.), Colum- 
bia to Puegia and the Palkland Islands ; C^^) Xenospingus (1 sp.), 
Peru; (183*) Biuca (3 sp.). Pern to Chili and Patagonia ; (^^ 
™i i8a7j Ernimzoides (3 sp,), Venezuela to Paraguay ; Q^^) Bona- 
cospiza {1 sp,). South Brazil and La Plata ; (^^^) Ghamceospisa (1 
sp,), Mexico ; (^^"^ °^* ^^) Mmbernagra (9 sp.), Arizona to La 
Plata; i^"^} Hwrnophila (6 sp.), Mexico to Costa Pica; i^^^) 
Atlapetm (1 sp.), Mexico; i^^) PyrgiBoma (5 sp.), Mexico to 
Costa Rica; (ism -^ leis) PipHo (12 sp.), all North America to 
Guatemala ; (^*'^ Junoo (6 sp,), all the United States to Guate- 
mala; (^^') ZonotricMa (9 sp,), the whole Nearctic and Neotro- 
pical regions ; (^^^ ^^ Melospvsa (7 sp.), Sitka and United States 
to Guatemala; (^^) Spizella (7 sp.), Canada to Guatemala ; (^■^) 
Fasserella (4 sp.), the Nearctic region and Northern Asia ; (^^ 
Fasserciilits (6 sp.), Nearctic region and to Guatemala ; (™^) Poa- 
ceies (1 sp.), all United States and Mexico ; (^^) Ammodromm 
(4 sp.), all United States to Guatemala ; (^^^^) Coturmcvius (6 sp.), 
north and east of North America to Jamaica and Bolivia ; C*^ 
Fmccm (6 sp.), South Atlantic States and California to Mexico ; 
(1867) Tiaris (1 sp.), Brazil ; (i^^) Volaiinia (1 sp,), Mexico to 
Brazil and Bolivia ; (^^^)Oy(mosp'ka (5 sp.), Canada to Guatemala ; 
^iseo 1801) Parowria (6 sp.), Tropical South America, east of the 
Andes ; (^^^ Ooryphospingm (4 sp.), Tropical South America ; 
(^^ Haplospiza (2 sp,), Mexico and Brazil; {^^ ^^) Fhonipara 
(8 sp,), Mexico to Columbia, the greater Antilles ; ('^^) Poospiza 


CHAP, sviii.] BIRDS. 285 

(_13 sp.), California and South Central States to Bolivia and La 
Plata ; (*^*) Spodiomis (1 sp.), Andes of Quito ; Q^^ ^') Pyrrhula 
(9 sp.), the whole Palfearetic region to the Azores and High 
Himalayas ; (^^ CrUhagra (17 sp.), Tropical and South Africa, 
Mauritius, Syria; (i^) Ligurnus (2 sp.), West Africa; (isfoi87i^ 
Carpodams {18 sp.), Nearctie and Paltearctie regions to Mexico 
and Central India; (isra - is?*) ETythro^isa (6 sp.). Southern 
parts of Paliearctic region; (^'*) Uragus (2 sp.), Siberia and 
Japan; (^^™) Gardinalis (2 sp.), South and Central States to 
Venezuela: {^^''^) Fyrrkaloxia (1 sp.), Texas and Eio Grande; 
^1878 1679^ &nwaea (6 sp,). Southern United States to La Plata; 
^issoj Ama%rospiza (2 sp.), Costa Eica and Braail ; (^^) Hedy- 
Tneles (2 sp.), all United States to Columtia ; Q^^) Pheucticm 
(5 sp.), Mexico to Peru and Bolivia ; {^^) Oryzoborus (6 sp.), 
Mexico to Ecuador and South Brazil ; p^) Melopyrrha (1 sp.), 
Cuba ; (^^) Zoxigilla, (4 sp.), Antilles ; (^^^ ^0 SpermopMla 
(44 sp.) , Texas to Bolivia and Uruguay ; (^^^^) Catammia (4 sp.), 
Columbia to Bolivia ; (^^^) NeorhyncJms (3 sp.). West Peru ; 
C^^^) Oaiamilyrhyncus (1 sp.), Columbia; (^*^) Zoxia (7 sp.), 
Europe to North-west India and Japan, Arctic America to Penn- 
sylvania, Mexico ; (^^^) Pinicola (3 sp.), Arctic America, North- 
east Europe to the Amoor, Camaroons Mountains West Africa ; 
^i89ff) Propyrrhiila (1 sp.), Darjeeling in the winter, ? Thibet ; Q^^ 
Pyrrhospim (1 sp.), Snowy Himalayas; (^^^') Hcematospiza (1 
sp.). South-east Himalayas, 5,000 - 10,000 feet; (^^^ ^^^) Lmota 
(12 sp.), Europe to Central Asia, north and east of North Ame- 
rica ; (^^) Leucostiete (7 sp.), Siberia and Thibet to Kamschatka, 
and from Alaska to Utah. 

Sub-family EmberiziuEe. — (^^^) Calsmospiza (1 .sp.), Arizona 
and Texas to Mexico ; (™^ Chondestes (2 sp.). Western, Central, 
and Southern States to Mexico and Nicaragua ; (^^ - ^^'') E%- 
spisa (9 sp.), Palfeaictic region, India, Biurmah, and South China, 
South-east United States to Columbia ; (wn-ie^o) Ernhcrim (2% 
sp.), the whole Palfearetic region (continental), to Central India 
in winter ; (^^^) Guhernatrix (1 sp.), Paraguay and La Plata, 
(according to Messrs. Sclater and Salvin this comes next to 
Pipilo); 1^^ Fringillaria (8 sp.), Africa and South Europe; 



Qm^—wis-j Pleotrophanes (6 sp.), Arctic Zone to Northern Europe 
and North China, Arctic America, and east side of Eocky Moun- 
tains; Q^^) Centronix (1 sp.), Month of Yellowstone River. 

Family di.—PWCEIDM. (29 Genera, 252 species.) 


,,* 1.2.3- 

The Ploceidfe, or Weaver-finches, are especially characteristic 
of the Ethiopian region, where most of the genera and nearly 
four-fifths of the species are found; the remainder being pretty 
equally divided between the Oriental and Australian regions. 
Like the true finches these have never been properly studied, 
and it is exceedingly difficult to ascertain what genera are natural 
and how far those of AustraHa and Africa are distinct, The fol- 
lowing enumeration must therefore he taken as altogether ten- 
tative and provisional. When the genera adopted differ from 
those of the Hand List they will he referred to hy numbers. 

Textor (5 sp.). Tropical and South Africa ; Q-^ - ^^ ^^'^ Hy 
phmit&i-nis (32 sp.), Tropica! and South Africa ; (^^'^ ^^) Syin- 
plecies (8 sp.). Tropical and South Africa ; Mcdimhus (9 sp.), West 
Africa; (^^* "*^) Ploceus (6 sp.), West and East Africa, the Orien- 
tal region (excluding Philippines) ; (^'°'') N'elicurviits (1 sp,), 
Madagascar ; I'oudia (12 sp.), Madagascar and Mascarene Islands, 
Tropical Africa ; 1^^"^ '^^^) Sporcrpipes (2 sp.). Tropical and South 
Africa ; ('°*^ - ^^^) Pyromelana (14 sp.), Tropical and South 
Africa, Abyssinia to 10,500 feet ; FMletcerus (1 sp.), South Africa ; 
Nigrita (7 sp.). West Africa to Upper Nile ; Plocepasser (4 sp,). 
East and South Africa; (^^'^ - ^^^*) Vidua (7 sp.). Tropical and 
South Africa (Phite V., Yol. I., p. 264) ; {^'"^ - i«'0 CoUuspasser 
(9 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; Ghera (1 sp.). South Africa ; 
Sp&rmospiza (2 sp.), West Africa; Pyrenesfes (Q sp.). Tropical and 
South Africa; Q^^ -i««' i«s9 im mum-^ Estrilda (26 sp.). Tropical 
and South Africa, India, Burmali, and Java to Australia ; (^^^^ ^^^ 


in.] BIRDS. 287 

leaaj Pytelia (24 sp.). Tropical aud South Africa; ('«'«) 
t (2 8p.), Mozambique and Madagascar ; Q-"^'') Emhlema 
(1 sp.). North-west Auatraha Q*^ "^^ - "i') Amadma (15 sp.), 
Tropical and South Africa, Moluccas to Australia and the Samoa 
Islands ; (^''*"' ""^ ^™) Sperrmstes (8 sp.), Tropical Africa and Mada- 
gascar; (""^ Amauresthes (1 sp.). East and West Africa; ("''^ 
1707 — 1709 1711J Munia (30 sp.), Oriental region to Timor and 
Wew Guinea ; ("«) Donacola (3 sp.), Ausio-alia ; (i'^^ i706^ Foeph.Ua 
(6 sp.), Australia ; (i™ - "^) Erythmra (7 sp.), Sumatra to 
Java, Moluccas, Timor, New Gaiaea, and Fiji Islands; ("^) 
Eypocfwa (3 sp.). Tropical and South Africa. 

T'AMILT SS— STUENID^ (29 Geneia, 12i Species) 


I. a. 3. 4 i.a.3.- 

The Stumidse, or Starlings, are a h%hly characteristic Old- 
World group, extending to every part of the great Eastern con- 
tinent and its islands, and over the Pacific Ocean to the Samoa 
Islands and New Zealand, yet wholly absent from the mainland 
of Australia, The family appears to be tolerably ■well -defined, 
and the following genera are generally considered to belong to it : 
^568 1659 1662^ Eulahes [13 sp.), the Oriental region to South-west 
China, Hainan, and Java,— and Flores, New Guinea and the Solo- 
mon Islands in the Australian region ; Ampeliceps (1 sp.), Tenas- 
aerim, Bnrmab, and Cochin China; Gpnnops (1 sp.), Philippine 
Islands; BasUomis (2 sp.), Celebes and Cetam; Pastor (1 sp.). 
South-east Europe to India, Oeylon, and Burmah ; Achdothcres 
(7 sp.), the whole Oriental r^on and Celebes ; (^^ ^^^) Stumia 
(12 sp.), the whole Oriental region, North China, Japan, and 
Siberia, Celebes ; Dilophus (1 sp.) South Africa ; Stw-nus (6 sp.), 
Palfearctic region, to India and South China in winter ; Sturno- 
pastor (4 sp.), India to Burmah and East Java ; Crmdion (2 sp.) 
New Zealand ; Reterolocha (1 sp.), New Zealand ; ('^^ Galloias 



(2 ap.). New Zealand ; Bupkaga (2 sp.). Tropical and South 
Africa ; Ewyceros (1 ap.), Madagascar (see Plate VI, Vol. I., p. 
278.) Thia genus and the laat ahonld perhaps form distinct 
families. (^") Juida (5 sp.). Central, West, and Sontli Africa ; 
( ^™) Lcmpi'ocotiiis (20 sp,). Tropical and South Africa ; Ginny- 
ricinelus (2 ap.), Tropical and South Africa ; Onychognathus (2 
ap.), West Africa ; (^^') Spreo (4 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; 
^is82 — i63ff) Amyd/ms (7 sp.), South and East Airica, Palestine ; 
Aploms (9 sp.). New Caledonia to the Tonga Islands ; {^^ - ^^ 
Oalomis (18 sp.), the whole Malay Archipelago and eastward 
to the Ladrone and Samoa Islands ; (^^™) Enodes (1 sp.), Celebes ; 
Soissirostrum (1 sp.), Celebes ; (^^^) Saroglossa (1 sp.), Hima- 
layas ; (^^) Hartlaulius (1 sp.), Madagascar ; FTegilupus (1 sp.), 
Bourbon, but it has recently become extinct; (^) Falmlia (1 
sp)., J 

Family 36.-~AETAMID^. (1 Genus, 17 Species.) 
Gbnekal Distribdtioh. 

Neotropical I NE-AHcrio I Palsaectic I Ethiopiah I Ohiental | Austbaiian 


l.S.3.4 i.a .3 - 

The Attamidse, or Swallow-shrikea, are a curious group of 
birds, ranging over the greater part of the Oriental and Austra- 
Uan regions as far east as the Fiji Islands and south to Tasmania. 
Only a single species inhabits India, and they are more plentiful 
in Australia than in any other locality. The only well-marked 
genus is Artamus. 

There are a few Madagascar birda belonging to the genus 
Artamia, which some ornithologists place in thia family, others 
with the Laniidse, but which are here classed with the Oriolidfe. 





FAmLY 37.- 

-ALAUDID^. (15 Genera, 110 Species.) 

Genebai DiaTBiBirnoN. 

^bTC^": 1 s^^^il 

icnc 1 Pal^abctic 1 Ethiopian 1 Obikbtai, | Austbai 




a;.3 1 a, 

The Alaudidte, or Larks, may be considered as exclusively 
belonging to the great Eastern continent, since the Nearctic, 
Neotropical, and Australian regions have each only a single 
species. They abound most in the open plains and deserts of 
Africa and Asia, and are especially numerous in South Africa. 
The genera, including those recently established by Mr. Sharpe, 
are as follows : — 

Oiocorys (8 sp.) ; the Palffiarctie region, North America and 
south to the Andes of Columbia, North India; (^^^ i«^) Alauda (17 
sp.), Paltearctio region, all Africa, the Peninsula of India, and 
Ceylon ; C^) Galerita (10 sp.), Central Europe to Senegal and 
Abyssinia, Persia, India and North China ; ("^^) Calendula, (2 
sp.), Abyssinia and South Africa ; (^^^ '***) Oalandrella (6 sp.), 
Europe, North Africa, India, Burmah, North China, and Mon- 
golia ; (J^ - ™') Melanocorypha (7 sp.). South Europe to Tartary, 
Abyssinia, and North-west India ; Pallasia ("^ "^), East Asia ; 
^93sj CertMlauda (4 sp.), South Europe, South Africa ; Beterocorys 
("■ T!02) South Africa; Q-^) Almmon (3 sp.). South-east Europe 
to Western India, and South Africa ; Q^) Mirafra (26, sp.), the 
Oriental and Ethiopian regions to Australia ; C-^") Aminomcmes 
(10 sp.), South Europe to Palestine and Central India, and to 
Cape Verd Islands and South Africa ; ("-^^ ^^^) Megalophomts. (6 
sp.). Tropical and South. Africa; Tephrocorys (1 sp.), South 
Africa ; PyrrJiulwiula (9 sp.), all Africa, Canary Islands, India 
and Ceylon. 



Family 38.- MOTACILLIDiE. (9 Genera, 80 Species.) 




1 ■' 

The Motacillidfe, or Wagtails and Pipits, are universally dis- 
fiributed, but are moat abundant in the Palfearctic, Ethiopian, 
and Oriental regions, to which the true wagtails are almost con- 
fined. The following genera are usually adopted, but some of 
them are not very well defined : — 

MotaeUla (15 sp.), ranges over the greater part of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, and to Alaska in North-west America ; Budptes 
{10 sp.), Europe, Africa, Asia to Philippines, Moluccas, Timor, 
and Worth Austraha; Calobatea (3 sp.). South Palsearctic and 
Oriental regions to Java ; Nemorieola (1 sp.), Oriental region ; 
Anthits (30 sp,), all the great continents ; Neocorys (1 sp,). Cen- 
tral North America; Coryddlla (14 sp,), South Europe to India, 
China, the Malay Islands, Australia, New Zealand and the Auck- 
land Islands : Maeronyx (5 sp,). Tropical and South Africa ; 
Heterwra (1 sp,), Himalayas. 

Family 39.— TYRANNIDiE. (71 Genera, 329 Species.) 





PALSAEcne 1 E™.opii« 


5. 1 tZ^^oT^ 



-\~ — 

The Tyrannidce, or Tyrant Shrikes, form one of the most ex- 
tensive and truly characteristic American families of birds ; as 
they extend over the whole continent from Patagonia to the 
Arctic regions, and are found also in all the chief American 
islands — the Antilles, the Galapagos, the Falkland Islands, and 



Juau Fernandez. As the genera are all enumerated in the table, 
at p. 101 of this volume, I shall here confine myself to the dis- 
tribution of the sub-families, only referring to such genera as are 
of special geographical interest. 

Sub-family I. Conophagin^ (2 genera, 13 species). Confined 
to tropical South America, from Brazil and Bolivia to Guiana 
and Columbia, 

Sub-family II.' TiENlOPTERiNiE (19 genera, 76 species). This 
group ranges from Patagonia and the Falkland Islands to the 
northern United States; yet it is almost wholly South American, 
only 2 genera and 4 species passing north of Panama, and none 
inhabiting the "West Indian islands. Sayomis has 3 species in 
Korth America, while Tfsnioptera, Cnipokgus, Muscisatacola, and 
Centrites, range south to Patagonia, 

Sub-family III. Piatyehynighin.^ (16 genera, 60 species). This 
sub-family is wholly Neotropical and mostly South American, 
only 7 of the genera passing Panama and but 3 reaching Mexico, 
while there are none in the West Indian islands. Only 3 genera 
extend south to the temperate sub-region, and one ot these, 
Anceretes,'h&s a species in Juan Fernandez. 
. Sub-family IV. Elainbin^e (17 genera, 91 species). This sub- 
family is more exclusively tropical, only two genera extending 
south as far as Chili and La Plata, while none enter the Fearctic 
region. Tfo less than 10 of the genera pass north of Panama, 
and one of these, Mainea, which ranges from Chili to Costa Eica 
has several species in the West Indian islands. About one 
fourth of the species of this sub-family are found north of 

Sub-family V. Tyeahhik.*: (17 genera, 89 species). This sub- 
family is that which is best represented in the Nearctic region, 
where 6 genera and 24 species occur. Milvulus reaches Texas ; 
Tyranniis and Myiarc/vus range over all the United States ; 
Mnpidias, the Eastern States and California ; Coniopus extends 
to Canada; Mnpidonax ranges all over North America; and 
Pyrocephalus reaches the Gila ValJey as well as the Galapagos 
Islands. No less than 5 genera of this sub-family occur in the 
West Indian islands. 



Family 39a.— OXYEHAMPHIDjE. {1 Genus, 2 Species.) 


The genus Oxyrhamphus (2 sp.} whieli ranges from Brazil to 
Costa Eiea, has usually been placed in the Dendioeolaptidte ; 
but Messrs Sclater and Salvin consider it to be the type of a 
distinct family group, most allied to the Tyrannidse. 

Family 40.— PIPEID^. (15 Genera, 60 Species.) 

Gekebal Distribution, 


taiosa. SuB-JiEOiDHS. BuB-maiOKS. Sos-beoions. I Sub-heqidns. Suu-m 


- fi 

si 1 ' r 

■' 1 1 1 

The Pipridfe, or Manakins, have generally been i 
with the next family, and they have a very similar distribution. 
The great majority of the genera and species are found in the 
equatorial regions of South America, only 9 species belonging 
to 5 genera rangii^ north of Panama, 'wliile 2 or 3 species ex- 
tend to the southern limit of the tropical forests in Paraguay 
and BrazU. The genera which go north of Panama are Piprites, 
J'ipra, GMroxvphia, CMromacJtceris, and Metoropelma. Piprct is 
the largest genus, containing 19 species, and having representa- 
tives throughout the whole range of the family. As in all the 
more extensive families peculiar to the Neotropical region, the 
distribution of the genera ■will be found in the tables appended 
to the chapter on the Neotropical region in the Third Part of 
this work. (Vol. II. p. 103). 


FAMIiy 4).— COTIffGID^. (28 Genera, 93 Species.) 

Gbneeal Distribution. 

MBOTEoFieiL Neahctic 

sr."=.| Br.=.,| sS=.. £sr.'i 


The Cotingidffi, or Chatterers, comprise some of the most 
beautiful and some of the most remarkalDle of American birds, 
for such we must consider the azure and purple Cotingas, the 
wine-coloured white-winged Pompadour, the snowy carunculated 
Bell-birds, the orange-coloured Coeks-of-the-Eock, and the mar- 
veUously-plumed UmbreUa-birds, (Plate XV. Vol. II. p. 28). The 
CotingidtB are also one of the most pre-eminently Neotropical 
of all the Weotrppical families, the great mass of the genera 
and species being concentrated in and around the vast eiinatorial 
forest region of the Amazon, Only 13 species extend north of 
Panama, one to the Antilles, and not more than 20 are found to 
the south of the Amazon Valley. Messrs. Selater and Salvin 
divide the family into six sub-families, the distribution of which 
will be briefly indicated. 

Sub-family I. Tittrin^ (3 genera, 22 species), Eanges from 
Brazil to Mexico, One species of Sctdrostomus inhabiting Jamaica. 

Sub-family II. Lipauoik.^ (4 genera, 14 species) also ranges 
from Brazil to Mexico ; one genus (Ptilockloris) is confiiied to 

Sub-family m. Attaun^ (2 genera, 10 species). Eanges from 
Par^uay to Costa Eica ; one genus (Caaiornis) is confined to 
South Brazil and Paraguay. 

Sub-family IV. Eupicolin^ (2 genera, 5 species). This sub- 
family is restricted to the Amazonian region and Guiana, with 
one species extending along the Andean vaUeys to Bolivia. The 
genera are Rupicola (3 species) and Phwnicocerms (2 species). 

Sub-family V. Cotingin.^ (10 genera, 28 species). Eanges 
from Southern Brazil and Bolivia to Nicaragua ; only two species 



(belonging to the genera Carpodectes and Goti-nga) are found north 
of Panama, and there are none in the West Indian islands. The 
great majority of these, the true Chatterers, are from the regions 
about the Eq^uafcor. 

Sub-family VI. Gymnodeein^ (7 genera, 14 species). Ranges 
from BraaU to Costa Eica ; two species, of the genera Ckasmor- 
hyn^ius and Cephalopterus, are found north of Panama, while 
there are none in the West Indian islands. Only 2 apeciea are 
found south of the Amazon valley. 

Family 42,— PHYTOTOMIDiE. (1 Genus, 3 Species.^ 



The Phytotomidte, or Plant-cutters, are singular thick-billed 
birds, strictly confined to the temperate regions of South America. 
The single genus, Phytotoma, is found in Chili, La Plata, and 
Bolivia. Their affinities are uncertain, but they are believed to 
be allied to the series of families with which they are here 
asaodated. (Plate XVI. Vol. II. p. 128). 

Family 43.— EURYL^MTDiE. (6 Genera, 9 Species.l 


The EurylEemidfe, or Broad-bills, form a very small family of 
birds, often adorned with striking colours, and which have their 
nearest allies in the South American Cotingida, They have a 
very limited distribution, from the lower slopes of the Himalayas 
through Burmah and Siam, to Sumatra, Borneo, and Java. They 
are evidently the remains of a once extensive group, and from 
the small number of specific forms remaining, seem to be on 


CHAP, xvui.] BIRDS. 295 

the road to extinction. Thus we may understand their isolated 
geographical position. The following are the names and dis- 
tribution of the genera : — 

Mii-ylcemm (2 species), Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and 
Borneo; Gorydon (1 species), Malacca, Sumatra and Borneo 
{Plate IX. Vol. I. p. 339) ; Fnarisomm (1 species), Himalayas to 
Eurmah, up to 6,000 feet ; Serilophus (2 species), Nepal to Tenas- 
serim ; GymMrhynchus (2 species), Siam to Sumatra and Borneo ; 
Calyptomena {1 species), Penang to Sumatra and Borneo. 

Family 44.— DENDEQCOLAPTID^. (43 Genera, 217 Species.) 

General DisrHiBimotj. 


— 1— -1 1 

The Dendrocolaptidse, or American Creepers, are curious 
hrown-coloured birds with more or less rigid tail feathers, strictly 
confined to the continental Neotropical region, and very numerous 
in its south -temperate extremity. They are divided by Messrs. 
Sclater and Salvin into five sub-families, to which I shall con- 
fine my remarks on their distribution. The details of the 
numerous genera, being only interesting to specialists, will be 
given in the table of genera of the Neotropical region. No less 
than 13 of the genera are confined to South-Temperate America 
and the High Andes ; 14 are restricted to Tropical South America, 
while not one is peculiar to Tropical North America, and only 15 
of the 43 genera extend into that sub-region, showing that this 
is one of the pre-eminently South American groups. 

Sub-family I. FURNARnN^ (8 genera, 30 species). Eanges over 
all South America, 4 genera and 18 species being restricted to the 
temperate sub-region; one species is found in the Falkland Islands. 

Sub-family II. Scleeurik^ (1 genus, 6 species), Bi'azii to 
Guiana, Columbia, and north to Mexico. 

Sub-family III. Synallaxin^ (12 genera, 78 species), Eanges 
from Patagonia to Mexico ; 7 genera and 28 species are confined 

Vol. II.— 20 



to the temperate sub-region ; species occur in the islands of 
Mas-a-fuera, Trinidad, and Tobago, 

Sub-family IV. Philydoein^ (6 genera, 35 species). Con- 
fined to Tropical America from Brazil to Mexico ; 4 genera and 
8 species occur in Tropical North America, 

Sub-family V. Dendrocolaptik^ {14 genera, 59 species). 
Eanges from Chili and La Plata to Mexico; only 3 species occur in 
the South Temperate aub-r^on, while 9 of the genera extend into 
Tropical North America. Two of the continental species occur 
in the island of Tobago, which, together with Trinidad, forms 
part of the South American rather than ^ of the true Antillean 

Family 45,— FOEMICAEIIDiE. (32 Genera, 211 Species.) 


The Formicariidffi, comprising the Bush-Shrikes and Ant- 
thtushes, form one of the most exclusively Neotropical 
families ; and the niunerous species are rigidly confined to the 
warm and wooded districts, only a single species extending to 
La Plata, and none to the Antilles or to the Nearctie region. 
Less than 30 species are found north of Panama. Messrs. 
Sclater and Salvin divide the group into three sub-families, 
whose distribution may be conveniently treated, as in the Den- 
drocolaptidte, without enumerating the genera. 

f I. Thamnophilin^. — (10 genera, 70 species.) One 
1 of ThamTwphilus inhabits La Plata ; only 3 genera and 
12 species are found north of Panama, the species of this 
sub-family being especially abundant in the Equatorial forest 

Sub-family II. FOEMicrvoRm^.^(14 genera, 95 species.) Only 
8 species occur north of Panama, and less than one-third of the 
species belong to the districts south of the Equator, 


CHAP, xviii.] BIRDS. 297 

Sub-family III. FoRMiCARiiN-ffii, — (8 genera, 46 species.) About 
12 speoiea occur nortli of Panama, and only 5 south of the Equa- 
torial district. 

It appears, therefore, that this extensive family is especially 
characteristic of that part of South America from the Amazon 
valley northwards. 

Family 46.— PTEKOPTOCHID^. (8 Genera, 19 Species.) 

6E(fEiui. DiaraTBU'iTOiT. 

Ntoibopicai. I NEAUcrlc 1 Paleardtio 





1 .a j j 

1 1 

The Pteroptochidse are a group of curious Wren-like birds, 
almost confined to the temperate regions of South America, 
extending along the Andes beyond the Equator, and with a few 
species in South-east Brazil, and one in the valley of the 
Madeu'a. The genera are as follows : — 

Scytalopus (8 sp.), ChiH and West Patagonia to the Andes of 
Columbia; Merulaxis (1 ap.), South-east Brazil; iJAMJOcrjipto (2 
sp.), Northern Patagonia and La Plata ; LioBcelis (1 sp.), Madeira 
valley ; Pteroptochm (2 sp.), Chili ; Hylades (3 sp.). Western 
Patagonia and Chili; Acropternis (1 sp.), Andes of Ecuador 
and Columbia ; Triptorhinus (1 ap.), Chili. 

Family 47.— PITTIDiE. (4 Genera, 40 Species.) 
General DiSTBiarTiON. 

A \ -2 I. a 

The Pittas comprise a number of beautifully-coloured Thrush- 
hke birds, which, although confined to the Old World, are more 
nearly allied to the South American Pteroptochid^e than to any 
other family. They are moat abundant in the Malay Archipelago, 


29i* GEOGRAPHICAL ZOOLOGY. [paiit iv. 

between the Oriental and Australian divisions of -which they are 
pretty equally divided. They seem, however, to attain their 
maximum of beauty and variety in tlie large islands of Borneo 
and Sumatra; from whence they diminish in numbers in 
every direction till v/e find single species only in North 
China, West Africa, and Australia, The genera here adopted 
are the following r — ■ 

^1037 losa 1090 1092 1093J jR^;(j [-33 gp)_ has the range of the 
family; Q"^) Sydroritis (3 sp.), ' Himalayas and Malaya; 
Eiiciahla {3 sp.), Msh-ya.; Melampitta (1 sp.), recently discovered 
in New Guinea. 

Family 48.— PAICTID^. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 

Genekal Distkibution. 

This family was established by Professor Suhdevall, for an 
anomalous hird of Madagascar, which he believes to have 
some affinity for the American Focmicariida?, but which perhaps 
comes best near the Pittas. The only genus is Phil^itta, con- 
taining two species. 

Family 49.— MENURID^. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 


The Menuridte, or Lyre Birds, remarkable for the extreme 
elegance of the lyre-shaped tail in the species first discovered, 
are birds of a very anomalous structure, and have no near affinity 
to any other family. Two species of Menura are known, con- 
fined to South and East Australia (Plate XII. Vol. I. p. 44iy. 


Family 50.— ATEICHTID^ (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 

Genera I. Distribution. 

The genus Atriehia, or Scrub-birds of Australia, have been 
formed into a separate family by Professor Newton, on account 
of peculiarities in the skeleton which separate them from all 
other Passeres. Only two species are known, inhabiting East 
and "West AustiuUa respectively. They are very noisy, brown- 
coloured birds, and have been usually classed with the 
warblers, near Amytis and other Australian species. 

General remarks on the distrihution of the Passeres. 

The order Passeres, is the most extensive among birds, 
comprehending about 5,700 species grouped in 870 genera, 
and 51 families. The distribution of the genera, and of the 
families considered individually, has been already sufficiently 
given, and we now have to consider the peculiarities of dis- 
tribution of the families collectively, and in their relations to 
each other, as representing well-marked types of bird-structure. 
The first thing to be noted is, how very few of these families 
are truly cosmopolitan ; for although there are seven which 
are found in each of the great regions, yet few of these are 
widely distributed throughout all the regions, and we can 
only find three that inhabit every sub iep,ion and are distri- 
buted with tolerable uniformity; these ire the Hirundinidfe, 
or swallows, the Motacillidie or wagtails ind pipits, and the 
CorvidEe or crows,— but the latter is a family of so hetero- 
geneous a nature, that it possibl} contains the materials of 
several natural families, and if so divided, the parts would 
probably all cease to be cosmopolitan. The Sylviidte, the 


300 GEOGEAPHICAr, ZOOLOGY. [part iv. 

Turdidse, aud the Paridte, are tlie only other families that ap- 
proach universality of distribution, and all these are want- 
ing in one or more sub-regions. If, now, we divide the 
globe into the New and the Old World, the former including 
the whole American continent, the latter all the rest of tlie 
earth, we find that the Old World possesses exclusively 23 
families, the New World exclusively 14, of which 5 ai^e common 
to North and South America. But if we take the division 
proposed by Professor Huxley — a northern world, comprisii^ 
our first four regions (from Nearctic to Oriental), and a southern 
world comprising our last two r^ona (the Australian and 
Neotropical) — ^we find that the northern division possesses only 
5 families exclusively, and the southern division 13 exclusively, 
of which not one is common to Australia and South America, 
This plainly indicates tliat, as far as the Passeres are concerned, 
the latter bipartite division is not so natural as the former. 
Again, if we compare temperate with tropical families (not too 
rigidly, hut as regards their general character), we find in the 
northern hemisphere only two families that have the character 
of being typically temperate — the Cinclidffi, and in a less degree 
the Ampelidie — both of small extent. In the southern hemi- 
sphere we have also two, the Phytotomidte, and in a less degree, 
the Pteroptochidie ; maldng two wholly and two mainly tem- 
perate families. Of exclusively tropical families on the other 
hand, we have about 12, and several others that are mainly 

The several regions do not differ greatly in the number of 
famihes found in each. The Nearctic has 19, the Palsearctic 21, 
the Ethiopian 23, the Oriental 28, the Australian 29, and the 
Neotropical 23. But many of these families are only represented 
by a few species, or in limited districts and if w e count only those 
families which are tolerably well repiesented, an 1 help to form 
the ornithological character ot the region the richness of the 
several tropical regions will appear t-o be fas it leillj is) com- 
paratively much greater. The families that aie confined to 
single regions are not very nuraeious exuept in the ci^e >f 
the Neotropical region, which has 5 The iustrdixn his onlj 


CHAP, xviii.] BIRDS. 301 

3, the Oriental 1, the Ethiopian 1, and the other regions have 
no peculiar families. 

The distribution of the Passeres may be 
considered as divided into the five series of Turdoid, ' 
Sturnoid, Porinicarioid, and Anomalous Passeres. The Turdoid 
Passeres, consisting of the iirst 23 families, are especially 
characteristic of the Old "World, none being found exclusively 
in America, and only two or three being at all abundant thei'e. 
The Tanagroid Passeres (Families 24-33) are very characteristic 
of the New World, five being confined to it, and three others 
being quite as abundant there as in the Old World ; while there 
is not a single exclusively Old World family in the series, 
except the Drepanididte confined to the Sandwich Islands. 
The Sturnoid Passeres (Families 34-38) are all exclusively Old 
World, except that two larks inhabit parts of North America, 
and a few pipits South America. The Formiearioid Passeres 
(Families 39-48) are strikingly characteristic of the New World, 
to which seven of the families exclusively belong; the two 
Old World groups being small, and with a very restricted 
distribution. The Anomalous Passeres (Families 49-50) are 
confined to Australia. 

The most remarkable feature in the geographical distribution 
of the Passeres, is the richness of the American continent, and 
the large development of characteristic types that occurs there. 
The fact that America possesses 14 altogether peculiar families, 
while no leas than 23 Old- World families are entirely absent from 
it, plainly indicates, that, if this division does not represent the 
most ancient and radical separation of the land surface of the 
globe, it must still be one of very great antiquity, and have 
modified in a very marked way the distribution of all living 
things. Not less remarkable is the richness in specific forms 
of the 13 peculiar American families. These contain no less 
than 1,570 species, leaving only about 600 American species in 
the 13 other Passerine families represented in the New World. 
If we make a deduction for those Nearctic species which occur 
only north of Panama, we may estimate the truly Neotropical 
species of Passerine birds at 1,900, which is almost exactly 



one-third of the total number of Passeres ; a wonderful illus- 
tration of the Ornithological riches of South America 

Order II.~PJCARI^. 

Family 61.— PICID^. (36 Genera, 320 Species,) 

Gbsebal DrsTBimrrioN'. 

I. a. 3. 41. a. 3. 4 :l. 2. 3. 31. a. 3 — il. 3. 3. 4 1 

The Woodpeckers are very widely distributed, being only absent 
from the Australian region beyond Celebes and Flores. They 
are most abundant in the Neotropical and Oriental regions, both 
of which possess a number of peculiar genera ; while the other 
regions possess few or no peculiar forms, even the Ethiopian 
tegion having only three genera not found elsewhere. The soft- 
tailed 'Picumninee inhabit the tropical regions only, PicumniiS 
being Neotropical, Vivia and Sasia Oriental, and Verreaiima 
Ethiopian. Ficoides, or Aptemns, is an Arctic form peculiar to 
the Nearctic and Paltearctic regions. Celeus, Chrysoptilus, Chloro- 
lurpes, and some smaller genera, are Neotropical exclusively, 
and there are two peculiar forms in Cuba. Ywngipicus, Chryso- 
colaptes, Hemdcm'cus, Midleripicus, Brachyptemua, Tiga, and 
Microptemus, are the most important of the pecuHar Oriental 
genera, Bendropicus and Oeoeolaptes are Ethiopian ; but there 
are no woodpeckers in Madagascar. The Palfearctic woodpeckers 
belong to the genera Picus — which is widely distributed, Gecinus 
— which is an Oriental form, and Dryocopus—Vi^hich is South 
American. Except Pieoides, the Nearctic woodpeckers are mostly 
of Neotropicalgenera ; but Sphyrapioiis and Hylatomus are peculiar. 
The geological record is, as yet, almost silent as to this family ; 
but remains doubtfully referred to it have been found in the 
Miocene of Europe and the Eocene of the United States. Yet 
the group is evidently one of very high antiquity, as is shown by 


CHAP, sviii.} BIRDS. 303 

its extreme isolation, its great specialization of structure, its 
abundant generic forms, and its wide distribution. It originated, 
probably, in Central Asia, and passed through the Nearctic 
region to South America, in whose rich and varied forests it 
found the conditions for rapid developnaent, and for the speciali- 
zation of the many generic forms now found there. 

A large number of genera have been eatabhshed by various 
authors, but their hmitations and affinities are not very well 
made out. Those which seem best established are the fol- 
lowing : — 

^Eio7 — aiiffj Picumwus (22 ap.), Tropical South America to Hon- 
duras; (^"4 Viiiia (1 sp.), Himalayas to East Thibet; (^i") 
Sasia (2 sp.), Nepal to Java ; (^^^) Vcrreauxia (1 sp.). West 
Africa ; Picoides (5 sp.), northern parts of Nearctic and Palie- 
arctic regions, and Mountains of East Thibet; Piows (42 sp.), 
the whole Paljearctic, Oriental, Nearctic, and Neotropical regions ; 
(2123J Byopims (2 sp.), Himalayas and North China ; (™*) Yungi- 
picus (16 sp,). Oriental r^on, and to Flores, Celebes, North 
China, and Japan ; ("^ - ^^^) Sphyrapims (7 sp.), Nearctic re- 
gion, Mexico, and Bolivia ; (^'^ ~ ^^ ^^) Oampephilus (14 sp.), 
Neotropical and Nearctic regions ; ffylatomm (1 sp.), Nearctic 
region; (^^' ^^) BrifOGOpus (5 sp.), Mexico to South Brazil, 
Central and Northern Europe; (^^) Heinwardtipicus (1 sp.), 
Pehang to Borneo ; (2135 aisej fe/nilia (2 sp.), Nepal to Borneo; 
Chrysocolaptes (8 sp.), India and Indo-Malaya; Dendropiem (16 
sp.). Tropical and South Africa ; Memicercus (5 sp.), Malabar and 
Pegu to Malaya ; Geeiniis (18 sp.), Palffiarctic and Oriental re- 
gions to Java; {^^ ~ ^^*) Sendromus (15 sp.). West and South 
Africa, Zanzibar, and Abyssinia ; ("^' — ^**) Mulhripiais (6 sp.), 
Malabar, Pfigu, Indo-Malaya, and Celebes ; Celeus (17 sp.), Para- 
guay to Mexico ; Nesocekus ('»■ ^^) Cuba ; (^^^) Chrysoptilm (9 
sp.), Chih and South Brazil to Mexico ; BrctchypUrnus (5 sp.), 
India, Ceylon, and China ; C^^^ ^i«®) Tiga (5 sp.), all India to 
Malaya; (^^*') Qedmd'us (2 sp.). South-east Himalayas to Eur- 
mah; Centunis (13 sp.), Nearctic Region to Antilles and Vene- 
zuela ; Ckloronerpes (35 sp.). Tropical America, Hayti ; (^"i) 
Xiphidiopicm (I sp.), Cuba; Melanerpes (11 sp.), Brazil to 



Canada, Porto Eico ; Lmeonerpes (1 sp,), Bolivia to North 
Brazil ; Colaptes (9 sp.). La Plata and Bolivia to Arctic America, 
Greater Antilles; HypoxantJvm (1 sp.), Venezuela and Ecnador; 
(«i8') Qwcolwptes (1 sp.). South Africa; Miglyptes (3 sp.), 
Malaya ; Micropternus (8 sp.), India and Ceylon to South China, 
Sumatra and Borneo. 

Family '^2— YUNUID E (1 Genus H Species) 
Gbnekil Di^raiBuiioN 

&".'.": 1 . ".*™, 

b™"™"™ b,'"'."™. 1 8?,'irs. 1 s"™ 

1 1-3- 1 1 1 

The Wrynecks (Yunx), which constitute this family, are 
small tree-creeping birds characteristic of the Palcearctio region, 
but extending into North and East Africa, over the greater part 
of the peninsula of India (but not to Ceylon), and just reaching 
the lower ranges of the Himalayas. There is also one species 
isolated in South Africa. 

FAMir.Y 53.— TNDTCATOETD^. (1 Genus, 12 Species.) 
Gesbkal Distribution. 

i l.a.3- 3.4. 

The Honey-guides (Indieator) constitute a smaU family of 
doubtful affinities ; perhaps most nearly allied to the wood- 
peckers and barbets. They catch bees and sometimes kill small 
birds ; and some of the species are parasitical like the cuckoo. 
Their distribution is very interesting, as they are found in every 
part of the Ethiopian region, except Madagascar, and in the 
Oriental region only in Sikhini and Borneo, being absent from 
the peninsula of India which is nearest, both geographically and 
zoologically, to Africa. 


Family 54.- 

-MEGALiEMID^. (13 Genera, 81 


Gbnekal Distribdtioh. 


;rs. 1 £"»'= 1 sS'i'i 1 


1 iZ^mZ. 

2 a 1 - 

1 1 a a 1 

1 1 

The MegaltemidaB, or Earbets, consist of rather small, fruit- 
eating birds, of heavy ungraceful shape, but adorned with the 
most gaudy eoloure, especially about the head and neck. They 
form a very isolated family ; their nearest allies being, perhaps, 
the still more isolated Toucans of South America. Barbets are 
found in all the tropics except Australia, but are especially 
characteriatie of the great Equatorial forest-zone ; all the most 
remarkable forms being confined to Eqjiatorial America, West 
Africa, and the Indo-Malay Islanda They are most abundant 
in the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, and in the latter are 
universally distributed. 

In the beautiful monograph of this family by the Messrs. 
Marshall, the barbets are divided into three sub-families, as 
follows : — 

PogonoihynchiuEe (3 genera, 15 sp.), which are Ethiopian 
except the 2 species of Tetragon&ps, which are Neotropical ; 
MegalEeminEe (6 genera, 45 sp.), which are Oriental and Ethio- 
pian ; and Capitoninte (4 genera, 18 sp.), common to the three 

The genera are each confined to a single region. Africa 
possesses tlie laigest number of peeuHar forms, while the 
Oriental region is richest in species. 

This is probably a very ancient group, and its existing dis- 
tribution may be due. to its former range over the Miocene 
South PalEearctic land, which we know possessed Trogons, 
Parrots, Apes, and Tapirs, groups which are now equally 
abundant in Equatorial countries. 



The following is a tabular view of tlie f 
distribution : — 


Ethiopian Ragion. 

Oiienfel Rpgioo, 

Naotiopiiial Region. 






W. Africa 

All Trop. & S. Af, 

Peru & Costa Rioa 


Tan I ol'ema 
Xylobu CO 
&jmnobu 00 



W. Africa *" 
Trop. & S. Africa 

W. Africa 

The whole region 
The whole region 



Ttachyi honufl 






Trop. & S. Africa 
W. Africa 

Malay Pen., Sii- 

Equatorial Amer, 
to Costa Rica 

Family 55.— EHAMPHASTID^. (5 Genera, 51 Species.) 

General Distributi 


iaioKa, Sdb-beoioms. Sub-heotobb, | Sub-reoiosb. | SuB-iiEcioBa. | Sun-HioiiioBa. 

The Toucans form one of the moat remarkable and charac- 
teristic families of the Neotropical region, to which they are 
strictly confined. They differ from all other birds by their loi^ 
feathered tongues, their huge yet elegant bills, and the peculiar 
texture and coloration of their plumage, Being fruit-eaters, and 
strictly adapted for an arboreal life, they are not found beyond 
the forest regions ; but they nevertheless range from Mexico to 
Paraguay, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. One genus, 


CHAP, xvui.] BIRDS. 307 

AniUgena, is confined to the forest slopes of the South American 
Andes. The genera are ; — 

Bhamphasfos (12 sp.), Mexico to South Brazil; Pteroglossus 
(16 sp.), Nicaragua to South BrazU (Plate XV. Yo!. II. p. 28); 
Sclmid&ra (7 sp.), Veragua to Brazil, east of the Andes ; A-ndi- 
gena (6 sp.), the Andes, from Columbia to Bolivia, and West 
Brazil ; A-tdacorhaw-^hus (10 sp.), Mexico to Peru and Boli-via. 

Family 56.— MUSOPHAGID^. (2 Genera, 18 Species.) 
Gekebal Distribution. 


The Musophagidee, or Plantain- eaters and Turacos, are hand- 
some birds, somewhat intermediate between Toucans and Cuc- 
koos. They are confined to the Ethiopian region and are most 
abundant in West Africa. The Plantain eaters {Musffphaga, 
2 sp.), are confined to West Africa; the Turacos (Twacfus, 16 
sp., including the sub-genera Corythaix and Schiz&rkis) range 
over all Africa from Abyssinia to the Cape (Plate V. VoL I. 
p. 264). 

Family 57.— COLIID^, (1 Genus, 7 Species.) 
Gekeral Distribution. -~ 

The Oolies, consisting ■ of the single genus Colivs, are an 
anomalous group of small finch-like birds, oecuping a position 
between the PicariEe and Passeres, but of very doubtful affinities. 
Their range is nearly identical with that of the Muaophagidse, 
but they are most abundant in South and East Africa. 




Family 58.— CUCULID^. (35 Genera, 180 Species.) 




I .a.3.4 l.a.3 ~ l.a.3.4 l.S,3.4 

The Cuculidffi, of which our well-known Cuckoo is one of the 
most widely distributed types, are essentially a tropical group 
of weak insectivorous birds, abounding in varied forms in all 
the warmer parts of the globe, but very scarce or only appearing 
as migrants in the temperate aBd colder zones. Many of the 
smaller Eastern species are adorned with the most intense 
golden or violet metallic lustre, while some of the larger forms 
have gaily-coloured biHa or bare patches of bright red on the 
cheeks. Many of the cuckoos of the Eastern Hemisphere are, 
parasitiC) laying their e^s in other birds' nests ; and they are also 
remarkable for the manner in which they resemble other birds,, 
as hawks, pheasants, or drongo-shrikes, The distribution of the 
Cuckoo family is rather remarkabla They abound most in the 
Oriental region, which produces no less than 18 genera, of which 

II are peculiar ; the Australian has 8, most of which are also Ori- 
ental, but 3 are peculiar, one of these being confined to Celebes 
and closely allied to an Oriental group ; the Ethiopian region has 
only 7 genera, all of which are Oriental but three, 2 of these being 
peculiar to Madagascar, and the other common to Madagascar 
and Africa. America has 11 genera, all quite distinct from those 
of the Eastern Hemisphere, and only three enter the Nearctic 
region, one species extending to Canada. 

Remembering our conclusions as to the early history of the 
several regions, these facts enable us to indicate, with consider- 
able probability, the origin and mode of dispei'sal of the cuckoos. 
They were almost certainly developed in the Oriental and Pal^- 
arctic.regions, but reached the Neotropical at a very early date, 
where they have since been completely isolated. Africa must 
have long remained without cuckoos, the earliest immigration 



being to Madagascar at the time of the approximation of that 
sub-region to Ceylon and Malaya, A later infusion of Oriental 
forms took place probably by way of Arabia and Persia, 
when those countries were more fertile and perhaps more ex- 
tensive, Australia has also received its cuckoos at a somewhat 
late date, a few having reached the Austro- Malay Islands some- 
what earlier. 

The classification of the family is somewhat unsettled. For 
the American genei'a I follow Messrs. Selater and Salvin ; and, 
for those of the Old World, Mr. Sharpe's su^estive paper in the 
Proceedings of (he Zoological Society, 1873, p. 600. The following 
is the distribution of the various genera : — 

^eiBs^ PkcmM&p?tdes (1 sp.), Ceylon ; (^^) Ekamphococet/x (1 
sp.), Celebes; (^^ EMnoeoccyx (1 sp.), Java; (2i«6 ■"■ -" smj 
Bhopodytes (6 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon, Hainan, and Malaya ; 
^203vt^ Poliococeyx (1 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo; (^i^) 
Dasylophus (1 sp.), Philippine Islands ; (^ Lepidogrammus (1 
ap.), Philippine Islands; (^") Zamlostomus (1 sp.J, Malaya; 
(2^) Ceuthmochares (2 sp.). Tropical and South Africa and 
Madagascar ; (^^ Taccoma (4 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon and 
Malacca ; (^°*) Bkinortka (1 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo ; 
("'^ Gai-pococcyx (1 sp.), Borneo and Sumatra ; {*^'"') Momorphus 
(4 sp.), Brazil to Mexico ;- ('^s ^») Ooua (10 sp.), Madagascar; 
(^) Coohloihraitstes (1 sp.), Madagascar; (^) Centrapus (35 
ip.), Tropical and South Africa, the whole Oriental region, 
Austro-Malaya and Australia ; (^^) Crotophaga (3 sp.), Brazil 
to Antilles and Pennsylvania ; (^^) Guira (1 sp.), Brazil and 
Paraguay ; i^^) Geococeyx (2 sp.), Guatemala to Texas and Cali- 
fornia; (^i)i?ramococci/3; (2 sp.), Brazil to Mexico; (^'')i>ipfo^ier«s 
(1 sp.), Mexico to Ecuador and Brazil ; (^™) Saurothm-a (4 sp.). 
Greater AutiUea ; (^^^ Hyetomis (2 sp.), Jamaica and Hayti ; 
(^^) Piaya (3 sp.), Mexico to West Ecuador and Brazil; (^^^) 
Morococcyx (1 sp.), Costa Rica to Mexico ; f ^*) Ooccygus (10 sp.),' 
La Plata to Antilles, Mexico and Pennsylvania, Cocos Island ; 
(^') Cueuhis (22 sp.), Paltearctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions, 
to Moluccas and Australia ; (^^) OalieeOirus (1 sp.), Papuan 
Islands; f^-^^) Cacomuntis (15 sp.), Oriental and Australian 



regions to Fiji Islands and Tasmania; (aasa-zaarj Chvysocoeeyx 
(16 sp.). Tropical and South Africa, the Oriental and Australian 
regions to New Zealand and Fiji Islands; (^^) Sumiculus{2 sp.), 
India, Ceylon, and Malaya ; (^^) Sieroeoccyx (7 sp.), the Oriental 
region to Amoorland and Celebes ; {^^*' ^^^) Coccystes (6 sp.). 
Tropical and South Africa, the Oriental region, excluding Philip- 
pines; {^^^ Eudynamis (8 sp.), the Oriental and Australian 
regions, excluding Sandwich Islands ; (^^) Sci/thraps (1 sp.), 
East Australia to Moluccas and North Celebes. 

Tamily 59.— LEPTOSOMTPjE. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

The L&ptosomus discolor, which constitutes this family, is a 
bird of verjf abnormal characters, having some affinities both 
with Oncbooa and Eollers. It is confined to Madagascar (Plate 
VI. ^'ol. T, p. 278). 

Family 60.- 

-EUCCOHID.E. (6 Genera, 43 Species.) 

General Disthibution. 


T.'i. e:s= 



— !- 

- 1 

The Buceonidas, or Puff-birds, are generally of small size and 
dull colours, with rather thick bodies and dense plumage. They 
form one of the characteristic Neotropical famihes, being most 
abundant in the great Equatorial foiest plains, but extending as 
far north as Guatemala, though absent liom the "West Indian 

The genera are : — Bucco (21 sp.), Guatemala to Paraguay, and 
West of the Andes in Ecuador; MalacopHla (10 sp.), Guatemala 


to Bolivia and Brazil ; Nonnula (3 sp.), Amazon and Columbia ; 
Monasa {1 sp.}, Costa Eica to Brazil; Chelidoptera (2 sp.), Colum- 
bia and Guiana to Brazil. 

Pamily 61,— GALEULID^. (6 Genera, 19 Species.) 
General Distribution. 

The GalbulidiB, or Jacamara, are small slender birds, of gener- 
ally metallic plumage ; somewhat resembling in form the Bee- 
paters of the Old World hut less active. They have the same 
general distribution as the last family, hut they do not occiir 
■west of the Equatorial Andes. The genera are :— 

Qalbula (9 sp.), Guatemala to Brazil and Bolivia; Urogalba (2 
sp.), Guiana and the lower Amazon; Brackygalba (4 3p.),VenezueIa 
to Brazil and Bolivia ; Jacamarcdcyon (1 sp.), Brazil ; Jacmnerops 
(2 sp.), Panama to the Amazon ; GalhaleyrJvynehvs (1 sp.). Upper 

Family 62.- 

-COEACIIDiE. (3 Genera, 



Geheeai. Distribution. 


™™ j Sm^BEOH 



^Ns. 9u^B^™o1S, 

i.a.3. 4 i.a.3.4 i.a.3.4 

The Hollers are a family of insectivorous hirda allied to the 
Bee-eaters, and are very charactei istic of the Ethiopian and 
Oriental regions ; but one species {Coracias garnild) spreads over 
the Paliearctie region as far north as Sweden and the Altai 
mountains, while the genus Ewrystomus reaches the Amoor 
valley, Australia, and the Solomon Islands. The distribution of 
the genera is ?i3 follows :— - 

Coracias (8 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region, the Oriental 

Vol. II.— 21 



region except Indo-Malaya, the Paltearctic to the above- 
named limits, and the island of Celebes on the confines 
of the Australian region ; Ewrystomus (8 sp.), West and 
East Africa and Madagascar, the whole Oriental region except 
the Peninsula of India, and the Australian as far as Australia 
and the Solomon Islands ; Brachypteradas (possibly allied 
to Leptosomus T) (4 sp.), Madagascar only, but these abnormal 
birds form a distinct sub-family, and according to Mr. Sharpe, 
three genera, Brachypteracias, Atelornis, and Qeobiastes, 

A most remarkable feature in the distribution of this family 
is the occurrence of a true roller (Coraoias temminckii) in the 
island of Celebes, entirely cut off from the rest of the genus, 
which does not occur again till we reach Siam and Burmah. 

The curious Pseudochelidon from West Africa may perhaps 
belong to this fanaily or to the Cypselidie. (Ibis. 1861, p. 321.) 

Family 63.— MEEOPID^, (5 Genera, 34 Species.) 

Gbnbkal Distkibuiion. 


!.3.4 1 .a 

The Meropidse, or Eee-eaters, have nearly the same distribution 
as the Rollers, but they do not penetrate quite so far either into 
the Eastern Palfearctic or the Australian regions. The distribu- 
tion of the genera is as follows ;— 

Merops (21 sp.), has the range of the family extending on the 
north to South Scandinavia, and east to Australia and M"ew 
Guinea; Nyciiomis (3 sp.), the Oriental region, except Ceylon 
and Java ; Meropogon (1 sp.), Celebes ; Meroptscnts (3 sp.), West 
Africa; MdUtophagus (6 sp.), Ethiopian r^on, except Madagascar. 


Family 6i.—T0I)IDM. (1 Genus, 5 Species.) 


___»! I I I I 

The Todiea are delicate, briglit-coloured, inaectivorous birds, 
of small size, and allied to the Motmota, although externally 
more resembling flycatchers. They are wholly confined to the 
greater AntiUea, the islands of Cuba, Hayti, Jamaica, and Porto 
Eieo having each a peculiar species of Todus, while another 
species, said to be from Jamaica, has been recently described 
(Plate XVL Vol. II. p. 67). 

Family 65- 

-MOMOTID^. (6 Genera, 17 Species,) 



- =:h=.|.s=.,js= 


-«,3^ |— . 

1-— 1— --h- 


The Motmots range from Mexico to Paraguay and to the west 
coast of Ecuador, but seem to have their head-q^uarters in Cen- 
tral America, iive of the genera and eleven species occurring 
from Panama northwards, two of the genera not occurring in 
South America. The genera are as follows ;— 

Momot'iis (10 sp.), Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia, one species 
extending to Tobago, and one to Western Ecuador ; Urospatha 
(1 sp.), Costa Eica to the Amazon ; Barypkthengua (1 sp.), Brazil 
and Partway ; Hylomaiws (2 sp.), Guatemala ; Prionirhpnchus 
(2 sp.), Guatemala to Upper Amaaon ; Eumomota (1 sp,), Hon- 
duras to Chiriqui. 



Family 66.— TEOGONIDiE. (7 Genera, 44 Species.) 

General Distribution. 


-2.3.4 1 [l.a.3-j j 

The Trogona form a ■well-marked family of insectivorous 
forest-haunting birds, whose dense yet puffy plumage exhibits 
the most exquisite tints of pink, crimsonj orange, brown, or 
metallic green, often relieved by delicate bands of pure white. 
In one Guatemalan species the taU coverts are enormously 
lengthened into waving plumes of rich metallic green, as grace- 
ful and marvellous as those of the Paradise-birds. Trogons are 
tolerably abundant in the Neotropical and Oriental regions, and 
are represented in Africa by a single species of a peculiar 
genus. The genera now generally admitted are the following :— 

Trogon (24 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico, and west of the Andes 
in Ecuador ; Temnotrogon (1 sp.), Hayti ; Pmnoteles (1 sp.), 
Cuba (Plate XVII. Vol II. p. 67) ; Apaloderma (2 sp.). Tropical 
and South Africa; Harpactes (10 sp.), the Oriental region, exclud- 
ing China ; Pharomaorus (5 sp.), Amazonia to Guatemala ; 
Eitptiiotis (1 ap.), Mexico. 

Remains of Trogon have been found in the Miocene deposits 
of Prance ; and we are thus able to understand the existing 
distribution of the family. At that exceptionally mild period in 
the northern hemisphere, these birds may have ranged over all 
Europe and , North America ; but, as the climate became more 
severe they gradually became restricted to the tropical regions, 
where, alone a sufSciency of fruit and insect-food is found all the 
year round. 


Famiit 67.— AT,CEDINID«. (19 Genera, 125 Species.) 




1 It^iS^ 1 BuE™3«\ I 

s^'^,'^. s 


12 3"* 

The Kingfishers are distributed universally, but very un- 
equally, over the globe, and in this respect present some of the 
most curious anomalies to be found among birds. They have 
their metropoKs in the eastern half of the Malay Archipelago 
(our first Australian sub-region), from Celebes to New Guinea, in 
which district no less than 13 out of the 1 9 genera occur, 8 of them 
being peculiar ; and it is probable that in no other equaRy varied 
group of universal distribution, is .go large a proportion of the 
generic forms confined to so limited a district. From this centre 
kingfishers decrease rapidly in every direction. Tn Australia 
itself there are only 4 genera with 13 species ; the whole Oriental 
region baa only 6 genera, 1 being peculiar ; the Ethiopian also 
6 genera, but 3 peculiar ; and each of these have less than half 
the number of species possessed by the Australian region. The 
Palfearctie region possesses only 3 genera, all derived from the 
Oriental r^on ; but the moat extraordinary deficiency is shown 
by the usually rich Neotropical region, which possesses but a 
single genus, common to the lai^er part of the Eastern Hemi- 
sphere, and the same genua is alone found in the Nearctie region, 
the only difference being that the former possesses eight, -while 
the latter has but a single species. These facts almost inevitably 
lead to the conclusion that America long existed without king- 
fishers ; and that in comparatively recent times (perhaps during 
the Miocene or Pliocene period), a species of the Old World 
genua, Oeryle, found its way into North America, and spreading 
rapidly southward along the great river-valleys has become 
differentiated in South America into the few closely allied forms 
that alone inhabit that vast country — the richest in the world in 



fresh- water fish, and apparently the best fitted to sustain a varied 
and numerous body of kingfishers. 

The names of the genera, with their distribution and the 
number of species in each, as given by Mr. Sharpe in his ex- - 
cellent monograph of the family, is as follows : — 

Alcedo (9 sp.), PalEearctic, Ethiopian, and Oriental regions (but 
absent from Mad^ascar), and extending into the Austro- Malayan 
sub-region ; Coryfharnis (3 sp.), the whole Ethiopian region ; 
Aleyonei^ sp.), Australia and the Austro-Malayan sub-region, 
with one species in the Philippine Islands ; Ceryle (13 sp.), absent 
only from Australia, the northern half of the Palsearctie region, 
and Madagascar ; Pelargopsis (9 sp.), the whole Oriental region, 
and extending to Celebes and Timor in the Austro-Malayan snb- 
region ; Geyx (11 sp.),the Oriental region and Austro-Malayan sub- 
region, but absent from, Celebes,a[id only one species in continental 
India and Ceylon ; Ceyeopsis (I sp.), Celebes ; Myioceyx (2 sp.). 
West Africa; Tpsii^Mta (4 sp.), Ethiopian region; Syma {2 sp.), 
Papua and JTorth Australia ; Halcyon (36 sp,), Australian, 
Oriental, and Ethiopian regions, and the southern part of the 
Palfearctie ; Dacelo (6 sp.), Australia and New Guinea ; Todir- 
hamphus (3 sp.), Eastern Pacific Islands only; Monachalcyon (1 
ep.), Celebes ; Caridonmc (1 sp.), Lombok and Flores ; Garcineutes 
(2 sp.), Siam to Borneo and Java ; Tanysiptera (14 sp.), Moluccas 
New Guinea, and North Australia (Plate X. Vol. I. p. 414) ; 
Oittura (2 ap.), Celebes group ; Melidora (1 sp.). New Guinea. 


(12 Genera, 




SL^Z.™™ j sub' 


"Zo™ j Sua^E 


.. 1 ."SZI 

1 .a. 3. 4 1 

The Hombills form an isolated group of generally large-sized 
birds, whose huge bills form their most prominent feature. 
They are popularly associated with the American Toucans, but 
have no close relationship to them, and are now 



considered to show most tesemtlance, though still a very distant 
one, to the kingfishers. They are abundant in the Ethiopian 
and Oriental regions, and extend eastward to the Solomon 
Islands. Their classification is very unsettled, for though they 
have been divided into more than twenty genera they have not 
yet been carefully studied. The following grouping of the 
genera — referring to the numbers in the Hand List — must 
therefore be considered as only provisional : — 

^957 196S 106SJ Buceros (6 sp.), all Indo- Malaya, Arakan, N'epa! 
and the Neilgherries (Plate IX. Vol. I. p. 339) ; (^^ ~ ^^) 
Hydroeissa (7 sp.), India and Ceylon to Malaya and Celebes ; 
(1^ Bermicornis (2 sp.), Sumatra and "West AMca; ("") 
Calao (3 sp.), Tennaserim, Malaya, Moluccas to the Solomon 
Islands; Q-^) Aceros (1 sp.), South-east Himalayas; Q^ ^^) 
Crmorrhimts (3 sp.), Malacca, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, 
Celebes ; Q^^) Penelopides (1 sp.), Celebes ; (j-^ ~ '^^) Tockm 
(15 sp.), Tropical and South Africa ; Q-^^) BUnoplax (1 sp.), 
Sumatra and Borneo ; Q-""^ — ^®''>) Bycanistes (6 sp.). West Africa 
with East and South Africa ; Q-^'^ ^^) Meniceros (3 sp.), India 
and Ceylon to Tenasserira ; (^"^) Bucorvus (2 sp.). Tropical and 
South Africa. 

FAfflLY 69.— UPUPID^. (1 Genus, 6 Species.) 





The Hoopoes form a small and isolated group of semi-terres- 
trial insectivorous birds, whose nearest affinities are with the 
Hombills. They are most characteristic of the Ethiopian re- 
gion, but extend into the South of Europe and into aU the 
continental divisions of the Oriental region, as well as to Ceylon, 
and northwards to Pekin and Mongolia. 




Family 70.- 

-IREISOEIDia (1 Genus, 12 Species.) 

Geheral DisTRiBirriciN. 

SDB*Baio»H, Sob-beg 

no 1 PAi^AaCTic • BmiopiAM | Okuiiiai, 1 AiBrkALiAu 
oKa. StJB-KEOiosa. Snn-cEoiosfi. BnE-nEoiosa. SUB-nEniOBs. 

The Irrisora are birds of generally metallic plumage, which 
have often been placed with the Epunaehidse and near the Sun- 
birds, or Birds of Paradise, but which are undoubtedly allied to 
the Hoopoes. They are strictly confined to the continent of 
Africa, ranging from Abyssinia to the west coast, and southward 
to the Cape Colony. They have been divided into several sub- 
genera which it is not necessary here to notice (Plate IV. Vol. I, 
p. 261). 

Family 71. 

-PODAEGID« (3 Genera, 20 Species,) 






aS-S^^Ss, 1 s'^UB-^IOm 

- 1 i.a 

The Podargidfe, or Prog-mouths, are a family of rather large- 
sized nocturnal insectivorous birds, closely allied to the Goat- 
suckers, but distinguished by their generally thicker bills, and 
especially by hunting for their food on trees or on the ground, 
instead of seizing it on the wing. They abound most in the Austra- 
lian region, but one genus extends over a large part of the Oriental 
regioiL The following are the genera with their distribution ;— 

Podargvs (10 sp.), Australia, Tasmania, and the Papuan 
Islands (Plate XII. VoL I. p. 441) ; Batrackostomus (6 sp,), the 
Oriental region (excluding Philippine Islands and China) and 
the northern Moluccas ; JSgothdes (4 sp.), Australia, Tasmania, 
and Papuan Islands. 


Family 72.— STEATOENITHID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species,) 


This family contains a single bicd — the Guacharo — forming the 
genus Steatomis, first discovered hy Humboldt in a cavern in 
Veneznela, and since found in deep ravines near Bogota, and also 
in Trinidad, Although apparently allied to the Goat-suckers 
it is a vegetable-feeder, and is altogether a very anomalous bird 
1 in the system is still undetermined. 

Family 73.— CAPEIMULGID^. (17 Genera, 91 Species.) 


l.a.3.4 I I. a. 3. 4 1.2 

The Goat-suckers, or Nigbt-jara, are crepuscular insectivorous 
birds, which take their prey on the wing, and are remarkable 
for their soft and beautifully mottled plumage, swift and silent 
flight, and strange cries often imitating the human voice. They 
are universally distributed, except that they do not reach New 
Zealand or the remoter Pacific Islands. The South American 
genus, Nyctibius, differs in structure and habits from the other 
goat-suckers and should perhaps form a distinct family. More 
than half the genera inhabit the Neotropical region. The genera 
are as follows : — 

Nyctibius (6 sp.), Brazil to Guatemala, Jamaica ; Capri- 
■amlgus (35 sp.), Pal^arctic, Oriental, and Ethiopian regions, with 
the Austro-Malay Islands and North Australia ; ffydropsalis 
(& sp.), Tropical South America to La Plata ; Antrostomm (10 


320 GEOGEAPHICAL ZOOLOaY. [part iv. 

sp.). La Plata and Bolivia to Canada, Cuba ; Stenopsis (4 sp.}, 
Martinique to Columbia, West Peru and CMli ; Siphonorhis (1 sp.), 
Jamaica ; Eeleothreptiis (1 ap.), Demerara ; Nyctidromm (2 sp.), 
Soutb Brazil to Central America ; Scortomis (3 sp.), West and 
E^t Africa ; Macrodipteryx (2 sp.). West and Central Africa ; 
Gosmetorms (1 sp.), all Tropical Africa ; Podager (1 sp.). Tropical 
South America to La Plata; Lurocalis (2 sp.), Brazil and 
Guiana ; Ohordeiles (8 sp.), Brazil and West Peru to Canada, 
Porto Rico, Jamaica ; Nyctiprogm (1 sp.), Brazil and Amazonia ; 
Eurostopodvs (2 sp.), Australia and Papuan Islands ; Lyncomis 
(4 sp.), Burmah, Philippines, Borneo, Celebes. 

(7 Genera, 




Gemebal Distribution. 




;«\ 1 lt'^^^1 1 su 











The Swifts can almost claim to be a cosmopolitan group, 
but for their absence from New Zealand. They are most 
abundant both in genera and species in the KeotropJcal and 
Oriental regions. The following is the distribution of the 
genera : — 

Cypselus (1 sp.), absent only from the whole of Korth America 
and the Pacific ; Panyptila (3 sp.), Guatemala and Guiana, and 
extending into Worth-west America; Collocalia {10 sp.), Mada- 
gascar, the whole Oriental region and eastward through New 
Guinea to the Marquesas Islands ; Dendrochelidon (5 sp.). 
Oriental region and eastward to New Guinea; Ch(etura (15 
sp.). Continental America (excluding South Temperate), West 
Africa and Madagascar, the Oriental r^ion. North China and 
the A moor, Celebes, Australia; Hemiprome (3 sp.), Mexico to 
La Plata, Jamaica and Hayti ; Cypseloides (2 sp.), Brazil and 
Peru ; Ncphmcetes (2 sp.), Cuba, Jamaica, Korth'West America. 


Family 75.-TROCHILIDJi. (118 Genera, 390 Species.) 

Neoteopjcii, I NEIKCTIO I Pj-LSAHcna I Ermopjis I Oriental' I Aubtriluk |l.a.3.4| 

The wonderfiilly varied and beautiful Humming-Birds aie 
confined to the American continent, where they range from 
Sitka -to Cape Horn, while the island of Juan Ternandez has two 
peculiar species. Only 6 species, belonging to 3 genera, are 
found in the Nearctic region, and most of these have extended 
their range from the south. They are excessively abundant in 
the forest-clad Andes ftomMexieo to Chili, some species extend- 
ing up to the limits of perpetual snow ; but they diminish in 
number and variety in the plains, however luxuriant the vege- 
tation. In place of giving here the names and distribution of 
the numerous genera into which they are now divided (which 
will be found in the tables of the genera of the Keotropieal 
r^ion), it may be more useful to present a summary of their 
distribution in the sub-divisions of the American continent, 
as follows : — 

Bub- Sub- Bnh. Sub- Neotetio 

region 1, re^oii II. reBtoii III. regioD IV. region. 

(Patagonia (iSopicoI (Troptoal (AntlUes.) (Tenip, 

& S: Andes.) 8. Amer.) (N. Anier.) N. Amw.) 

Genera ill each Sub-region 10 80 41 8 3 

Peculiar Genera 3 58 14 5 

Species in each Sub-region 15 275 100 15 6 

The island of Juan Fernandez has two species, and Masafuera, 
an island beyond it, one ; the three forming a peculiar genus. 
The island of Tres Marias, about 60 miles from the west coast 
of Mexico, possesses a peculiar species of humming-bird, and 
the Bahamas two species ; but none inhabit either the Falkland 
Islands or the Galapagos; 

Like most groups which are very rich in species and in 
generic forms, the humming-birds are generally very local, small 



generic groups being confined to limited districts ; while single 
mountains, valleys, or small islands, often posaesa species found 
nowhere else. It is now well ascertained that the Trochilidie 
are really insectivorous birds, although they also feed largely, but 
probably never exclusively, on the nectar of flowers. Their 
nearest allies are undoubtedly the Swifta; but the wide gap 
that now separates them from these, as well as the wonderful 
variety of form and of development of plumage, that is found 
among them, alike point to their origin, at a very remote period, 
in the forests of the once insular Andes. There is perhaps no 
more striking contrast of the like nature, to be foimd, than that 
between the American kingfishers — confined to a few closely 
allied forms of one Old World genus — and the American hum- 
ming-birds with more than a hundred diversified generic forms 
unlike everything else upon the globe; and we can hardly 
imagine any other cause for this difference, than a (compara- 
tively) very recent introduction in the one case, and a very high 
antiquity in the other. 

General Eemarlcs on the Distribution of the Pieariw. 

The very heterogeneous mass of birds forming the Order 
Picarias, contains 25 families, 307 genera and 1,604 f 
This gives about 64 species to each family, while in the I 
the proportion is nearly double, or 111 species per family. 
There are, in fact, only two very large families in the Order, 
which happen to be the first and last in the series — Picidfe and 
TroehihdEe, Two others — Cuculidie and Alcedinidte— are rather 
large ; while the rest are all small, seven of them consisting 
only of a single genus and from one to a dozen species. Only 
one of the families — Alcedtnid;e— is absolutely cosmopolitan, 
but three others are nearly so, Gaprimulgidfe and Cypselidje 
being only absent from New Zealand, and Cuculidso from the 
Canadian sub-region of North America. Eleven families inhabit 
the Old World only, while seven are confined to the New 
World, only one of these — TrochilidiE — being common to the 
Neotropical and Nearctic regions. 

The Picariffi are highly characteristic of tropical faunas, for 


CHAP, xviii.] BIRDS. 323 

while no less than 15 out of the 25 f^mllles are e\clu%nt;lj 
tropical, none are confined to, or have tl eir chief development 
in, the temperate rt^ons. They are best represented m the 
Ethiopian region, which possesses 17 families i f wbieh aie 
peculiar to it; while the Oriental rej,ion has only 14 families 
none of which are peculiar. The Neotiopica.1 le^on has aho 
14 families, hut 6 of them are peculiar The Australian le^jion 
has 8, the PalEcarctie 9 and the Nearctic 6 famihes but nana 
of these are peculiar. We may see a reason for the great 
specialization of this tropical assemblage f b ids m tho Ethio 
plan and Neotropical regions, in the fat,t of the large extent of 
land on both aides of the Equator whi< h these t^o regions alone 
possess, and their extreme isolation e thei by sea oi deserts 
from other regions, — an isolation which we kno\v % as m bath 
cases much greater in early Tertiary tinieb It is perhaps for 
a similar reason that we here find hardly any trace of the 
connection between Australia and South America which other 
groups exhibit; for that connection has most probably been 
effected by a former communication between the temperate 
southern extremities of those two continents. The most 
interesting and su^estive fact, is that presented by the dis- 
tiibution of the Megalfemidre and Trogonidse over the tropics 
of America, Africa, and Asia. In the absence of pal^onto- 
logical evidence as to the former history of the Megaljemidse, 
we are unable to say positively, whether it owes its present 
distribution to a former closer union between these continents 
in intertropical latitudes, or to a much greater northern i-ange 
of the group at the period when a luxuriant sub-tropical vege- 
tation extended far toward the Arctic regions ; but the dis- 
covery of Trogo'n in the Miocene deposits of the South of 
France renders it almost certain that the latter is the true 
explanation in the case of both these families. 

The Neotropical region, owing to its enormous family of 
humming-birds, is by far the richest in Picariie, possessing 
nearly half the total number of species, and a still larger pro- 
portion of genera. Three families, the Bueerotidie, Meropidse 
and Coraciidse are equally characteristic of the Oriental and 



Ethiopian regions, a few outlying species only entering the 
Australian or the Palfearctic regions. One family (Todidas) is 
confined to the West Indian Islands ; and another (Leptosomida)) 
consisting of but a single species, to Madagascar; parallel cases 
to the Drepanidid^e among the Passeres, peculiar to the Sand- 
wich Islands, and the Apterygid^ .among the Struthiones, 
peculiar to New Zealand. 


The Parrots have heen the subject of much difference of 
opinion among ornithologists, and no satisfactory arrangement 
of the order into families and genera has yet been reached. 
Professor Garrod has lately examined certain points in the 
anatomy o£ a large number of genera, and proposes to revolu- 
tionize the ordinary classifications. Until, however, a general 
examination of their whole anatomy, internal and external, has 
been made by some competent authority, it will be unsafe to 
adopt the new system, as we have as yet no guide to the com- 
parative value of the characters made use of. I therefore keep 
as much as possihle to the old groups, founded on external 
characters, only using the indications furnished hy Professor 
Garrod's paper, to determine the position of doubtful genera. 

Family 76.— CACATUID^. (5 Genera, 35 Species.; 


General Distkibution. 

ir.=i 1 .==. 1 e;=. j £=:., | s?=i j .".= 


The Cacatuidffi, Plyctolophidfe, or Camptolophidfe, as they have 
been variously termed, comprise all those crested parrots usually 
termed Cockatoos, together with one or two doubtful forms. 
They are very abundant in the Australian region, more espe- 
cially in the Austro-Malayan portion of it one species inhabiting 



the Philippine Islands ; but they do aot pass further east than 
the Solomon Islands and are not found in New Zealand. The 
distribution of the genera is as follow : — 

Gaoatua (18 sp.) ranges from the Philippine Islands, Celebes 
andLDmbokjtothe Solomon Islands and to Tasmania; Oalopsitta 
(1 sp.) AustraHa ; GalyptorhftichMs (8 sp.) is confined to Australia 
and Tasmania ; Mieroglossua (2 sp.) (perhaps a distinct family) 
to the Papuan district and North Australia; Licmdis (3 sp.) 
Australia, Solomon Islands, and (?) Kew Guinea; Nasiterna 
(3 sp.), a minute form, the smallest of the whole order, and 
perhaps not belonging to this family, is only known from the 
Papuan and Solomon Islands. 

Family 77.— PLATYCERCID^. (11 Genera, 57 Species.) 
Gbsbbal Distribution. 

I j I I 1 •■- — 

The Platycercidfe comprise a series of large-tailed Parrots, of 
weak structure and gorgeous colours, with a few ground-feed- 
ing genera of more aoher protective tints ; the whole family 
being confined to the Austr^ian region. The genera are :— 

(1906 iBTO 200IIJ piatycercus (14 sp.), Australia, Tasmania, and Nor- 
folk Island; PrnpUtus (6 sp.), Australia; Polytelis (3 sp.), 
Australia; NympUms (l sp.), Australia and New Caledonia; 
(mt 2003J Aprosmictus (6 sp.), Australia, Papua, Timor, and Mo- 
luccas; I^hidffpm (3 sp.), Tonga and Fiji Islands; Cyano- 
rawpTms (14 sp.). New Zealand; Norfolk Island, New Caledonia, 
and Society Islands ; Melopsittams (1 sp.), Australia ; Mphema 
(7 sp.), AustTaha ; Pm)poms (1 sp.), Austraha and Tasmania ; 
GeopsUtacus (1 sp.). West Australia, The four last genera are 
ground-feeders, and are believed by Professor Garrod to be allied 
to the Owl-Parrot of New Zealand {Stringops). 





Family 78.- 


(8 Genera, 




s,rRr.oi' 1 S 

UB-DEUIOHS. BuB-KEQlOiiH. 1 8uB-lU» 



1 S^B-XoNS. 

..2-4 I 1.2- 

I class here a group of birds brought together, for the most 
part, by geographical distribution as well as by agreement in in- 
ternal structure, but which is nevertheless of a very uncertain 
and provisional character. 

Palceorwis (J 8 sp.), the Oriental region, Mauritius, Eodriguez, 
and Seychelle Islands, and a species in TropicalAfrica, apparently 
identical with the Indian P. torguatus, and therefore— considering 
the very ancient intercourse between the two countries, and the 
improbability of the species remaining unchanged if originating 
by natural causes^most likely the progeny of domestic birds in- 
troduced from India. Pnonitwrus (3 sp.), Celebes and the 
Phihppine Islands ; i^"^^) Oeoffroyus (5 sp.), Bouru to Timor and 
the Solomon Islands; Tanygnathus (5 sp.), Philippines, Celebes, 
and Moluccas to New Guinea ; Mdeetita (8 sp.), Moluccas and 
Papuan ■ Islands ; Psittinus (1 sp.), Tenasseriin to Sumatra and 
Borneo ; Gyclopsitta (8 sp.), Papuan Islands, Philippines and 
North-east Australia ; Zoriculns (17 sp.), ranges over the whole 
Oriental region to Plores, the Moluccas, and the Papuan island 
of Mysol; but most of the species are concentrated in the district 
includir^ the Philippines, Celebes, Gilolo, and Mores, there 
being 1 in India, 1 in South China, 1 in Ceylon, 1 in Java, 1 in 
Malacca, Sumatra, and Borneo, 3 in Celebes, 5 in the Philip- 
pines, and the rest in the Moluccas, Mysol, and Flores. This 
genus forms a transition to the next family. 







{6 Genera, 



Gbhbbal DisraiBuiTON. 

ESS > 


a'"",™, sS."'» 

r,, s?."S" 




The Triclioglossidte, or Brash-tOBgued Paroquets, including the 
Lories, are exclusively coniined to the Australian region, where 
they extend from Celebes to the MarcLuesas Islands, and south 
to Tasmania, The genus Nanodes (= Lathamit-s) has been 
ahown by Professor Garrod to differ irom Triehoglossm in the 
position of the carotid arteries. I therefore make it a distinct 
genua but do not consider that it should be placed in another 
family. The genera here admitted are as follows ; — 

Trichoglossiis (29 sp.), ranges over the whole Austro-Malay 
and Australian aub-r^ons, and to the Society Islands ; {^°") 
Nanodes (1 sp.), Australia and Tasmania; Gharmosyna (1 sp,), 
New Guinea (Plate X. Vol. I. p. 414) ; Mos (9 sp.), Bouru and 
Sanguir Island north of Celebes, to the Solomon Islands, and in 
Puynipet Island to the north-east of New Ireland; (^"^^ ^^) Lorius 
(13 sp.). Bourn and the Solomon Islands ; (™*^ ^''^) CoripMlm (4 
ep.), Samoa, Tonga, Society and Marquesas Islands. 

Family 80.~CONUEID^. (7 Genera, 79 Species.) 

Gbnbrai. Disikibotiow. 



I 1 1 

l.a.3.4 3 

1 1 1 

The Conoridie, which consist of the Macaws and their allies, 
are wholly confined to America, ranging from the Straits of 
Magellan to South Carolina and Nebraska, with Cuba and 
Jamaica. Professor Garrod places Pyrrlmra (which has generally 

Vol. II.— 22 



been classed as a part of the genus Conurm) in a separate family, 
on account of the absence of the ambiens muscle of the knee, 
but as we are quite ignorant of the classification^ value of this 
character, it is better for the present to keep both as distinct 
genera of the same family. The genera are : — 

Ara (15 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico and Cuba; Rhyncopsitta (1 
sp.), Mexico ; Sedhicognaihus \1 sp.), Chili ; Gonunis (30 sp.), the 
range of the family ; Pyrrhura, (16 sp.), Paraguay and Bolivia to 
Costa Eica ; Bolborkynchus (7 sp.), La Plata, Bolivia and West 
Peru, with one species in Mexico and Guatemala ; Brotogerys (9 
sp.), Brazil to Mexico. 

Family 81.— P3ITTACID^.—(12 Genera, 87 Species.) 
Gbnekal Distribution. 


■ j-— I 

The Psittacidffi comprise a somewhat 
of PaiTOta and Paroquets of the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions, 
which are combined here more for convenience than because 
they are believed to form a natural group. The genera Chrysotis 
and Piomts liave no oil-gland, while Psittamla. and Aga/pomis 
have lost the furcula, but neither of these chai'acters are pro- 
bably of more than generic value. The genera are : — 

PsUtacus (2 sp.). West Africa ; Ooracopsis (5 sp.), Madagascar, 
Comoro, and SeycheUe Islands ; Pcsocephalm (9 sp.), all Tropical 
and South Afiiea ; (^ — ^''*) Gaica (9 sp.), Mexico to Amazonia 
Chrysotis (32 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico and the West Indian 
Islands ; Triclwna (1 sp.), Brazil : B&ro^tyus (1 sp.), Amazonia 
Piorms (9 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico ; Urookroma (7 ap.). Tro- 
pical South America; I^iUacula (6 sp.), Brazil to Mexico 
Poliopdtta (2 sp.), Mad^ascar and West Africa; Agapm-nis (4 
sp.). Tropical and South Africa. 


Family 82.— NESTOEID^. {? 2 Genera, 6 Species.) 


The present family is formed to receive tlie genus Nestor (5 
9p.), confined to New Zealand and Norfolk Island. Its affinities 
are doubtful, but it appears to have relations with the American 
Conuridfe and the Australian TrichoglossidEe. With it is placed 
the raie and remarkable Dasyptilus {1 sp.), of New Guinea, of 
which however very Httle ia known. 

Family 83.— STEINGOPID^. (1 Gems, 2 Species.) 

General Distbibutios. 

SCB-BBQIom SuB-RfflJlONS. SuB-BEaiomt 







This family contains only the curious owl-like noctunial 
Parrot of New Zealand, Stringops hahroptilus (Plate XIII. 
Vol .1. p. 455). An aUied species is said to inhabit the Chatham 
Islands, if not now extinct. 

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Psittaci. 
Although the Parrots are now generally divided into several 
distinct families, yet they form so well marked and natural a 
group, and are so widely separated from all other birds, that 
we may best discuss their peculiarities of geographical distri- 
bution by treating them as a whole. By the preceding 
enumeration we find that there are about 386 species of known 
parrots, which are divided into 52 genera. They are pre- 
eminently a tropical group, for although a few species extend 
a considerable distance into the temperate zone, these are 



marked exceptions to the rale which limits the parrot tribe to 
the tropical and sub-tropical regions, roughly defined as extend- 
ing about 30° on each side of the equator. In America a apecies 
of Govmras reaches the straita of Magellan on the south, while 
another inhabits the United States, and once extended to the 
great lakes, although now confined to the south-eastern districts. 
In Africa parrots do not reach the northern tropic, owing to the 
desert nature of the country ; and in the south they barely reach 
the Orange River. In India they extend to about 35° N. in the 
western Himalayas ; and in the Australian region, not only to 
Kew Zealand but to Macquarie Islands in 54° S., the farthest 
point from the equator reached by the group. But although 
found in all the tropical regions they are most unequally dis- 
tributed. Africa ia poorest, possessing only 6 genera and 25 
apecies ; the Oriental region is also very poor, having but 6 
genera and 29 species ; the Neotropical region ia much, richer, 
having 14 genera and 141 apecies ; while the smallest in area 
and the least tropical in climate—the Australian region, pos- 
sesses 31 genera and 176 species, and it also possesses exclusively 
5 of the families, Triehogloasidse, Platycercidse, Cacatuidte, 
Nestoridffi, and Stringopidse. The portion of the earth's surface 
that contains the largest number of parrots in proportion to its 
area ia, undoubtedly, the Auatro- Malayan sub-region, including 
the islands from Celebes to the Solomon Islands. The area of 
these islands is probably not one-fifteenth of that of the four 
tropical regions, yet they contain from one-fifth to one-fourth of 
aU the known parrots. In this area too are found many of the 
most remarkable forms, — all the crimson lories, the great black 
Cockatoos, the pigmy Hosiiema, the raquet-tailed Friordtwus, 
and the bareheaded Sasyptilm. 

The almost universal distribution of Parrots wherever the 
climate ia aafficiently mild or uniform to furnish them with a 
perennial aupply of food, no less than their varied details of 
organization, combined with a great uniformity of general type, 
— tell us, in unmistakable language, of a very remote antiquity. 
The only early record of extinct parrots ia, however, in the 
Miocene of France, where remains apparently allied to the West 


CHAP, xviii,] 15IEDS. 33X 

African PsiUams, have been fotind. But the origin of so wide- 
spread, isolated, and, varied a group, must be far earlier than 
this, and not improbably dates back beyond the dawn of the 
Tertiary period. Some primeval forms may have entered the 
AustraHau region with the Maisupiala,, or not long after them ; 
while perhaps at a somewhat later epoch they were introduced 
into South America. In these two regions they have greatly 
flourished, while in the two other tropical regions only a few- 
types have been found, capable of niaintainii^ themselves, among 
the higher forms of mammalia, and in competition with a more 
varied series of birds. This seems much more probable than 
the supposition that so highly oi^anized a group should have 
originated in the Australian r^ion, and subsequently become 
so widely spread over the globe. 

Order IV.—GOLUMBjE. 

Tamily 84— COLUMBID^, (44 Genera, 355 Species.) 

General DisTEimrTioN. 


.S=:i. #r;=. 

The Columbidse, or Pigeons and Doves, are almost universally 
distributed, but very unequally in the different regions. Being 
best adapted to live in warm or temperate climates, they dimin- 
ish rapidly northwards, reaching about 62° ]?. Latitude in North 
America, but considerably farther in Europe. Both the Neare- 
tic and Palsearctic regions are very poor in genera and species 
of pigeons, those of the former region being mostly allied to 
Neotropical, and those of the latter to Oriental and Ethiopian 
types. The Ethiopian region is, however, itself very poor, and 
several of its peculiar forms are confined to the Madagascar sub- 
region. The Neotropical region is very rich in peculiar genera, 
though but moderately so in number of species, The Oriental 



region closely approaches it in both respects ; but the Austra- 
lian region is by far the richest, possessing nearly double the 
genera and species of any other region, and abounding in re- 
markable forms quite unlike those of any other part of the 
globe. The following table gives the number of genera and 
species in each region, and enables us readily to determine 
the comparative richness and isolation of each, as regards this 
extensive family :— - 

Peculiar Genera. No. of Species. 













With the exception of Oolumha and Tiirtur, which have a 
wide range, Treron, common to the Oriental and Ethiopian 
regions, and Carpophaga, to the Oriental and Australian, most 
of the genera of pigeons are either restricted to or very 
characteristic of a single region. 
The distribution of the genera here admitted is as follows ; — 
Treron- {37 sp.), the whole Oriental region, and eastward to 
Celebes, Amboyna and Flores, also the whole Ethiopian region 
to Madagascar; Ptiloyus (52 sp.), the Australian region (exclud- 
ing New Zealand) and the Indo-Malay sub-region ; Alectrmiias 
(4 sp,), Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands : Carpophaga 
{50 sp.), the whole Australian and Oriental regions, but much 
the most abundant in the former; {^^*) lanfhcefnas (11 sp.), 
Japan, Andaman, Nicobar, and Philippine Islands, Timor and 
Gilolo to Samoa Islands ; (^^'^ Leucomelmna {1 sp.), Australia ; 
Lopholaimm (1 sp.), Australia; (22i9.»"*s^) Alsmcorrms (2 sp.), 
Himalayas to Ceylon and Tenasserim ; Colwmba (46 sp.), 
generally distributed over all the regions ' except the Atistralian, 
one species however in the Fiji Islands ; Edopistes (1 sp.), east 
of North America with British Columbia ; Zencddura (2 sp.), 
Veragua to Canada and British Columbia ; (Ena {1 sp.). Tropical 
and Soiitlt Africa ; Oeopelia {6 sp.), Philippine Islands and Java 
to Australia; Maeropygia (14 sp.), Nepal, Hainan, Nicobar, Java, 


CHAP, svni.] BIHDS. 333 

and Philippines to Australia and New Ireland ; Turactena (3 
sp.), Celebes, Timor, and Solomon Islands ; Reinwardtcsnas (1 
ap.), Celebes to Kew Guinea; Turtw (24 sp.), Paltearctic, 
Ethiopian and Oriental r^ions with Austro-Malaya; GhcEtnt- 
felia (7 sp.), Brazil and Bolivia to Jamaica, Califoraia, and 
South-east United States; Columbula (2 sp.), Brazil and La 
Plata to Chili; Smrdafella (2 sp,), Brazil and Guatemala; 
Zenaida {10 sp.), Chili and La Plata to Columbia and the 
Antilles, Pemando Noronha ; Melopelia (2 sp.). Chili to Mexico 
and California ; Ferisiera (4 sp.), Brazil to Mexico ; Meiriopelia (2 
sp.), "West America from Ecuador to Chili; Gymnopdia (1 sp,), 
"West Peru and Bolivia ; LeptoptUa (11 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico 
and the Antilles ; (^"' me .^j aaaoj Q^gtrygon (14 8p.), Paraguay to 
Mexico and the Antilles; Aflopelia (5 sp.). Tropical and South 
Africa, St. Thomas and Princes Island; Chalocopelia (4 sp.), 
Tropical and South Africa ; IStarnmias (1 sp.}, Cuba ; Ocyphaps 
{1 sp.), Australia (Plate XII. Vol. L p. 441) ; Petrophassa (1 
sp.). North-west Australia; Chalocophaps (8 sp.), the Oriental, 
r^on to New Guinea and Australia; Trugon {1 sp.), New 
Guinea ; Hmieophaps (1 sp,), Waigiou and New Guinea ; Phaps 
(3 sp.), Australia and Tasmania ; Lmcmarda (1 sp.). East Aus- 
tralia ; hapitreron (2 sp.), Philippine Islands ; Oeopkaps (2 sp.). 
North and East Australia ; Lophophaps (3 sp,), Australia; Cakenas 
(1 sp.), scattered on the smaller islands from the Nicobars and 
Philippines to New Guinea ; Oiidiphaps (1 sp.). New Guinea ; 
Phlogcmas (7 sp.), Philippine Islands and Celebes to the 
Marquesas Islands ; Goura (2 sp.). New Guinea and the islands 
on the north-east (Plate X. Vol. I. p 414). 

Family 84a.— DIDUNCITLID^. (1 Genua, 1 Species.) 
Gebeiul Distbieution, 



The DMwimdus digirostris, a hook-billed ground-pigeon, 
found only in the Samoa Islands, is so peculiar in its structure 
that it is considered to form a distinct fairiily. 

Family 85 — DIDID^.— (2 Genera, 3 Species.) 


- 1 - 

The birds which constitute this family are now all extinct ; 
but aa numerous drawings are in existence, taken from living 
birds some of which were exhibited in Europe, and a stuffed 
specimen, fragments of which still remain, was in the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford down to 1755, they must be classed among 
recent, as opposed to geologically extinct species. The Dodo 
{Didus iriffptus) a large, unwieldy, flightless bird, inhabited 
Mauritius down to the latter part of the 17th century ; and an 
allied form, the SoKtaire {Pez&pliaps solitaria), was found only 
in the island of Eodriguez, where it survived about a century 
later. Old voyagers mention a Dodo also in Bourbon, and a 
rude figure of it exists ; but no remains of this bird have been 
found. Almost complete skeletons of the Dodo and Solitaire 
have, however, been recovered from the swamps of Mauritius and 
the caves of Eodriguez, proving that they were both extremely 
modified forma of pigeon. These large birds were formerly very 
abundant, and being excellent eating and readily captured, the 
early voyagers to these islands used them largely for food. As they 
could be caught by man, and very easily by dogs, they were soon 
greatly diminished in numbers ; and the introduction of swine, 
which ran wild in the forests aud fed on the eggs and young 
birds, completed their extermination. 

The existence in the Mascarene Islands of a group of such 
remarkable terreatiial birds, with aborted wings, is parallel to 
that of the A^teryx and Dinomis in New Zealand, the Casso- 
waries of Austro-Malaya. and the short-winged Rails of Kew 



Zealand, Tristan d'Acunha, and other oceanic islands ; and the 
phenomenon is clearly dependent on the long-continued absence 
of enemies, which allowed of great increase of hulk and the 
total loss of the power of fl^ht, without injury. In some few 
cases (the Ostrich for example) birds incapable of flight co-exist 
with large carnivorous mammaHa ; but these birds aie large and 
powerful, as well as very swift, and are thus able to escape from 
some enemies and defend themselves against others. The entire 
absence of the smaller and more defenceless ground-birds from 
the adjacent island of Madagascar, is q^uite in accordance with 
this view, because that island has several small but destructive 
carnivorous animals. 

Qmeral Bema/rks on the Distribution of the Columice. 
The striking preponderance of Pigeons, both as to genera and 
species, in the Australian region, would seem to indicate that at 
some former period it possessed a more extensive land area in 
which this form of bird-life took its rise. But there are other 
considerations which throw doubt upon this view. The western 
half of the Malay Arehipelago, belonging to the Oriental region, 
is also rich in pigeons, since it has 43 species heloi^ng to 11 
genera, rather more than are found in all the rest of the Oriental 
region. Again, we find that the Mascarene Islands and the An- 
tilles both possess more pigeons than we should expect, in pro- 
portion to those of the regions to which they belong, and 
to their total amount of bird-life. This looks as if islands were 
more favoui-able to pigeon-development than continents ; and if 
we group together the Pacific and the Malayan Islands, the 
Mascarene group and the Antilles, we find that they contain to- 
gether about 170 species of pigeons belonging to 24 out of the 47 
genera here adopted; while aU the great continente united only 
produce about the same number of species belonging (if we omit 
those peculiar to Australia) to only 20 genera. The great deve- 
lopment of the group in the Austrahan region may, therefore, be 
due to ite consisting mainly of islands, and not to the order 
having originated there, and thus having had a longer period in 
which to develop. I have elsewhere suggested (Ibis 18fi5. p. 306) 



a physical cause for this peculiarity of distribution. Pigeons 
build rude, open nests, and their young remain helpless for a 
considerable period. They are thus exposed to the attacks of 
such arboreal quadrupeds or other animals as feed on ^gs or 
young birds. Monkeys are very destructive in this respect; 
and it is a noteworthy fact that over the whole Australian re- 
gion, the Mascarene Islands and the Antilles, monkeys are un- 
known. In the Indo-Malay sub-region, where monkeys are 
generally plentiful, the greatest variety of pigeons occurs in the 
Philippines, where there is but a single species in one island ; 
and in Java, where monkeys are far less numerous than in Sumatra 
or Borneo. If we add to this consideration the fact, that mam- 
malia and rapacious birds are, as a rule, far less abundant in 
islands than on continents ; and that the extreme development 
of pigeon-life is reached in the Papuan group of islands, in which 
mammalia (except a few marsupials, bats, and pigs) are wholly 
absent, we see further reason to adopt this view. It is also to 
be noted that in America, comparatively few pigeons are found 
in the rich forests (comparable to those of the Australian insular 
region in which they abound), but are mostly, confined to the 
open campos, the high Andes, and the western coast districts, 
from which the monkey-tribe are wholly absent. 

This view is further supported by the great development of 
colour that is found in the pigeons of these insular regions, cul- 
minating in the golden-yellow fruit-dove of the Fiji Islands, the 
metallic green Nicobar-pigeon of Malaya, and the black and 
crimson Alectrcenas of Mauritius. Here also, alone, we meet 
with crested pigeons, rendering the possessors more conspicuous ; 
such as the Lopholaimus of Australia and the crowned Gmira of 
New G-uinea. ; and here too are more pecuUar forms of terrestrial 
pigeons than elsewhere, though none have completely lost the 
power of flight but the now extinct Dididse. 

The curious liking of pigeons for an insular habitat is well 
shown in the genera lanthcenas and Calcenas. The former, con- 
taining H species, ranges over a hundred degrees of longitude, 
and forty-five of latitude, extending' into three regions, yet 
nowhere inhabits a continent or even a large island. It is 


CHAP, svin.] BIRDS. 337 

found in the Andaman and Mcobar Islands ; in the Philippines, 
Gilolo, and the smaller Papuan Islands, and in Japan; yet not in 
any of the large Malay Islands oc in Australia. The other genus, 
C'aloenas, consists of but a single species, yet this ranges from the 
Nicobar Islands to New Guinea, It is not, however, as far as 
known, found on any of the large islands, but seems to prefer 
the smaller islands which surround them. We here have the 
general preference of pigeons for islands, further developed in 
these two genera into a preference for small islands ; and it is 
probable that the same cause — the greater freedom from danger — 
has produced both phenomena. 

Of the geological antiquity of the Columbfe we have no evi- 
dence ; but their wide distribution, their varied forms, and their 
great isolation, all point to an origin, at least as far back as that 
•we have ass^ed as probable in the case of the ParTOtB. 

Order V.—GALLINM. 
Family 86.— PTEEOCLID.iE. (2 Genera, 16 Species.) 


— 1 — !— I — i'— 1-— 

The Pteroclidie, or Sand-grouse, are elegantly formed birds with 
pointed tails, and plumage of beautifully varied protective tints, 
characteristic of the Ethiopian region and Central Asia, though 
extending into Southern Europe and Hindostan. Being pre- 
eminently desert-birds, they avoid the forest-districts of all thesf! 
countries, but abound in the most arid situations and on the 
most open and barren plains. The distribution of the genera is 
as follows : — 

Pterodes (14 sp.), has the same range as the family ; Syvrhap- 
tes (2 sp.), normally inhabits Tartary, Thibet, and Mongolia to 
the country around Pekin, and occasionally visits Eastern Europe. 
But a few years back (1863) great numbers suddenly a; 



i and extended westward to the shores of the Atlantic, 
while some even reached Ireland and the Fteroes. (Plate III. 
Vol. I. p. 226.) 

Family 87.— TETEAONIDJS. (29 Genera, 170 Species.) 
General DisrJtiBUTiON. 

— a. 3. A I. a. 3. 4 i.a.3.4 a. 3. 4 1.2 — 4 

The TetraonjdEe, includii^ the Gronse, Partridges, Quails, and 
allied forms, ahound in all parts of the Eastern continents ; they 
are less plentiful in North America and comparatively scarce in 
South America, more than half the Neotropical species heing 
found north of Panama ; and in the Australian region there are 
only a few of small size. The Ethiopian region probably contains 
most species ; next comes the Oriental— India proper from the 
Himalayas to Ceylon having twenty ; while the Austrahan re^on, 
with 15 species, is the poorest. These facts render it probable 
that the TetiaonidEe are essentially denizens of the great northern 
continents, and that their entrance into South America, Aus- 
tralia, and even South Africa, is, comparatively speaking, recent. 
They have developed into forms equally suited to the tropical 
plains and the arctic regions, some of them being among the few 
denizens of the extreme north, as well as of the highest alpine 
snows. The genera are somewhat unsettled, and there is even 
some uncertainty as to the limits between this family and the 
next ; but the following are those now generally admitted : — 

PHlopachm (1 sp.), West Africa ; FrancolivMs (34 sp.), all 
Africa, South Europe, India to Ceylon, and South China ; Orty- 
gorms (3 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon, Sumatra, and Borneo : PeM- 
perdiv (1 sp.). West Africa ; Perdix (3 sp.), the whole Continen- 
tal Palsearctic region ; Margaroperdix (1 sp.), Madagascar ; Oreo- 
perdix (1 sp.), Formosa ; Arborophila (8 ap.), the Oriental Con- 
tinent and the Philippines ; Pdoperdix (4 sp.), Tenasserim and 
Malaya ; Goturnix (21 sp.). Temperate Paltearctic, Ethiopian and 


CHAP, xvui.] BIRDS. 339 

Oriental i^ons, and the Australian to New Zealand ; Bollulm (2 
sp.), Siam to Sumatra, Borneo, and Philippines ; Caloperdix (1 
sp.), Malacca and Sumatra ; Odontopkorus (17 sp,), Brazil and 
Peru to Mexico; Dendrortyx (3 sp.), Guatemala and Mexico; 
Cyrtonyx {3 sp.), Guatemala to H'ew Mexico ; Ortyx (8 sp.), Hon- 
duras and Cuba to. Canada ; Eupsycliortyx (6 sp.), Brazil and 
Ecuador to Mexico ; CoXlvpepla (3 sp.), Mexico to California ; 
Lophortyx (2 ep.), Arizona and California ; Oreortyx (1 sp.), Cali- 
fornia and Oregon {Plate XVIII., Vol II. p. 128) ; Lei-wa (1 sp.), 
Snowy Himalayas and East Thibet; Caccahis {Id ap.), Palsearc- 
tic region to Abyssinia, Arabia and the Punjaub ; Tetraogallus 
(4 sp,), Caucasus and Himalayas to Altai Mountains; Teirao 
(7 sp.), northern parts of Pal^aretic and Nearotic regions ; Gen- 
troMTGus (1 sp.), Eocky Mountains ; Pediocates (2 sp.). North 
and North-west America (Plate XVIII. Vol. II. p. 128); Cupi- 
donia (1 sp.). East and North-Centrd United States and Canada ; 
Bonasa, (3 sp.), north of Nearctic and iPaltearctic regions ; Lago- 
fvs (6 sp.), Arctic Zone and northern parts of Nearctic and 
Palsearctic r^ons. 




(18 Genera, 76 Species.) 

GBuauAL Distribution. 

S^Mmo™ j 


^11. 1 lil^Z". 1 s^^ 

U^oss. 1 Sd^e^osb. 1 So^D-^osl 

-■-3 _ 1 



.3.4 l.a.3.4 1 

The PhasianidEe, including the Pea-fowl, Pheasants, and Jnngle- 
fowl, the Turkeys, and the Guinea-fowl, are very widely distri- 
buted, but are far more abundant than elsewhere in the Eastern 
parts of Asia, both tropical and temperate. Leaving out the African 
guinea-fowls and the American turkeys, we have 13 genera and 
63 species belonging to the Oriental and Pal^earctic regions. 
These are grouped by Mr. ElHot (whose arrangement we mainly 
follow) in 5 sub-families, of which 3 — Pavonnise, Euplocamina), 
and Gallinse — are chiefly Oriental, while the Lophophomije and 
Phasianinfe are mostly PalEearotic or from the highlands on the 



borders of the two regions. The genera adopted hy Mr. ElHot in 
his Monograph are the following :— 

Pavokin*, 4 genera. — Favo (2 sp.), Himalayas to Ceylon, 
Siam, to South-west China and Java ; Argmianm (4 sp.), Siam, 
Malay Peninsula, and Borneo (Plate IX. Vol. I. p. 339) ; Paly- 
plectron (5 sp.), Upper Assam to South-west China and Sumatra; 
Orossoptilon (4 sp.), Thibet and Korth China. (Plate IIL Vol. 
I. p. 226.) 

LoPHOPHOEiN^, 4 genera. — Zophophorus (3 sp.). High woody 
region of Himalayas from Cashmere to West China ; Tetraophasis 
(I sp.), East Thibet; C&nornis{5 sp.). Highest woody Himalayas 
from Cashmere to Bhotan and Western China (Plate VII. Vol I. 
p. 331) ; Pucrada (3 sp.), Lower and High woody Himalayas 
from the Hindoo Koosh to North-west China. 

Phasianin.^, 2 genera. — Phasianus (12 sp,). Western Asia to 
Japan and Formosa, south to neai Canton and Yunan, and the 
Western Himalayas, north to the Altai Mountains ; Tkatimalea 
(3 sp.). North-western China and Mongolia. (Plate IIL Vol. I. 
p. 226.) 

Edplocamin^, 2 genera. — Ev/plocamus (12 sp.), Cashmere, 
aloi^ Southern Himalayas to Siam, South China and Formosa, 
and to Sumatra and Borneo ; Xtkaginis (2 sp.), High Himalayas 
from Nepal to Korth-west China. 

Gallin-e, 1 genus. — Gallus (4 sp.). Cashmere to Hainan, 
Ceylon, Borneo, Java, and eastwards to Celebes and Timor. (Cen- 
tral India, Ceylon, and East Java, have each a distinct species of 

Meleagrin^, 1 genus. — Meleagris (3 sp.). Eastern and 
Central United States and south to Mexico, Guatemala and 

AGELASriH^, 2 genera. — Phasidus (I sp.). West Africa; 
Agelastes (1 sp.). West Africa. 

NtTMlDlNj^, 2 genera. — AcrijlHum (1 ap.), West Africa ; Mi- 
mida (9 sp.), Ethiopian region, east to Madagascar, south to 
Natal and Great Fish Elver. 


-^TUENICID^. (2 Genera, 24 Species.) 


\ — a —a i.a.3.4 1.2. 3. .4-1, 2— — 

The TumicidEe are small Quail-like birds, supposed to have 
remote affinities with the American Tinamous, and with suffi- 
cient distinctive peculiarities to constitute a separate family. 
They range over the Old World, from Spain all through Africa 
and Madagascar, and over the whole Oriental region to Formosa, 
and then north again to Pekin, as well as south-eastward to Aus- 
tralia and Tasmania. The genus Tumix (23 sp.), has the range 
of the family; Ortyxelos {1 sp.), inhabits Senegal; but the 
latter genus may not belong to this family. 

Family 90.— MEGAPODIID^. (4 Genera, 20 Species.) 
Gbnkril Distbibutiok, 

The MegapodiidEe, or Mound-makers and Brush-turkeys, are 
generally dull-coloured birds of remarkable habits and economy, 
which have no near allies, but are supposed to have a remote 
affinity with the South American Curassows. They are highly 
characteristic of the Australian region, extending into almost 
every part of it except New Zealand and the remotest Pacific 
islands, and only sending two species beyond its hmits, — a 
Megapodius in the Philippine Islands and North-west Borneo, 
and another in the Nicobar Islands, separated by about 1,800 
miles from its nearest ally in Lombok. The Philippine species 
oifers little difficulty, for these birds are found on the smallest 



islands and sand-banks, and can evidently pass over a few miles 
of sea with ease ; but the Nicobai- bird is a very different case, 
because none of the numerous intervening islands offer a single 
example of the family. Instead of being a well-marked and 
clearly differentiated form, as we should expect to iind it if its 
remote and isolated habitat were due to natural causes, it so 
nearly resembles some of the. closely-allied species of the Moluc- 
cas and New Guinea, that, had it be«n found with them, it would 
hardly have been thought specifically extinct. I therefore 
believe that it is probably an introduction by the Malays, and 
that, owing to the absence of enemies and general suitability of 
conditions, it has thriven in the islands and has become slightly 
differentiated in colour from the parent stock. The following is 
the distribution of the genera at present known : — 

Talegailus (2 sp.). New Guinea and East Australia ; Megace- 
phalon (1 sp.). East Celebes ; Lipoa (1 sp.). South Australia ; 
Merjapodms (16 sp.), PLOippine Islands and Celebes, to Timor, 
North Australia, New Caledonia, the Marian and Samoa Islands, 
and probably every intervening island, — also a species (doubtfully 
indigenous) in the Nicobar Islands. 

Family 91.— CEACID^. (12 Genera, 53 Species.) 

Genekal DisiRmuiiON. 


1 Nl»KC1 




S ™-" 


-2.3 - 


- 1 1 1 




(Messrs. Sclater and Salvin's arrangement is here followed). 

The Ci-acidse, or Curassows and Guaas, comprise the latest 
and handsomest game-bird§ of the Neotropical region, where 
they take the place of the grouse and pheasants of the Old 
World. They are almost all forest-dwellers, and are a strictly 
Neotropical family, only one species just entering the Nearctic 
region as far as New Mexico, They extend southward to Para- 
guay and the extreme south of Brazil, but none are found in the 


CHAP, xvm.] BIKDS. 343 

Antilles, nor west of the Andes south of the bay of GuayaquiL 
The sub-families and genera are as follows : — 

Gracing 4 genera. — Crax (8 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay 
(Plate XV., Vol. II. p. 28) ; Nothoorax (1 sp.), Guiana, Upper 
Eio Negro, and Upper Amazon ; Paiixi (1 sp.), Guiana to 
Venezuela; Mitua (2 sp.), Guiana and Upper Amazon. 

Pknblopinje, 7 genera. — Stegnolcema (1 sp.), Columbia and 
Ecuador; Penelope (14 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay and to western 
slope of Ecuadorian Andes ; Penelojnna (1 sp.), Guatemala ; 
Pipile (3 sp.), Venezuela to Eastern BrazQ; AbvmHa (1 sp), 
Columbia ; Chamcepetes (2 sp.), Costa Pica to Peru ; Ortalida 
(18 sp.), New Mexico to Paraguay, also Tobago. 

Oeeofhasin^, 1 genus. — Oreopjmsis (1 sp.), Guatemala. 

It thus appears that the Cracinse are coniiiied to South America 
east of the Andes, except one species in Central America; 
whereas nine Penelopina; and Oreophasis are found north of 
Panama. The species of the larger genera are strictly repre- 
sentative, each having its own distinct geographical area, so that 
two species of the same genus are rarely or never found in 
the same locahty. 

Family 92.— TINAMIDiE. (9 Genera, 39 Species.) 

General Disteibution. 


.SiZlS.. £=S=. 



i.a.3 - 



The Tinamous are a very remarkable family of birds, with the 
general appearance of partridges or hemipodes, but with the tail 
either very small oy entirely wanting. They differ greatly in 
their organization from any of the Old World Gallinte, and ap- 
proach, in some respects, the Struthiones or Ostrich tribe. They 
are very terrestrial in their habits, inhabiting the forests, open 
plains, and mountains of the Neotropical region, from Patagonia 
and Chili to Mexico ; but, like the Cracidse, they are absent from 
the Antilles. Their colouring is very sober and protective, as is 
the case with so many ground-birds, and they are seldom adorned 

Vol. II.— 23 



with crests or other oraameutal plumes, so prevalent in the order 
to which they belong. The sub-families and genera, according 
to the arrangement of Messrs. Sclater and Salvin, are as 
follows : — 

TiNAMlN^, 7 genera. — Tinamus (7 sp.), Mexico to Paraguay; 
Nothocercus (3 sp.), Costa Eica to Venezuela and Ecuador ; Grypt- 
urus (16 sp,), Mexico to Paraguay and Bolivia ; RhynchoHs (2 
sp.), Bolivia and South Brazil to La Plata; Nothtrproda (4 sp.), 
Ecuador to Bolivia and Chili ; liothura (i sp.), Braj;il and Bolivia 
to Patagonia ; Taoniscus (1 sp.), Brazil to Paraguay. 

TlNAMOTiN-ffil, 2 genera, — Calodromas (1 ap,), La Plata and 
Patagonia ; Tinamotis (1 ap.}, Andes of Peru and Bolivia. 

General Eemarks on the Distribution of Qallinm. 

Thereareahout400 known species of Gallinaceous birds grouped 
into 76 genera, of which no less than 65 are each restricted 
to a single region. The Tetraonidse are the only cosmopolitan 
family, and even these do not extend into Temperate South Ameri- 
ca, and are very poorly represented in Australia. The Cracidfjc 
and Tinamidffi are strictly Keotropical, the Megapodudse almost 
as strictly Australian. There remains the extensive family of the 
Phasianidfe, which offers some interesting facts. We have first 
the well-marked sub-families of the Numidinse and Meleagrinte, 
confined to the Ethiopian and Nearctie regions respectively, and 
we find the remaining five sub-families, comprising about 60 
species, many of them the most magnificent of known birds, 
spread over the Oriental and the south-eastern portion of the 
Palsearctic regions. This restriction is remarkable, since there 
is no apparent cause in chmate or vegetation why pheasants 
should not be found wild throughout southern Europe, as they 
were during late Tertiary^and Post- Tertiary times. We have also 
to notice the remarkable absence of the Pheasant tribe from 
HindoStan and Ceylon, where the peacock and jungle-fowl are 
their sole representatives. These two forms also alone extend 
to Java, whereas in the adjacent islands of Borneo and Sumatra 
■we have Argusianm, Polyplectron, and Euplocanius. The com- 
mon jungle-fowl (the origin of our domestic poultry) is the only 


[I.J BIKDS. 345 

IS which enters the Australian region as far as Celebes and 
Timor, and another species {Gallus ceneus) as far as Flores, and 
it is not improbable that these may have been introduced by man 
and become wild. 

We have very little knowledge of the extinct forms of Gallinse, 
but what we have assures us of their high antiquity, since we 
find such distinct groups as the jungle-fowl, partridges, and 
Pierodes, represented in Europe in , the Miocene period ; while 
the Turkey, then as now, appears to have been a special American 


FAMlLy 93.— OPISTHOCOMIDiE. (1 Genua, 1 Species.) 


The Hoazin (Opistkocomus cristatus) is the sole representative 
of this family and of the order Opisthocomi. It inhabits the 
eastern side of Equatorial America in Guiana and the Lower 
Amazon ; and at Para is called " Cigana " or gipsy. It is a 
large, brown, long-legged, weakly-formed and loosely-crested 
bird, having such anomalies of structure that it is impossible 
to class it along with any other family. It is one of those 
survivors, which tell us of extinct groups, of whose past existence 
we should otherwise, perhaps, remain for ever ignorant. 


Family 94.— VULTUEID^. (10 Genera, 25 Species.) 

General Disteibittion. 

Neotropical | Heikctio 


l.a.3.4 1 


i.a.3.4l i.a.3- i.a.3^ 



Vultures range over all tlie great contiuents south of tlie Arctic 
Circle, being only absent from the Australian region, the Malay- 
Islands, Ceylon, and Madagascar. The Old and New World 
forms axe very distinct, belonging to two well-marked divisions, 
oftea ranked as families. The distribution of the genera is as 
follows-: — 

Sub-family I. Vtjlttjrin^ (6 genera, 16 species), confined to 
the Old World. — VuUur (1 sp.), Spain and North Africa through 
Nepal to China north of Nihgpo ; Gyps (5 sp.), Europe south of 
59°, Africa, except the western sub- region, India, Siam,.and 
Northern China; Pseudogyps (2 sp.), North-east Africa and 
Senegal, India and Burmah; Otogyps (2 sp.). South Europe, 
North-east and South Africa, India, and Siam; Lophogyps (1 
8p.), North-east and South Africa and Senegal; Neophron (4 
sp.). South Europe, India and the greater part of Africa. 

Sub-family II. Saecorhamphin.*! (4 genera, 9 species), cou- 
iined to the New World, — SarcorJiamphus (2 sp.), " The Condor," 
Andes of South America, and southern extremity below 41° south 
latitude ; Gathartes (1 sp.), America, from 20° south latitude to 
Trinidad and Mexico ; Gatharistes (1 sp.), America from 40° north 
to 40° south latitude, but not on Pacific coast of "United States ; 
PseudogrypMs (5 sp.). South America and Falkland Islands, and 
to 49° north latitude iu North America, also Cuba and Jamaica. 

Family 95.— SEEPENTAEIID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

General Distributiun. 

The singular Secretary Bird (Serprntarim) is found over a 
lai-ge part of Africa. Its position is uncertain, as it has affinities 
both with the Accipitres, through Polyhoroides (?) and with 
Gariama, which we place near the Bustards. fPIate IV. Vol. I. 
p. 261.) 






l^Z'!o^. 8«B^. 

;=.. 1 B?™= 1 .s-=. 1 ,?.=:l, I £=. 


The Falconida, including the various groups of Hawks, 
Kites, Buzzards, Eagles, and Falcons, are absolutely cosmopolitan, 
ranging far into the arctic zone and visiting the most remote 
oceanic islands. They are abundant in all the great eontinenta 
and larger islands, preferring open to woody regions. They aie 
divided into several sub-families, the range of some of which are 
restricted. For this family as well as the preceding I follow the 
arrangement of Mr. Sharpe's British Miiseum Catalogue, and shall 
give the approximite distribution of each sub-family, as well as 
of the se\ ei-al genera 

Sub family I Polybosin-^; (2 genera, 10 species), the N'eo- 
tropical region with California and Florida, Tropical and South 
Africa — Polyborus (2 sp.). South America, and to California and 
Florida, Ihybtet (8 sp.), Tierra del Fuego to Honduras and 

Canatna and Serpentaritis, which Mr. Sharpe puts here, are 
so anomalous that I think it better to class them in separate 
families — Serpentariidaj among the Accipitres, and Cariamidse 
near the Bustards. 

Sub-family II. Accipitrin^ (10 genera, 87 species). — Cosmopo- 
litan. — Po/;/toroj(?6s (2 sp.),Africa and Madagascar ;C-i?-(iMs(15 sp.), 
Old and New Worlds, widely scattered, but absent from Eastern 
Equatorial America, and the Malay Archipelago except Celebes 
Micrastwr (7 sp.), and Geranospim (2 sp.). Tropical parts of Weo- 
tropical region ; Vrotriorehis (I sp.), West Africa ; Erythrocnemo 
(1 sp.), Chili and La Plata to California and Texas ; Melierax (5 
sp,), Africa except West African sub-region ; Astw (30 ap.), cos. 
mopolitan, except the Temperate South American sub-region 


3i8 GEOGeAPHICAL ZOOLOGY. [part iv. 

! (1 sp.), Madagascar; EutriortMs (1 ap.), I 
Accipiter (23 sp.)> cosmopolitan, except Eastern Oceania. 

Sub-family III. Bdteonik^ (13 genera, 51 sp.), cosmopolitan, 
except the Malay and Pacific Islands. — Urospizias (1 sp.). 
East and Central Australia; Seterospizias (1 sp.). Tropical 
South America east of the Andes ; Tackytriorchis (2 sp,), Para- 
guay to California ; Buteo (18 sp.), cosmopolitan, except the Aus- 
tralian region and the Indo-Malayau suh-region ; ArcMMteo (4 
8p.), North America to Mexico and the cooler parts of the 
Palsearetic region; BiUeda (1 sp.), Veragua to the Amazon 
Valley ; Adurina (7 sp.), Paraguay and Bolivia to South-east 
United States ; Bumrellua (1 sp.), Brazil to Guiana ; Bvteo- 
gallus (1 sp.), Guiana and Columhia; Urubviinga (12 sp.), 
South Brazil and Bolivia to Mexico ; Barpyhaliceetus (1 sp.), 
Chili and North Patagonia to Veragua ; Mbrphnus (1 sp.), Ama- 
zonia to Panama ; Thrasaetvs (1 sp.), Paraguay and Bolivia to 

Sub-family IV. AquiliNjE (31 genera, 94 species), cosmo- 
politan. — Gy^Stus (2 sp.), south of Paltearctic region from Spain 
to North China, Abyssinia, and South Africa ; Tfroaetvs (1 sp,), 
Australia and Tasmania; Aquila (9 sp.), Nearctie, Palajarctic, 
and Ethiopian regions and India ; KisaStus (4 sp.), Africa and 
South Europe, India, Ceylon, and Australia ; ZophoiriorcMs (2 
sp.), Indo-Malay sub-region, and Bogota in South America ; 
Neopus (1 sp.), India aud Ceylon to Eurmah, Java, Celebes and 
Temate ; Spmastur (1 ap,), Guatemala to Brazil ; Spizaetus (10 
sp.). Central and South America, Africa, India, and Ceylon, to 
Celebes and New Guineaj Formosa, and Japan; LopkoaStus (1 
sp,), all Africa ; Asturimda (1 sp.), Africa, except extreme south; 
fferpeiotheres (1 sp.), Bolivia and Paraguay to Southern Mexico ; 
DryotHorctm (1 sp.). West Africa ; Circaetus (5 sp.) Africa to 
Central Europe, the Indian Peninsula, Timor ; SpHomis (6 sp.). 
Oriental region and Celebes ; Butasiur {4 sp.). Oriental region to 
New Guinea and North-east Africa; Hdotarsus (2 sp,), Africa 
south of the Sahara ; ffalimeius (7 ap.), cosmopolitan, except the 
Neotropical region ; Gi/fohierax (1 ap.). West Africa and Zan- 
zibar ; Haliastur (2 ap.), Indian Peninsula to Ceylon, New Cale- 


OHAP. sviii.j BIRDS. 349 

donia, and Australia ; Naudents (= Elanoides) (1 sp.), Brazil to 
Southern United States ; Manoides (= Nauclems) (1 sp.}, Wes- 
tern and North-eastern Africa ; Milims (G sp,), the Old World 
and Australia ; Lopkoictima (1 sp.), Australia; Rostrhamm (3 
sp.), Antilles and Florida to Brazil and Peru ; Leptodon (4 
sp.), Central America to South Brazil aud Bolivia ; Gypoidima 
(1 sp.). South and West Australia ; Elanus (5 sp.), Africa, India, 
and Malay Archipelago to Australia, South America to California ; 
Gainpsonyx (1 sp.), Trinidad to Brazil ; Hmicopemis (1 sp.), 
Papuan Islands ; Mackcerhamphus (2 sp.), South-west Africa, 
Madagascar, and Malacca ; Femis (3 sp.), Pal^arctic, Oriental, 
and Ethiopian regions. 

Suh-family V, Palconik^ (11 genera, 80 species), cosmopolitan, 
— Baza (10 sp.), India and Ceylon to the Moluccas and North 
Australia, West Coast of Africa, Natal, and Madagascar ; Har- 
pagus (3 sp.). Central America to Brazil and Peru ; Idinia (2 sp.), 
Bi'aJiil to Southern United States ; ffierax (=Microhierax, Sharpe), 
(4 sp.), Eastern Himalayas to Borneo and Philippines ; Polia- 
hierax (2 sp.), East Africa and Burmah ; Spmaptei-yx (1 sp.}, La 
Plata ; Smpa (1 sp.). New Zealand and the Auckland Islands ; 
Falco (27 sp.), cosmopolitan, except the Pacific Islands ; ITurofaleo 
(6 sp.), Nearctic and Pahearctic regions; Hieracidea (2 sp.), 
Australia ; Cerchneis (22 sp.), cosmopolitan, except Oceania. 

Eamily 97.- 

-PANDIONID^.. (2 Genera, 3 Species.) 

Gb.s-eral Disteibutioh, 




-2.3.4 1 .a. 3. 4 l.a..3.4 1.8.3. 4 

The Pandionid^, or Fishing Hawks, are universally distributed, 
with the exception of the Southern Temperate parts of South 
America. The genera are : — 

Pandion (1 sp.), the range of the entire family ; PoUoaefm (2 
sp.), India through Malay Archipelago to Celebes and Sandwich 



Family 98.- 


(23 Genera, 180 



Gbkbral Distbibution. 

£== 1 .S=. 1 l,*ir=." 

.S".'Z™, i a?.'!" 

[™3. 1 SU^ 

= l.S,3.41.S.3.41.a.a.4 1.2. 3. 41. 2. 3. 4 

The Strigidfe, or Owls, form an extensive and well-known 
family of nocturnal birds, which, although invariably placed next 
the Hawks, are now believed to be not very closely allied to the 
other Aecipiti'es. They range over the whole globe, extending to 
the extreme polar regions and to the remotest oceanic islands. 
Their classification is very unsettled, and we therefore place the 
genera, for convenience, in the order in which they follow each 
other in the Hand List of Birds. Those adopted by most orni- 
thologists are the following :— 

Surnia (1 sp.), the Arctic regions of both hemispheres ; Nydea 
(l^p.). South Carolina to Greenland and Northern Europe; 
Athene (40 sp.), the Eastern hemisphere to Hew Zealand and the 
Solomon Islands ; Ninox (7 sp.), the Oriental region. North China 
and Japan; Qlazicidimn (7 sp.). Neotropical region, California, 
and Oregon, Europe to North China ; Micrathene (1 sp.), Mexico 
and Arizona ; Phokoptynx (2 sp.). Neotropical region, Texas, and 
North-west America; Subo (16 sp.), universally distributed, ex- 
cluding the Australian region ; Ketupa (3 sp.), the Oriental 
region, Palestine ; Scotopdia (2 sp.), "West and South Africa ; 
iScops (30 sp.), universally distributed, excluding Australia and 
Pacific Islands ; Gymnogla'ux (2 sp.), Antilles; Lophosirix (2 sp.), 
Lower Amazon to Guatemala ; Symm-m, (22 sp.}, all regions but 
the Australian; Oiccaha (10 sp.), Paraguay to Mexico ; Nyctala- 
tmm (1 sp.), Colimibia; Pulsairix (2 sp.), Brazil and Peru 
to Guatemala ; Asia (6 sp.), all regions but the Australian, 
Sandwich Islands; Jfydalops (1 sp.), Cuba and Mexico to Brazil 
and Monte Video ; Psmdoseops (1 sp.), Jamaica ; Mydala (4 sp.), 
the North Temperate zone; Strix (18 sp.), universally distri- 
buted ; Phodilus (I sp.), Himalayas and Malaya. 


CHAP, xviii.] BIRDS. 351 

In Mr. Sharpe's Catalogue (published while this work was 
passing through the press) the genera of Owls are reduced to 19, 
arranged in two families — Strigidte, containing our last two 
genera, and Biibonidffi, comprising the remainder. The species 
are increased to 190; but some genera are reduced, as Strix, 
which is said to contain only 5 s 

General Remarks on, the JMstnhution of the Acdpitres. 
The Birds of Prey, are so widely distributed over the world's 
surface that their general distribution calls for few remarks. Of 
the four families aU but one are cosmopolites, Vultures alone being 
absent from the Australian region, as well as from Indo-Malaya 
and Madagascar. If we take the aub-families, we iind that each 
region has several which aire coniined to it. The only parts of 
the world where there is a marked deficiency of Accipitres is in 
the islands of the Pacific ; and it may be noted, as a rule, that 
these birds are more abundant in continents than in islands. 
There is not so much difference between the number of Birds of 
Prey in tropical and temperate r^ions, as is found in most 
other groups of laud-birds. North America and Europe have 
about 60 species each, while India has about 80, and South 
America about 120. The tot&l number of Accipitres is 550 
. in 104 genera, and 4 (or perhaps more properly 5) 
In this estimate I have not included the Serpen- 
tariidffi, containing the Secretary Bird of Africa, as there is 
some doubt whether it really belongs to the Order. 


Tamily 99.— RALLIDiE. (18 Genera, 153 Species.) 

Geneeal Distribution. 


The Eails are among the most widely distributed families of 
jirds, many of the genera being cosmopolitan, and several of the 



3 ranging over half the globe. They are foLind in many re- 
mote islands ; and in aoine of these — as the Gallinvia of Tristan 
d'Aeunha, and the Notorms of Lord Howe's Island and Kew Zea- 
land, — they have lost the power of flight. The classification of 
the EallidEe is not satisfactory, and the following enumeration of 
the genera must only he taken as affording a provisional sketch 
of the distribution of the group :— 

Rallus (18 8p.), Porsana (24 ap.), Gallinula (17 sp.), and 
FidicailQ sp.), have a world-wide rai^e; Ortygometra (1 sp.), 
ranges over the whole North Temperate zone ; Porphyrio (14 sp.), 
is more especially Oriental and Australian, but oconrs also in 
South America, in Africa, and in South Europe; Eulabeomis 
(15 sp.), is Ethiopian, Malayan, and Australian; Himantomis (1 
sp.), is Weat African only; Arartiides (24 sp.), is North and 
South American ; BalUna (16 sp.), is Oriental, but ranges east- 
ward to Papua; Sabroptila (1 sp,),is confined to the Moluccas; 
Ihreudiastes (1 sp.), the Samoa Islands ; Tribonyx (4 sp.), is 
Australian, and has recently been foimd also in New Zealand ; 
Ocydromus (4 sp.) ; Notomis (2 sp.), (Plate XITI. Vol. I. p. 455) ; 
and Oabalus (1 sp.), are peculiar to the New Zealand group. 

The sub-family, HeliomithinEe (sometimes classed as a distinct 
family) consists of 2 genera, HeKomis (1 sp.), confined to the 
Neotropical region ; and Podica (4 sp.), the Ethiopian regif n ex- 
cluding Madagascar, and with a species (perhaps forming fuother 
genus) in Borneo. 

Sxtinct Mallidce. — Remains of some species of this family have 
been found in the Mascarene Islands, and historical evidence 
shows that they have perhaps been extinct little more than a 
century. They helong to the genus Pulica, and to two extinct 
genera, Aphanapteryx and Hryihromachus. The Aphanapteryx 
was a large bird of a reddish colour, with loose plumage, and 
perhaps allied to Ocydromtis. Srythromackus was much smaller, 
of a grey-and-white colour, and is said to have lived chiefly on 
the e^s of the land-tortoises. (See Ibis, 1869, p. 256 ; and 
Proc. Zool. 8oe., 1875, p. 40.) 


Family 100.— SCOLOPACID^ (21 Genera, 121 Species.) 
Gbsebal Distribution. 

The Scolopacidfe, comprehending the Snipes, Sandpipers, Cur- 
lews, and allied genera, are perhaps as truly cosmopolitan as 
any family of birds, ranging to the extreme north and visiting 
the remotest islands. The genera of universal distribution are 
the following : — 

Numennts (16 sp.) ; Idmosa (6 sp.) ;" Totanus (12 sp.) ; Trin- 
goides,(6 sp.) ; Ilimantopus (6 sp.) ; Tringa (20 sp.); and Oalli- 
nago (24 sp.). Those which have a more or less restricted dis- 
tribution are : — 

Ibidorhyneha (1 sp.). Central Asia and the Himalayas (Plate 
VII. "Vol. I. p. 331) ; Helodwmas (1 sp.), Paltearetic region and 
North India ; Terekia (1 sp.). East Pahearctic, wandering to 
India and Australia ; Becurvirostra (6 sp.), Nearctic region to 
the High Andes, South Palfearctic, East and South Africa, Hin- 
dostan and Australia; Mieropelama (1 sp.). North America to 
ChUi ; Machetes (1 sp.), Palsearctic region and Hindostan 
(Plate I. Vol. I. p. 195) ; Uretmetes (3 sp.), Nearctic and Neo- 
tropical ; Eurinorhynchiis (1 sp.). North-east Asia and Bengal ; 
Galidris (1 sp,), all regions but Australian ; Macrorhamphus (3 
sp.), Palcearctic and Nearctic, visits Brazil and India; Soolc^ax 
(4 sp.), the whole Palfearctic region, to India, Java, and Australia ; 
Philokda (1 sp.). East Nearctic ; Ehynckcea (4 sp.), Ethiopian and 
Oriental, Australia, and Temperate South America ; Phalaropus 
(3 sp.), North Temperate zone, and West Coast of America to 



Family 101.— CHTONIDID^. d Genus, 2 Species.) 
Gensbai. DisTBinrTiON. 

The Sheath-bills, Chionis (2 sp.), are curious wliite birds, whose 
thick bill lias a horny sheath at the base. Their nearest ally is 
Seemaiopus, a genus of CharadriidEe. These birds are confined 
to the Antarctic Islands, especially the Falkland Islands, the 
Crozets and Kerguelen's Land. 

Family 102.— THINOCORTT)^. (2 Genera, 6 Species.) 
Gehebal Distbibittion. 


eS;s"s., sSssz 

' 1 

The Thinocoridffi, or QuaU-snipes, are small birds, confined to 
Temperate South America. They have much the appearance of 
Quails but are more nearly allied to Plovers. The two genera 
are; — 

Attagis (4 sp.), Falkland Islands, Straits of Magellan, Chili, 
Bolivia, and the High Andes of Peru and Ecuador ; Thinecorvs 
(2 sp.). La Plata, Chili, and Peru. (Plate XVI. Vol. IL p. 40.) 

Family 103.— PAERIDiE. (2 Genera, 11 Species.) 


1. a. 3. 41. 2-3. 41.2- 


CHAP, xvjii.] BIRDS. 365 

The Parridai, or Jacanas, are remarkable long-toed birds, often 
of elegant plumage, frequentii^ swamps and raarshea, and walk- 
ing on the floating leaves of aquatic plants. They are found in 
all the tropica. Pa?Ta(10sp.), has tbe distribution of the family; 
Hydruphasianus (1 sp.), ia confined to the Oriental region. 

Tamilt 104,— GLAEE0LIDJ5. (3 Genera, 20 Species.) 

General Distribution. 



1 PALfiiKcno 1 Ethiopian 




1 a 

1 1 

This family, comprising the Pratincoles and Coursers, is 
universally distributed over the Old "World and to Australia. 

Glareola (9 sp.), has the distribution of the family; Pluvia- 
wm (1 sp.), is confined to North Africa; Cwsorius (10 sp,), 
ranges over Africa, South Europe and India. 

The position of the genus Glareola is uncertain, for though 
generally classed here. Prof. Lilljeborg considers it to be an 
aberrant form of the Caprimulgidfe ! It differs, in its insecti- 
vorous habits and in many points of external structure, from all 
its allies, and should probably form a distinct family. 

Family 105.— CHAEADIIDiE. (19 Genera, 101 Species.) 



l.B.3.4. I1.2.3.4 I 

The extensive family of the Plovers and their numerous allies, 
ranges over the whole globe. The genera now usually admitted 
into this family are the following : — 

(Edicnemus (9 sp,), is only absent from North America ; 
j^saom (2 sp.), India to Ceylon, Malay Islands and Australia ; 



Vandlus (3 sp.), Paltearctic and Neotropical regions ; Chcettisia 
(15 sp.), the whole Eastern Hemisphere; Erythrogonys (1 sp.), 
Australia ; Moplopterws (10 sp.), widely scattered, but absent 
from North America ; Sguatwrola (1 sp.), all the regions ; Cha- 
radrius (14 sp.), cosmopolitan ; Eudroriiias (6 sp.), Eastern Hemi- 
sphere and South Temperate America ; ^gialitis (22 sp.), cos- 
mopolitan ; Oreaphilv^ (1 sp.). South Temperate America ; 
Tkinomis (2 sp.), New Zealand; Anarhynchm (1 sp.}, New 
Zealand (Plate XIII. Vol I. p. 455) ; Htmnatc^v^ (9 sp.), cos- 
mopolitan ; StrepsUas (2 sp.) almost cosmopolitan ; Afhriza, (1 
sp.), West Coast of America ; Pluvianelliis (1 sp.). Straits of 
Magellan; Dramas (1 sp.), India, Madagascar, and North-east 
Africa; Fedionomus (1 sp.), Australia. This last genus has 
usually been placed with the Turnicidfe. 

Family 106.— OTIDTD^,. (2 Genera, 26 Species.) 


The Otididfe, or Bustards, occur in all parts of the Old World 
and Australia where there are open tracts, being only absent from 
Madagascar and the Malay Archipelago. 

Otis (2 sp.), ranges over most of the Palsearctic region ; while 
Eujtodotis {24> sp.), has the rangeof the family, but is mostabund- 
antln the Ethiopian region, which contains three-fourths of the 
whole number of species. 

Family 107.— GRUIDJi:. (3 Genera, 16 Species.) 
General Distribution. 

l.a.3.4 l.a 

,3-1 1.2.3— ' - 3 


CHAP. XTii!.] BIRDS. 357 

The Gruidffi, or Cranes, are found in all the regions except the 

Orus (12 sp.) inhabits the southern and western United States, 
the whole Pahearctie region, South-east Africa, India, and Aus- 
tralia; Anthropoides (2 sp.), Europe, North and South Africa and 
India; BaUanca (2 sp.), the Etliiopian region (except Madagascar). 

Family 108.— CAKIAMID^. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 


The genus Gariama (2 sp.), consists of remarbahle crested hirds 
inhabiting the mountains and open plains of Brazil and La Plata. 
In the British Museum Catalogue of the Birds of Prey, they are 
classed as aberrant Faleonidfe, but their anomalous characters 
seem to require them to be placed in a distinct' family, which 
seems better placed among the Waders. 

Family 109.— AEAMID^. (1 Genus, 2 

General Distributi 

The Guaraiinas are birds which have somewhat the appear- 
ance of Herons, but which are usually classed with the Bails. 
They are now, however, considered to form a distinct family. 
The only genus, Arairms (2 sp.), inhabits the Neotropical region, 
from Mexico and Cuba to Central Brazil, 



Family 110.— PSOPHIID^ (1 Genus 6 Species) 

The remarkable and beautiful birds called Trumpeters, are 
confined to the various parts of the Amazon vaUey ; and it is an 
interesting fact, tlmt the range of each species appears to be 
bounded by some of the great rivers. Thus, PsopMa erepiians 
inhabits the interior of Guiana as far as the south bank of the 
Uio Negro ; on the opposite or north bank of the Kio IN'egro 
Fsophia oahroptera is found; beyond the next great rivers, Japura 
and I^a, PsopMa napemis occurs; on the south hank of the 
Amazon, west of the Madeira, we have the beautiful Psophia 
kucoplera; east of the Madeira this is replaced by Psophia 
viridis, wMe near Para, beyond the Tapajoz, Xingu and Toean- 
tins, there is another species, Psiypliia ohsetira. Other species 
may exist in the intervening river districts ; but we have here, 
apparently, a case of a number of well-marked species of birds 
capable of flight, yet with their range in certain directions 
accurately defined by great rivers, (Plate XV, Vol. II. p. 28.) 

FmiLY 111.— EURYPYGIDiE. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 


The Eurypygidie, or Sun-Eittems, are small heron-like birds 
with beautifully-coloured wings, which- frequent the muddy 
and wooded river-banks of tropical America. The only genus, 
Em-ypyga (2 sp.), ranges from Central America to Brazil, 


Pamily 112.— EHINOCHETID^ (1 Genua, 1 Species.) 


8DB-&ai10KS. BVB-BS 

The genus Ehinoehelus (-1 8p.), consists of a singular bird 
called the Kagu, which inhabits New Oaledonia, an island 
which may be placed with almost equal propriety in our 1st, 
2nd, or 3rd Australian sub-regions. It ia a bird of a bluish 
ash-colour, with a loose plumage, partaking something of the 
appearance of Kail, Plover, and Heron, but with peculiarities of 
structure which require it to be placed in a distinct family. 
Its anatomy shows that its nearest allies are the South American 
genera, Ewrypyga and Psophia. 

Family 113.— AKDEID^. (5 Genera, ( 

Geneeal Distribution. 

£".=.■: sS=., 


s™"™™, SvbT^"«1 

The well-known Herons and Bitterns are found in every 
part of the globe, and everywhere closely resemble each other. 
Omitting the minuter sub-divisions, the genera are as follows: — 

Ardea (60 sp.), cosmopolitan ; Botawus, (6 sp.), almost cos- 
mopolitan ; Tigriaoma (4 sp.), Tropical America and West Africa ; 
Byctie&rax [9 sp.), cosmopolitan ; Cancroma (1 sp.). Tropical 

Vol. it.— 24 




[fart IV. 

I'AMILY 114,- 


(6 Genera, 







itoiOMH SuB-aa 



13 3 


: „ ~ - 1, 

3 4 li 2 a 


1 1 2 


The PlfitaleidEe, including the Spoonbills and Ibises, have 
been classed either with the Herons or the Storks, but have 
most aiSnity with the latter. Though not very numeraus . they 
are found over. the greater part of the globe, except the colder 
zones and the Pacific Islands. The following is the distribu- 
tion of the genera : — 

Flatalea (6 sp.), all the wanner parts of the globe except the 
Moluccas and Pacific Islands ; Ihis (2 sp.), Temperate North 
America and Tropical South America; Fcddnellus (2 sp.), 
almost cosmopolitan; Geronticus {19 sp.), all Tropical countries 
and Temperate South America; Scopus (1 sp.), Tropical and 
South Africa; Salceniceps (1 sp.), the Upper NUe. This last 
genus the " Shoe-bird," or boat-billed heron, perhaps forms a 
distinct family. 

Family 115.— CICONIID^ {5 €enera, 20 Species.) 
General Dibtribution. 

1.2.3- 3- 1.2. 3. 41. 2. 3. 4 1.2. 3. 4 1,2 

The Ciconiidfe, or Storks, are mostly an Old World family, 
only three species inhabiting the Neotropical, and one, the 
Nearctic region. They are also absent from the islands of the 
Pacific, the Antilles, and, with one exception, from Madagascar. 
The genera are as follows : — 

I {6 sp.), ranges through the Paltearctic, Ethiopian and 


CHAP, xvm.] BIRDS. 3 

Oriental regions as far as Celebes, and in Sonth America ; Myct&r 
(4 sp,), inhabits Africa, India, Australia and the ] 
region ; Lepti^ilius (3 sp.), the Ethiopian and Oriental r 
to Java ; Tantalus (5 sp,), the Ethiopian, Oriental and Neotro- 
pical regions, and the South-east of North America; Anas- 
tonms (2 sp.), the Ethiopian region, and India to Cejlon. 

I'amily 116.— PALAMEDEID^. (2 Genera, 3 Species.) 

General Distbibutzon. 


sul«^Ks j i^i-tZZ 

^^T^l^. ^TZ,-^. i^^^l7^ 


The Palamedeidfe, or Screamers, are curious semi-aquatic 
birds of doubtful affinities, perhaps intermediate between Gal- 
linfe and Anseres. They are peculiar to South America. The 
genera are: — 

Falamedea (1 sp.), ■which inhabits the Amazon valley; 
ChauTia (2 sp.), La Plata, Brazil and Columbia 

Family 117.— PHCENICOPTEEID^. (1 Genus, 8 
Gbbehal Distrietition. 

The Flamingoes {PhwmctypUru^ seem peculiar to the Ethio- 
pian and Neotropical regions, ranging from the former into 
India and South Europe, America has four species, inhabits 
ing Chili and La Plata, the Galapagos, Mexico and the "West 
Indian islands ; the others range over all Africa, South Europe, 
India and Ceylon. These singular birds are placed by some 
authors near the Spoonbills and Ibises, by others with the 
Huxley considers them to be "completely 



intermediate between the Anserine "birds on the one side and 
the Storks and Herons on the other." The pterolysis according 
to Witzsch is " completely stork-like." 

General Bema/rhs on the Distrihviion of the Qrallm, or Wading 
and Unnnin^ Birds. 

"The Waders, as a rule, are birds of very wide distribution, 
the four Itogest families Eallid^, Scolopacidce, Charadriidse and 
Ardeidfe, being quite cosmopolitan, as are many of the genera. 
But there are also a number of small families of very 
restricted distribution, and these all occur in the two most 
isolated regions, the Neotropical and the AustraliaiL The 
Neotropical region is by far the richest in varied forms of 
"Waders, having representatives of no less than 15 out of the 19 
&milies, while 7 are altogether peculiar to it. The Australian 
"region has 11 families, with 1 peculiar. The other two tropical 
regions each possess 11 families, but none are peculiar. The 
PalEearetic region has 10, and the Nearctic 7 families. No less 
than three families — Chionididse, Thinocoridffi, and Cariamidffi — 
are confined to the Temperate regions and highlands of South 
America ; while four others, — Aramidse, Psophiidfe, Eurypygidse 
and PalamedeidE^ — are found in Tropical America only ; and 
these present such an array of peculiar and interesting forms as 
no other part of the globe can furnish. The Phcenicopteridffi or 
Flamingoes, common to the Tropical regions of Asia, Africa and 
America, but absent from Australia, is the only other feature 
of general interest presented by the distribution of the Waders. 

The Order contains about 610 species, which gives about 32 
species to each family, a smaller average than in the Gallinse 
or Accipitres, and only about one-fourth of the average number 
in the Passeres. This is partly due to the unusual number 
of very small families, and partly to the wide average range of 
the species, which prevents that specialization of forms that 
occurs in the more sedentary groups of birds. 



Family 1 1 8.— ANATID^. (40 Genera, 180 Species.) 




pALffitEctic Ethiopian OnicNTAt AuaitnT.i.N 


12 3 4 

The Anatidte, comprehending the Ducks, GeeSe, and Swans 
■with their allies, are. of such universal distrihution that there is 
probably no part of the glohe where some of them are not 
occasionally found. They are, however, most abundant in tem- 
perate and cold regions ; and, contraiy to what occurs in most 
other families, the most beautifuUy-colouied species are extra- 
tropical, and some even arctic The distribution of the genera 
is as follows : — 

Anseranas (X sp.), Australia ; Plectropterus (2 sp.), Tropical 
Africa ; Sarkidiorms (1 sp.). South America, Africa, and India ; 
Chmalopex (1 sp.), Amazonia ; Callochen (1 sp.). South Europe, 
North, East, and South Africa; Cereiypsis (1 sp.), Australia; 
Anser (13 sp.), Palfearetic and Nearctie regions to Central 
America and the Antilles ; Bemicla (12 sp.). Temperate regions 
of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres ; CMoephaga (5 sp.), 
South Temperate America and 'Aleutian Islands ; Nettapus (4 
sp.). Tropical Africa and Madagascar, India and Ceylon to 
Malaya and Australia ; Cygniis (10 sp.). Temperate regions of the 
Northern and Southern Hemispheres; Bendrocygna (10 sp.), 
Tropical and sub-tropical regions ; Tadorna (3 sp.), Palsearctic 
and Australian regions ; Oasarca (5 sp.), Palseatctic, Oriental, 
Ethiopian, and Australian regions, to Kew Zealand; Aix (2 sp.). 
Temperate North America and Eastern Asia ; Mareca (4 sp.), 
Palfearctie region. North America, Temperate South America, 
and Australia ; Dafila (3 sp.), all America and the Paltearctic 
region; Anas (16 sp.), cosmopolitan; Que.rqwdv,la (17 sp.), 



cosmopolitan ; Ghauklasmiis (2 sp.), Paltearctic region and Korth 
America; Spatula (5 sp.), all Temperate regions ; MalaeorhynchAis 
(1 sp.), Australia ; Cam?i« (1 sp.). Tropical South America; 
Branta (1 sp.), PalEearctic region and India ; Ihdigula (5 sp.). 
North Temperate regions and Mew Zealand; ^thya (5 sp.), 
Palffiarctie and Nearctic r^ions, India, Australia, and South 
Africa; Metopiana (1 sp.), South Temperate America ; Bucephala 
{4 sp.), Nearctic and Paltearctic regions ; Harelda (2 sp.), North- 
ern Palteartic and Nearetic regions ; Hymenolaimiis (1 sp.). New 
Zealand ; Camptolaiiniis {1 sp,). North-east of North America ; 
Micropterm (1 sp.), Temperate South America ; Somaieria (5 
sp,), Arctic and sub-arctic regions ; (Edemdor (5 sp.), Nearetic 
and Palsearctic regions; Biziwa (1 sp.), Australia; Tkalassomis 
(1 sp.), South Africa ; Erismat'wra (6 sp.), all America, South- 
east Europe and South Africa; Msottetta (1 sp.), Auckland 
Islands ; Merganetta (3 sp.), Andes of Columbia to Chili; Mer- 
ffus (6 sp.), Paliearctic and Nearetic regions, Brazil, and the 
Auckland Islands. 

PAjnLT 119.— LAEID^. (13 Genera, 132 

l.a.3.4- 1. a. 3. 4 1. a. 3. 4 l.S.3.4 

The Laridte, or Gulls and Terns, are true cosmopolites, in- 
habiting the shores and islands of every zone ; and most of the 
genera have also a wide range. They are therefore of little use 
in the study of geographical distribution, The genera are as 
follows : — 

Slercorarius (6 sp.), cosmopolitan, most abundant in cold and 
temperate zones; Ehodostethia (1 sp). North America; Larus 
(60 sp.), cosmopolitan ; Xmia (1 sp.). North Temperate zone ; 
Crmgrm (1 sp.), North Paeific ; Pagophila (1 sp.), Arctic seas ; 
.Eissffl (3 sp.), Arctic and Northern seas; Si&ma (36 sp.), cos- 
mopolitan ; Hydrochelidon (12 sp.). Tropical and Temperate zones; 



Qygis (1 sp.}, Indian Ocean and Tropical Pacific Islands ; Anous 
(6 sp.). Tropical and Temperate zones ; Nmnio. (1 sp.), South 
Temperate America ; Mhynchops (3 sp.), Tropical America, Africa, 
and India, 

Family 120.- 



Genera, 96 






X sS^S 

■Z^.. 1 l^iT^^. sS"r 




4 12 


12 3 4 

12 3 


The ProcellariidEe, comprising the Shearwaters, Petrels, and 
Albatrosses, are universally distributed, but some of the genera 
are local. 

Pv,ffi,nus (20 sp.), Procellaria (18 sp.), and F-ulmarus {40 sp.), 
are cosmopolitan ; Frion (5 sp.) and Peleeanoides (3 sp.), belong 
to the South Temperate and Antarctic regions; Siomedda (10 
sp.), comprises tlie Albatrosses, which are tropical, occasionally 
wandering into temperate seas. 

Family 121. 


(6 Genera, 61 


Gebbeal Distribijiioi!'. 


™™*J; 1 s^^il 

«ToH5, 1 Ijt^^^Z 1 SU^I 

Sm 1 s™"™™ 

. 1 .Z^^l^ 




The Pelecanida;, compriang the Ganuets, Pelicans, Darters, 
and Frigate-Birds, although universally distributed, are more 
abundant in tropical and temperate regions. 

Sula (8 sp.) and Phalacrocorax (35 sp.), are cosmopolitan ; 
Pelecanus (9 sp.) is tropical and temperate ; FregeUa (2 sp.) and 
Phaeton (3 sp.) are confined to Tropical seas ; Ptotus (4 sp.) to 
Tropical and warm Temperate zones. 





Family 122, 

-SPHENISCID^. (3 Genera, 18 Species,) 

Gbsbral Distribution. 



om^ Sd^^" 

Z. 1 s^-lf^r^ 1 s„=^=r.. 1 .JL^ZTS 

«s. 1 9* bCX 



) 1 3 1 


1 1 ' 1 

1 2 4 

The Penguins are entirely confined to the Antarctic and South 
Temperate regions, except two species which are found on the 
coast of Peru and the Galapagos. They are most plentiful in 
the southern parts of South America, Australia, New Zealand, 
and most of the Antarctic islands, and one or two species are 
found at the Cape of Good Hope. The genera as given in the 
Sand List are : — 

Sphmisms (1 sp.). South Africa and Cape Horn; Eudyptes (15 
ap.), with the range of the family ; Aptenodytes (2 sp.), Ant- 
arctic Islands. 

Family 123.— C0LYMBIDJ3. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) 


The Northern Divers are coniined to the Arctic and North 
Temperate Seas. The only genus, Oolymhus, has one species 
coniined to the West Coast of North America, the others being 
common to the two northern continents. 

Family 124— PODICIPID^. (2 Genera, 33 Species.) 

General DisTRiBrTioB. 

zs=. [£-;;=. 


12 3 4 

1 1 


CHAP, xviii.] BIRDa 367 

The Grebes are universally distrituted. The genera are 
Podice^ps (26 sp.), cosmopolitan ; and Podilymhus (2 sp.), confined 
to North and South America, Some ornithologists group these 
birds with the Colymbi(i£e. 

]?AMiLY 125.~ALCID^ (7 Genera, 2 
General DisTniBuTioif. 

The Alcidffi, comprising the Auks, Guillemots, and Puffins, 
are confined to the North Temperate and Arctic regions, where 
they represent the Penguins of the Antarctic lands. One of 
the moat -remarkable of these birds, the Great Auk, formerly 
abundant in the North Atlantic, is now extinct. The genera are 
as follows : — 

Aha (2 sp.), North Atlantic and Arctic seas ; Fratercida (4 
sp.), Arctic and North Temperate zones; Oeratorhina (2 sp.), 
North Pacific ; Simorhynchus (8 sp.). North Pacific ; Brachy- 
rhamfhus (3 sp.). North Pacific to Japan and Lower California; 
TJria (8 sp.), Arctic and North Temperate zones ; Mefgulus (1 
sp.). North Atlantic and Arctic Seas. The last three genera 
constitute the family Uriidfe, of some ornithologists. 

General Remarks on the Distribution of the Anseres. 
The Anseres, or Swimmers, being truly aquatic birds, possess, 
as might be expected, a large number of cosmopolitan families 
and genera. No less than 5 out of tlie 8 famihes have a world- 
wide distribution, and the others ai'e characteristic either of the 
North or the South Temperate zones. Hence arises a pecu- 
liarity of distribution to he found in no other order of birds ; 
the Temperate being richer than the Tropical regions. The Ne- 
arctio and Palaearctic regions each have seven families of Anseres, 
two of which, the Colymbidfe and Alcidje, are peculiar to them. 
The Ethiopian, Australian, and Neotropical regions, which all 



extend into the South Temperate zone, have six families, with one 
peculiar to them ; while the Oriental region, which is wholly 
tropical, possesses the five cosmopolitan families only. 

There are about 78 genera and 552 species of Anseres, giving 
69 species to a family, a high number compared with the 
Waders, and due to there being only one very small family, the 
Colymbidie. The distribution of the Anseres, being more deter- 
mined by temperature than by barriers, the great regions which 
are so well indicated by the genera and families of most other 
orders of birds, hardly limit these, except in the case of the 
genera of Anatidfe. 

Order X.—8TMUTEI0NES. 

Family 126.- 

-STRUTHIONID^. (2 Genera, 4 Species.) 

Gembbal DisTKiBtrnuN. 

sXiZom 1 s™ 

™o»^| s''u^™oZ| s™"bZo™.[ sJSlf^'^sJ #™-«t""o^ 

,___ |__ 

-|-=-|-'-|— -I- — 

The Ostriches consist of two genera, sometimes formed into 
distinct families, StruiMo (2 sp.) inhabits the desert regions of 
North, East, and South Africa, as well as Arabia and Syria. It 
therefore just enters the Paltearctic region. Rhea (3 sp.) inhabits 
Temperate South America, from Patagonia to the confines of 

Family 127.- 

-CASUAEIIT)^. (2 Genera, 11 Species., 

Gbnuksl Distbibutjon. 


OTio 1 PiLffiinCTic 1 Ethiopian 1 OBiESTit AusTBALtAN 

1 1 1 1 . „ 


1 1 i 1 

The Cassowaries and Emens are confined to the Australian 
r^ion. The Emeus, Brom^tis {2 ap.), are found only on the 


CHAP, xviii.] BIRDS. 369 

main-land of Australia (Plate XII. Vol. I. p. 441). Casuarius 
(9 sp.) inhabits tlie islands from Ceram to New Britain, with 
one species in North Austiulia ; it is most abundant in the 
Papuan I 

Pamily 128.— APTEEYOIDiE. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) 

Gebeeal DiHraiBUTioH. 



— n — 1— -1— H-— 1- 

- 4 

The species of Afteryx are entirely confined to the two larger 
islands of New Zealand. They are supposed to have some 
remote aflinity with Ocydrorrms, a genus of Bails peculiar to 
Australia and New Zealand ; but they undoubtedly form one of 
the most remarkable groups of living birds (Plate XIIL Vol. I. 
p. 445), 

Stnitkious Birds recently extinct. 
A number of sub-fossil remains of birds, mostly lai^e and 
some of gigantic size, having affinities to the Apteryx. and, less 
closely, to the Cassowaries, have been discovered in New 
Zealand. These are all classed by Professor Owen in the 
genus Dinornis and family Dinomithidm ; but Dr. Haast, from 
the study of the rich collections in the Canterbury (New 
Zealand) Museum, is convinced that they belong to two distinct 
families and several genera. His arrangement is as follows. 
(See Ibis, 1874, p. 209). 

Family 129.— DINOKNITHID^. (2 Genera, 7 Species.) 

Dinornis (5 sp.) ; Meionomis (2 sp.). 

Thfse had no hind toe, and include the lai^est species, Pro- 
fessor Newton thinks that they were absolutely wingless, being 
the only birds in which the fore limbs are entirely wantii:^. 



Family 130.— PALAPTEEYGIDiE. (2 Genera, 4 Species.) 

Pala^teryx (2 ap.) ; Miiryapteryx (2 sp.). 

These had a well-developed hind toe, and mdimentaiy wings. 

Familt 131.— .^PyOENITHID^. (1 Geniis, 3 Species.) 

A g^antic Sfcmthious bird {j^pyomis), belonging to a distinct 
family, inhabited Madagascar. 

It was iirst made known by its enormous eggs, eight times 
the bulk of those of the ostrich, -which were found in a sub- 
fossil condition. Considerable portions of skeletons have 
since been discovered, showing that these huge birds formed 
an altogether peeiiliar family of the order. 

General Remarks on the Bistriimtion of the Struthiones. 

"With the exception of the Ostrich, which has spread north- 
ward into the Palffiarctic region, the Struthions birds, living and 
extinct, are confined to the Southern hemisphere, each continent 
having its peculiar forms. It is a remarkable fact that the two 
most nearly allied genera, Slruthid and Mhea, should be found in 
Africa and South Temperate America respectively. Equally re- 
markable is the development of these lajge forms of wingless 
birds in Australia and the adjacent islands, and especially in 
New Zealand, where we have evidence which renders it probable 
that about 20 species recently coexisted. This points to the 
conclusion that New Zealand must, not long since, have formed 
a much more extensive land, and that the diminution of its area 
by subsidence has been one of the causes — and perhaps the 
main one — in bringing about the extinction of many of the 
larger species of these wingleas birds. 

The wide distribution of the Struthiones may, as we have 
already suggested (Vol I., p. 287.), be best explained, by sup- 
posing them to represent a very ancient type of bird, developed 
at a time when the more specialized carnivorous mammalia had 



not come into existence, and preserved only in those areas 
which were long iree from the incursions of such dangerous 
enemies. The discovery of Struthious remains in Europe in the 
Lower Eocene only, supports this view ; for at this time carnivora 
were few and of generalized type, and had probahly not acquired 
sufficient speed and activity to enahle them to exterminate 
powerful and quick-running terrestrial birds. It is, however, at 
a much more remote epoch that we may expect to find the 
remains of the earher forms of this group ; while these Eocene 
birds may perhaps represent that ancestral wide-spread type 
which, when isolated in remoter continents and islands, became 
modified into the American and African ostriches, the Emeus 
and Cassowaries of Australia, the Dinm-nis and ^pyomis of 
New Zealand. 




Order I.—OFHIDIA. 

Family 1.— TYPHLOPIDiE.— (4 Oenepa, 70 Species.) 
General Bistributios. 




















The Typhlopidse, or Blind Eurrowii^ Snakes, are widely 
scattered over the ■warmer regions of the earth, but are most 
rtbundant in the Oriental and Australian regions, and least so in 
the Neotropical. They are absent from the Nearctic region; 
and in the Palaaarctie are' found only in South-eastern Europe 
and Japan, 

The most extensive genus is TypMops, comprising over 60 
species, and having a range almost as extensive as the entire 
family. The other well characterised genera are : — 

Typklina (1 sp.)' ranging from Penang to Java and Hong Kong ; 
Typkline (1 ap.), the Cape of Good Hope ; Bibaiiiws (1 sp.). New 


Family 2.— TOKTHICLD^, {6 Genera 5 Speciea.) 

-3.3- I 1 I 1 

The Tortricidie, or Short-tailed Burrowing Snakes, are a small 
family, one portion of which ranges from India to Cambodja, and 
through the Malay islands aa far as Celebes and Timor; these 
form the genus Cylindrophis. Another portion inhabits America, 
and consists of: — 

Charina (1 sp.}, found in California and British Columbia; 
and Tortrix (1 sp.}, in Tropical America. 

We have here a ease of discontinuous distribution, indicating, 
either very imperfect knowledge of the group, or that it is the 
remnant of a once extensive family, on the road to extinction. 

Family 3.- 

-XENOPELTIDiE, (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

Gbneeal DisTKmimoN, 

Neotb^pio*!. 1 Ne 

^7o™ IubIeSs BurR^osg 1 s™ ™ov, 1 S™ ^eb" h" 

The curious nocturnal carnivorous Snake, forming the genus 
Xenopdtis, and the sole representative of this family, ranges from 
Penang to Cambodja, and through the Malay Islands to Celebes. 

Family 4.— UEOPELTID^ (5 Genera, 18 Species.) 





e. Sdh-kebions. 

1 1 

a' 1 

1 1 




The Uropeltidffi, or Eough-tailed Burrowing Snakes, are 
strictly confined to Ceylon and the adjacent parts of Southern 
India, and would almost alone serve to mark out our second 
Oriental sub-region. The genera are : — 

BhmopMs (7 sp.), Ceylon ; Uropeltis (1 sp.), Ceylon ; Silybura 
(3 sp.), Ananially Hills and Neilgherries ; Fkdums (3 sp.), Neil- 
gherries and Madras ; and MelanopMdivm (1 sp.), the Wynand. 

Family 5.— CALAMAEIID.E. (32 Genera, 75 Species.) 


l.S.3.4 l.a.3- -a 1.2.3- l.a.3.4 I 1.2 

The CalamariidaB, or Dwarf Ground Snakes, are found in all 
warm parts of the globe, extending north into the United States 
as far as British Columbia and Lake Superior; but they are 
absent from the Palfeaictic region, with the exception of a species 
found in Persia. The species are in a very confused state. The 
best characterised genera are the following : — 

Calamai-ia (20 ap.), Persia, India to Java and the Phihppine 
Islands, Celebes, and New Guinea ; Bhahdosoma. (18 sp.), Mexico 
and South America, and also the Malay Islands as far east as 
Amboyna, Timor, and New Guinea; Typhlocalam/us (1 sp.), 
Borneo; Macroeala-mm (1 ap.), India; Aspidura (3 sp.), India 
and Ceylon ; Haplocems (1 sp.), Ceylon ; Streptophorus (3 sp.), 
Central and South America ; — with a host of others of less im- 
portance or ill-defined. 

Family 6.— OLIGODONTID^. (4 Genera, 40 Species.) 
General DiaTBrBUTiou. 




The Oligodontidfe are a small family of Ground Snakes which 
have been separated from the Calamariidte, and, with the excep- 
tion of a few species, are confined to the Oriental r^on. The 
best characterised genera are : — 

Oligodon (12 sp.), India, Ceylon, and Philippines ; and, tStwioies 
(24 8p.), India to China and Borneo. In addition to these, 
Achalmus is founded on a single species from Japan; and 
Tdeolepis consists of three species from North and South America. 

Family 7— COLUBETD.^ (fiO Genera, 270 Species.) 
Gbseral DrsTRiBurroN. 1. a. 3. 4 l.a.3.' 

l.S.3.4 \l.2.t 

The Coluhrine Snakes are universally distributed over the 
globe, and they reach the extreme northern hmits of the order. 
They are, however, almost absent from Australia, being there 
represented only hy a few species of Tropidonotus and Ooronella 
in the northern and eastern districts. This great family consists 
of four divisions or sub-families : the CoroneUinte (20 genera, 
100 species), the Colubrinaa (16 genera, 70 species), the Drya- 
dinffi (7 genera, 50 species), and the Natricinie (7 genera, 50 
species). The more important genera of Colubridse are the 
following : — 

Ahlabes, Ooronella, Ptyas, Coluber, and Tropidonotits—dR 
have a very wide distribution, but the two last are absent 
from South America, although Tropidonotus reaches Guatemala ; 
Tomodon, Xenodon, Liopis, Stenorhdna, Erytkrolampus, Mapock- 
1-us, Callirhinus, Enophrys, and Dromims — are confined to the 
Neotropical r^on; Hypsirhynehvs, Gri/ptodacus, Jaltris, and 
GolffFogm, are confined to the West Indian Islands ; Chilomenis- 
cm, Conophis, FHuophis, and Ischcognathus, to North America, 
the latter going as far south as Guatemala ; Compsosoma 
Zainenis, Zaocys, Atretium, Xenockrophys, and Herpetoreas, art 
peculiarly Oriental, but Zamenis extends into South Europe; 

Vol. II.— 25 



LytorkynchMs, Ehamnophis, Herpetethiops and Orayia, are Ethio- 
pian ; RhitiecMs is peculiar to Europe ; Megablabes to Celebes, and 
Styporhyjichus to Grilolo ; Cyclophis, is found in the Oriental re- 
gion, Japan, and North America ; Spilotes, in the Nearctie and 
Neotropical regions ; Xenda/phis in the Oriental, Ethiopian, and 
Paliearctic regions ; PMlodryas, ffeterodon and Herpetodryas in 
America and Madagascar, the latter genus being also found in 

Family 8. 


(24 Genera, 



General DiaTBiBUTiou. 





.. silB-Kra^oii^ 1.2 - 

The Homalopsidfe, or ¥resh-water Snakes, have been 8 
from the Hydridse by Dr. Gtlnther, and they include some groups 
which have been usually classed with the Katricinse. They 
are especially characteristic of the Oriental region, where consi- 
derably more than half the genera and species are found ; next 
comes the Neotropical region which has 6 species ; while none 
of the other regions have more than 4 or 5, It is to he observed 
that the Ethiopian species occur in West Africa only, and mostly 
constitute peculiai' genera, so that in this family the separation 
of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions is very well marked. The 
beat characterised genera of the family are the following : — 

Gantoria (10 sp.), ranging from Europe to Japan, the Philip- 
pines, and Timor, with one species in Guinea; Hypsirhina (6 
sp.), Bengal, China, and Borneo ; Fordoma (3 sp.), Itangoon to 
Borneo and Timor ; ffomalopsis (2 sp,), Cambodja to Java ; 
G&rbenis (2 sp.), Ceylon and Siam, the Malay Islands, New 
Guinea, and North Australia; Herpeton (1 sp.), Siam; Ferania 
(1 sp.), Bengal to Penang ; Pyikonopsis (1 sp.), Borneo ; Myron 
(2 sp.), India and North Australia; Homahphis (1 sp.}, Borneo ; 
Eipistes (1 sp.), Penang; JTenodermus (1 sp,), Java; Nemtero- 
fhis and Idmnophis, with one species each, are peculiar to West 


CHAP, xis.] REPTILES. 377 

Africa ; Hdtcffps (2 sp.). North and South America ; Faranoin 
and Dimodes, with one species each, are from New Orleans ; and 
a few others imperfectly known from Tropical America. 

Family 9.— PSAMMOPHID^ (5 Genera, 20 Species.) 



The PsammophidiB, or Desert Snakes, are a small group 
characteristic of the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, but more 
abundant in the former. The distribution of the genera is as 
follows : — 

Fsammophis (16 sp.), ranges from West Africa to Persia and 
Calcutta; Gcelopeltis (1 sp.). North and West Africa; MimopMs 
(1 sp.), Madagascar ; PsamTnodynastOf! (2 sp.), Sikhim to Cochin 
China, Borneo and the Philippine Islands ; and Dromophis (1 
sp.). Tropical Africa. 

Family 10.— PACHIODONTH)^. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 

Gbhekii. Distribution. 

The Pachiodontida are a small and very isolated group of 
snakes of doubtful affinities. The only genus, DasypeUis (2 sp.), 
is confined to West and South Africa. 


378- GBOGEAPHICAL ZOOLOGtY. [part iv. 

Family H.— DENDEOPHID^. (7 Genera, 35 Species.) 


rr== .s=.. 


Ethidptah Obtehtai, AuenuuitH 

....=..-. — 

l.a.3.4 l.a.3.4 1.2 

The Dendrophidffi, or Tree Snakes, are found in all the Tropical 
regions, hut are most abundant in the Oriental The genera are 
distrihuted as follows : — 

Dendrophds ranges from India and Ceylon to the Pelew 
Islands and North Australia, and has one species in West AMca; 
Ahcetulla is almost equally divided between Tropical AMca and 
Tropical America ; Gonyosoma ranges from Persia to Java and the 
Philippines ; Gh/rt/sopelea is found in India, Borneo, the Philip- 
pines, Amhoyna, and Mysol ; Hapsidrt^his and Bucephaliis are 
confined to Tropical Africa ; and likyiyyfhus (1 sp.), is peculiar 
to Madagascar. 

I'AMILY 12.- 


p Genera, 





Zl. \ I'l^^o^l 1 ^^l 



5. 1 s'u"b ™™"t^. 

The Dryiophid*, or "Whip Snakes, are a very well characterised 
family of slender, green-coloured, arboreal serpents, found in the 
three tropical regions but absent from Australia, although they 
just enter the Australian region in the island of Celebes. In 
Africa they are confined to the West Coast and Mad^ascar. 
The genera are : — 

DryiopMs (4 sp.). Tropical America and West Africa : Tropi- 
dococByx (1 sp.), Central India; Tragops (4 sp.), Bengal to China, 
the Philippines, Java, and Celebes; Passerita (2 sp.), Ceylon 



and the Indian Peninsula ; and Zangaha (2 sp.), confined to 

Tamily 13.— DIPSADID^. (11 Genera, 45 Species.) 
General DisrRiBurios. 

— a. a- -2 — 1.2.3- i.a.3.4 i.a — 

The Dipsadidte, or Nocturnal Tree Snakes, are distinguished 
from the last family by their dark colours and nocturnal habits. 
They are about equally abundant in the Oriental and Neotropical 
regions, less so in the Ethiopian, while only a single species 
extends to North Australia. The following are the best known 
genera : — 

JMpsas, comprising all the Oriental species with one in Asia- 
Minor, and a few from the Moluccas, New Guinea, North Aus- 
tralia, West Africa, and Tropical America; Thamnodyastes, 
Trqpidodipsas, and several others, from Tropical America; Dipsa- 
ddboa, from West Africa and Tropical America ; Zeptodeira, from 
Tropical and South Africa, South America, and Mexico ; and 
(, from Central Africa. 

Jamily 14.— SCYTALID^. (3 Genera, 10 

Gbseral Distkibution. 


>1CAL I Nbirctio I 1 

It is doubtful how far the three genera which constitute this 
family form a natural assemblage. We can therefore draw no 
safe conclusions from the peculiarity of their distribution — 
ScytcUe and Oxyrhopus being ■ confined to Tropical America ; 
while Sologerrhum inhabits the Philippine Islands. 




(11 Genera, 



Genebal DisTRiBirrroM. 


«o?™a. 1 suit^^^ 1 Sol- 




l.a.3— 1 .2.3.4 

The LycodontidEe, or Fanged Ground Snakes, are confined to 
the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, over the whole of which they 
rai^e, except that they are absent from Madagascar and extend 
eastward to New Guinea. The genera have often a limited dis- 
tribution : — 

Lycodon ranges from India and Ceylon to China, the Philip- 
pines, and New Guinea; Tetragonosoma, the Malay Peninsula 
and Islands ; Lepiorhytaon and Ophites, India ; Cercaspis, Ceylon ; 
and Cyclocoms, the Philippines. The African genera are Boeedon, 
Lycophidion, Soluro'pholis, Simocephalns, and Lampr(^his, the 
latter beii^ found only in South Africa. The species are nearly 
ecLually abundant in both regions, but no genus is common to 
the two. 

Family 16.— AMBLYCEPHALID^. (5 Genera, 12 Species. 

General Distribution. 

-3.4- - -3? 

The AmblycephaUdte, or Blunt Heads, are very singularly 
distributed, being nearly equally divided between Tropical 
America and the eastern half of the Orient-al region,, as will be 
seen by the following statement of the distribution of the 
genera : — 

Amblycqihalus (1 sp.), Malay Peninsula to Borneo and the 
Philippines ; Fwreas (3 sp.), Assam, China, Java, and Borneo ; 


OHAP. xis.] BBPTILES. 381 

Asthenodipsas (1 sp.), Malacca ; Zepiognathm (6 sp.), Central and 
South America; and Aiioplodipsas (1 sp.), auppcKed to come 
from New Oaledonia, and, if so, furnishing a link, though a very 
imperfect one, between the disconnected halves of the family. 

Family 17.— PYTHONID^. (21 Genera, 46 £ 

Geisebal Distribution. 

auT«Tmm s 




12 3 4 

1 2 3 


The Pythonidte, comprising the Eock Snakes, Pythons, and 
Boas, are confined to the tropics, with the exception of one 
species in Cahfornia. They are very abundant in the Neotropical 
region, where nearly half the known species occur ; the Austra- 
Uan region comes next, while the Oriental is the least prolific in 
these large serpents. The genera which have been described 
are very numerous, but they are by no means well defined. 
The following are the most important :— 

Python is confined to the Oriental region ; Morelia, Liasis, and 
Nardoa are Australian and Papuan; Enygnts is found in the 
Moluccas, New Guinea and the Fiji Islands ; Hortulia is African ; 
Sammia is peculiar to Madagascar ; Boa, Epicrates, Corallus, 
Ungalia, and Eunectes are Tropical American; Ghildbotkms is 
peculiar to Jamaica and Mexico ; and Liehanotm to California. 

An extinct species belonging to this family has been found 
in the Erown-coal formation of Germany, of Miocene age. 

Family 18.— EEYCII)^. (3 Genera, 6 Species.) 




The Erycidse, or Land Snakes, form a small but natural family, 
chiefly found in the desert zone on the confiaes of the Paltearctic, 
Oriental, and Ethiopian regions. They range from South Europe 
to West Africa and to Sikhim. The three genera are distributed 
SB follows; — 

Gursoria (1 sp.), Afghanistan ; Gongylophis (1 sp.), India and 
Sikhim ; Eryx (4 sp.), has the range of the entire family. 

Family 19.— ACKOCHORDID^. (2 Genera, 3 Species) 
Gehekai, DisTftiBtrnorf. 

The Aerochordidas, or Wart Snakes, form a small and isolated 
group, found only in two sub-divisions of the Oriental i^ion — 
the South Indian and the Malayan, and in New Guinea. 

Acrochordus, inhabits Penang, bmgapore and Borneo ; Gherrsy- 
drus. Southern India and the Malay Peninsula, with a species 
recently discovered in New Guinea. 

Family 20.— 


(23 Genera 




General Distmbutioh. 


lEOlO^ Slia-^K 

10 1 PxLffliBOno 

1 SuB-BEaione. S 




The Elapidse, or Terrestrial venomous Coluhrine Snakes, are 
an extensive group, spread over the tropics of the whole world, 
but especially abundant in Australia, where half the known 
species occur, some of them being the most deadly of venomous 
serpents. In tlie Oriental region they are also abundant, contain- 
ing amongst other forms, the well-known Cobras. The American 
e almost equally numerous, but they aU belong to one 



genus, and they are annulated with rmgs of various colours 
in a manner quite distinct from any other members of this 
family. The genera, which are all very distiact, are distributed 
as follows : — 

Siemmia, Acanthophis, Hoplocephalug, BraeMurophis, Tropi- 
deckis, I'seudeckis, Cacophis, Fsmdonaje, Demsonia, and YeTmi- 
cella, are Australian, the first two ranging to the Moluccas and 
New Guinea ; Ogmodon occurs in the Fiji Islands ; Naja, Bun- 
gams, 0phiophagu3, Fsmdonaje, Xeimrdaps, DoUi^Ma, Megwro- 
phis, and Gallophis are Oriental, ooe species of the latter genus 
being found in Japan, while an Ophiophagm has been discovered 
in New Guinea; GgrtopMs, Mapsoidea, and PcecUophis are 
African t Elap3 is American, ranging as far north as South Caro- 
lina, but not to the West Indian Islands. 

Family 21.— DENDEASPIDID^. (1 Genus, 5 Species,) 
General DisTRiBnioN. 

The single genus Dendraspis,. constituting the family, is con- 
fined to Tropical Africa, 

Family 22.— ATKACTASPIDID^. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) 
General DisrRiBUTroN. 

This small family, consisting of the genus Alractasx^is.iH also 
confined to Africa, but has hitherto only been foiind in the West 
and South, 



Family 23.- 

-HYDROPHID^. (8 Genera, 50 Species.) 


Srs-BEoioHs. BuB-n 

^. 1 It^-^^ 1 sS^ 1 s?i=. 1 s-^^^oT. 

3 j I I 4- il.a.a.4 I 

Tlie Hydrophida), or Sea Snakes, are a group of small-sized 
marine serpents, abundant in the Indian and Australian seas, 
and extending as far west as Madagascar, and as far east as 
Panama. They are very poisonous, and it is probahle that many 
species remain to be discovered. The genera are distributed as 
follows : — 

Hydrophis (37 sp.), ranging from India to Formosa and Aus- 
tralia ; Flabmus (2 sp.), from the Bay of Bengal to New Guinea 
and New Zealand ; Aipyswms (3 sp.), Java to New Guinea and 
Australia ; Disteira (1 sp.), unknown locality ; Acalyptiis (1 sp.), 
South-west Pacific ; Enkydrina (1 sp.). Bay of Bengal to New 
Guinea ; Pelamis (1 sp.), Madagascar to New Guinea, New Zea- 
land, and Panama ; Emydoeephaliis (1 sp.), Australian Seas. 

Family 24.— CEOTALID^. (11 Genera, 40 Species.) 
General DrsTEiBUTjon. 

The Grotalidse, or Pit Vipers, including the deadly Eattlesnakes, 
form a well-marked family of fanged serpents, whose distribu- 
tion is very interesting. They abound most in the Oriental 
region, at least 5 of the genera and 20 species being found within 
its limits, yet they are quite unknown in the Ethiopian region 
— a parallel case to that of the Bears and Deer. A few species 
are peculiar to the eastern portion of the Paljearctic region, while 



the Nearetic is actually richer than the Neotropical region both 
iu genera and species. This would point to the conclusion, that 
the group originated in the Indo-Chinese sub-iegion and spread 
thence north-eaat to North America, and so onwaid to South 
America, which, having been the last to receive the group, has not 
had time to develop it largely, notwithstanding its extreme 
adaptabihty to Reptilian lifa The genera are divided among 
the several regions as follows : — 

Graspedoce'pha.l'as (7 sp.), Tropical America and the West In- 
dian Islands; Cenehris, Crotalophorus, Uropsophorus, and Grolakis, 
inhabiting North America from Canada and British Columbia 
to Texas, one species (Grotaltis homdus) extending into South 
America; Tnmeremrus (1& sp.), all India from Ceylon to Assam, 
Formosa, the Philippines and Celebes ; Pdtopelor and Hypnale 
(1 sp. each), peculiar to India ; Calloselasma (1 sp.), Siam ; 
Atr<^os (1 sp.), Java and Borneo ; ffal^s (3 sp.), peculiar to 
Tartary, Thibet, Japan, North China, and Formosa. 

Family 25.— VIPERID^. (3 Genera, 22 Species.) 

GebeKal Dimtri Birr ion. 

.2.3 .4 l.a.3.4 

The Viperidte, or True Vipers, are especially characteristic of 
the Palfearctic and Ethiopian regions, only one species being 
found over a large part of the Oriental region, and another 
reaching Central India, They are especially abundant in Africa, 
and the Paliearctic confines in South-western Asia. The 
common Viper ranges across the whole PalEearotic region from 
Portugal to Saghalien Island, reaching to 67° North Latitude, in 
Scandinavia, and to 58° in Central Siberia. The genera, accord- 
ing to Dr. Strauch's synopsis, are distributed aa follows : — 

Vipera (17 sp.), which has the range of the family, extending 
over the whole of the Palaearctie and Ethiopian regions, except 
Madagascar, and as far as Ceylon, Siam, and Java, in the Oriental 



region; EcMs (2 sp.), inhabiting North Africa to Persia and 
to Contineutal India; and AtJisris (3 sp.), eoniined to West 

Remarks on the General DisiribuHon of Ophidia. 

Tlie Ophidia, being preeminently a Tropical order — rapidly 
diminishing in numbers as we go north in the Temperate Zone, 
and wholly ceasing long before we reach the Arctic Circle — we 
cannot expect the two Korthern regions to exhibit any great 
variety or peculiarity. Yet in their warmer portions they are 
tolerably rich; for, of tlie 25 families of snalces, 6 are found in the 
Nearctic region, 10 in the Palfearctic, 13 in the Australian, 16 
in the Neotropical, 17 in the Ethiopian, and no less than 22 in 
the Oriental, which laat is thus seen to be by far the, richest of 
the great regions in the variety of its forms of Ophidian life. 
The only regions that possess altogether peculiar families of this 
order, are the Ethiopian (3), and the Oriental (2) ; the usually 
rich and peculiar Neotropical region not possessing exclusively, 
any family of snakes ; and what is still more remarkable, the 
Neotropical and Australian regions together, do not possess a 
famOy peculiar to them. Every family inhabiting these two 
r^ions is found also in the Oriental; and this fact, taken in con- 
nection with the superior richness of the latter region both in 
famihes and genera, would indicate that the Ophidia had their 
origin in the northern hemisphere of the Old World (the ancient 
Palfearctic region) whence they spread on aU sides, in successive 
waves of migration, to the other regions. The distribution of the 
genera peculiar to, or highly characteristic of, the several regions 
is as follows : — 

TheNearctic possesses 9 ; four of these belong to the Coluhridee, 
one to the Pythonidra, and four to the Crotalidas. The Paleearctic 
region has only 2 peculiar genera, belonging to the Colnbridse 
and CrotahdEe. The Ethiopian h^ 25, belonging to 11 families; 
four to ColubridEe, five %o Lycodontid^e, and three to Elapidse. 
The Oriental has no less than 50, belonging to 15 famOies ; five 
are ColuhridEc, five Uropeltidas, twelve Homalopsidse, six Lyco- 
dontidfe, three AmblycephalidEe, eight Elapidse, and four Crota- 



lidie. The Australian has 16, belonging to three families only ; 
eleven being Elapidse, and four Pythonidfe. The Neotropical lias 
about 24, belongii^ to eight families ; ten are Colubridse, six 
PythonidEe, and the rest Dipsadidte, Scjtalidse, Amblycephalidee, 
Elapidie, and Crotalidte, 

"We find then, that in the Ophidia, the regions adopted in this 
■work are remarkably distinct ; and that, in the case of the Orien- 
tal and Ethiopian, the difference is strongly marked, a very large 
number of the genera being confined to each region. It is in- 
teresting to observe, that in many cases the affinity seems to be 
rather between the West Coast of Africa and the Oriental 
region, than between the East Coast and the plains of India; 
thus the Homalopsidse — a h^lily characteristic Oriental family — 
occur on the West Coast of Africa only ; the Dryiophidje, which 
range over the whole Oriental region, only occur in Madagascar 
and West Africa in the Ethiopian ; the genus JMpsas is found over 
all the Oriental region and ^ain in West Africa. A cause for this 
peculiarity has been suggested in our sketch of the past history 
of the Ethiopian region, YoL I. p. 288. In the Lycodontidse, 
which are strictly confined to these two regions, the genera are 
all distinct, and the same is the case with the more widely dis- 
tributed Elapidse ; and although a few desert forms, such as 
Echis and the Erycidse, are common to Africa and the dry plains 
of India, this is evidently due to favourable climatic conditions, 
and cannot neutralise the striking differences in the great mass 
of the family and generic forms which inhabit the two regions. 
The union of Madagascar with the South-western part of the 
Oriental region under the appellation Lemuria, finds no support 
in the distribution of Ophidia ; which, however, strikingly accords 
with the views developed in the Third Part of this work, as to the 
great importance and liigh antiquity of the Euro-Asiatic conti- 
nent, as the chief laud-centre from which the higher organisms 
have spread over the globe. 

Fossil Ophidia. — The oldest known remains of Ophidia occur 
in the Eocene formation in the Isle of Sbeppey ; others are found 
in the Miocene (Brown Coal) of Germany, and in some Tertiary 
beds in the United States. Most of these appear to have been 



i belonging to the Pythonidfe, so that we are evi- 
dently still very far from knowing anything of the earliest forma 
of this order. In some of the later Tertiary deposits the poison 
fangs of venomous species have been found ; also a Coiubrine 
snake from the Upper Miocene of the South of France. 

Family 26.— TEOGONOPHII)^ (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

Gbnehal Disthiuution. 

£=s; 1 .r.'=» 1 £s= 1 sS-si 1 8?=:;., | cz;js 

1 j ^,._i 1 ^ 

Tlie single species of Trogonophis, forming this family, is found 
only in North Africa. 

Family 27.— CHIEOTIDiE. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

General Distbibuhon. 

SHyraoncJL Ke*rctio 1 PAL*:«Kcnc Ethiofian 

SuB-BEtuoHE. Sub-Regions. 





Ohirotes, the genus which constitutes this family, inhabits 
Mexico, and has also been found in Missouri, one of the Southern 
United States. 

Family 28.— AMPHISB^NIDJi. (1 Genua, 13 Species.) 

General Distribution. 




The AmphisliEeiiidEe, which, in the opinion of Dr. Giinther, 
are all comprised in the genua AmpMshmna, inhabit Spain and 
Asia Minor, Worth and Tropical Africa, South America as far as 
Buenos-Ayres aud the West Indian Islands. 

Family 29.— LEPIDOSTEENID^. (3 Genera, 6 Species,) 
Gbnkbai. Distribution. 

The small family of lepidostemidte has nearly the same 
distribution as the last, indicating a curious relationship between 
the Tropical parts of Africa and America. Lepidostemon and 
B American genera, while Monotropkis is African^ 

Family 30.— VARANIDiE. (3 Genera, 30 Species.) 





1 P4L«iKDT10 1 EimOPlAS 







_a — 1 i.a.3- 




The Varanidte, or Water Lizards, are most abundant in the 
Oriental r^on, whence they extend into the Anstro-Malay 
Islands as far as New Guinea, and into Australia. Several 
species are found in Africa. Psammosawrus (1 sp.), is found in 
North Africa and North-western India; Monitor (18 sp.), 
has the range of the family; while Hydrosatirus (8 sp.) ranges 
from Siam to the Philippines, New Guinea, and Australia. 



Family 31.— HELODEEMID^ (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

Gesekal Distribution. 

The genus Heloderma, which constitutes this family, is found 
n Mexico. 

Family 32.— TEID^, (12 Genera, 74 Species.) 

Gbnbkal Distribution. 







1 Etkiop 













1 — 

1 - 

The Teidse, or Teguexins — a group of Lizards allied to the 
European Laeertidfe, but with differently formed superciliary 
scales — are highly characteristic of the Neotropical region, 
abounding almost everywhere from Patagonia to the Antilles 
and Mexico, and extending northwards to California on the west 
and to Pennsylvania on the east. The most extensive genus is 
Ameiva, containii^ nearly 60 species and having the range of 
the entire family; Teius (3 sp.), inhabits Brazil and Mendoza; 
CttUopistes (2 sp.). Chili; CeM(rop^(3sp.), Paraguay to Alabama; 
JMcrodon {'P&ia); Monoplocus (Western Ecuador)'; with Acranius, 
Acanthopyga, Ewmhinia, Grocodilurus, Custa, and Ada, which 
each consist of a single species, and all inhabit Tropical America. 

Family 33.— LACERTIDJ5. (18 Genera, 80 Species.) 
Gbkbral Distkibution. 

.2,3 .4 I —2 




The Laeertidffi, or Land Lizards, are small-sized, terrestrial, 
non-burrowing lizards, very characteristic of the Palasarctic 
region, which contains more than half the known species, and of 
the adjacent parts of the Oriental and Ethiopian rf^ons, hut 
extending also to South Africa, to Java, and even to Australia. 
The hest-delined genera are the following : — 

Lacerta (10 sp.), ranging over all Central and South Europe 
to Poland, and farther north in Russia and Siberia, eastward to 
Persia, and southward to North and "West Africa ; Zootoca (8 
sp.), has nearly the same range in Europe as the last genus, 
but has representatives in Madeii'a, South Africa, and Aus- 
tralia ; Tachydromus (7 sp.) is widely scattered in Chinese 
Asia, Japan, Borneo, and West Africa ; Acanthodactylus (10 sp.) 
is most abundant in North Airica, but has a species in South 
Africa, and two in Central India; Eremias (18 sp.) is found all 
over Africa, and also in the Crimea, Persia, Tartary and China ; 
Psammodromm (2 sp.), is confined to Spain, France, and Italy ; 
s (6 sp.), inhabits India, Persia, and Asia Minor to South 
Less strongly marked and perhaps less natural genera 
are the following : — 

Thetia (1 sp.), Algiers ; Teira (1 sp.), Madeira ; Nueras (4 
sp.), Caucasus and South Africa; Notopholis (4 sp.). South 
Europe and South Africa ; Algira { 3 sp.), North and South Africa 
Serapteira (1 sp.), Nubia ; Aspidorhi/nus (1 sp.), Caspian district : 
Messalina (4 sp.). North Africa, Persia, and North-west India. 
Gabnia(l sp.), Central India; Fachyrhpickus (1 sp.), Benguela. 

Family 34— ZONURTDiE. (15 Genera, 62 Species,) 

General Dktribution. 

sS=s. 1 Si:=i 1 sS=i. 1 Z'xsis.. t==. 

The Zonuridee, or Land Lizards, characterised by a longitudinal 
fold of skin on each side of the body, have a veiy remarkable 
Vol. II.— 26 


392 aEOGBAPHICAL ZOOLOGY. [past it. 

distribution. Their head-quarters is the Ethiopian r^on, 
which contains more than half the known genera and species, 
■most of which are found in South Africa and several in Mada- 
gascar, Next to Africa the largest number of genera and species 
are found in Mexico and Central America, with a few in the Antilles, 
South America, and California, and even as far north a3 British 
Columbia. Three of the genera form a distinct sub-group — the 
Glass Snabes,~the four species composing it being located in 
North Africa, North America, South-eastern Europe, and the 
Khasya Hills. 

The prominent fact in the distribution of this family is, that 
the mass of the genera and species form two gi'oups, one in South 
Africa, the other in Mexico, — countries between which it would 
be difficult to imagine any means of communication. We have 
here, probably, an example of a once much more extensive group, 
widely distributed over the globe, and which has continued to 
maintain itself only in those districts especially adapted to its 
peculiar type of oi^nization. This must undoubtedly have 
been the case with the genus Pse-udopus, whose two species now 
inhabit South-eastern Europe and the Khasya Hills in Assam 

The genera are, — Cordylus, Pseudocordylus, Platysaums, 
Cordylomv/i'us, Fleurostrichus, and Saurophis, confined to South 
Africa ; Zonurm, South and East Africa and Madagascar ; Ger- 
rhosavrus, ranges over the whole Ethiopian region ; Cidgna is 
confined to Madagascar; Gerrhonotus (22 sp.), ranges fiom 
British Columbia, California, and Texas, to Cuba and South 
America, but is most abundant in Mexico and Central America ; 
Abronia and Baiissia, are two genera of doubtful distinctness, 
peculiar to Mexico ; Opki^atirus (the Glass Snake) is found in 
the Southern United States as far as Virginia ; the allied genus 
Hyalosav/rua in North Africa ; and Pseudopus, as above stated, 
in South-east Europe and the Khasya Hills. 


I'AMILY 35.— CHALCID^ (3 Genera, 8 Species.) 

General Distbibittiom. 



j lt^io?o-l 1 au™™^ 






j _ 


I 1. 

The Clialcidte are a small group of Lizards characteristic of 
Tropical America, one species extending into the United States. 

The genera are Chalcis (6 sp.), ranging from Central America 
to Chili ; two other species, which have been placed in distinct 
genera, inhabit North America and Pera. 

Family 36.— ANADIAD^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

General Distribution. 



The single species oiAnadia, constituting this family, inhabits 
Tropical America. 

Pamilt 37.— CHIEOCOLID^. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 
Gbnbbal DrsTniBHTioN. 


The genus Hdcrodactylus, which constitutes this family, in- 
habits Brazil. 



Family 38.— IPHISAD^ (1 ( 

General Distribution. 

I— -I-—!- 

The single species of Iphisa, has been found only at Para i 
Eciuatorial America. 

Family 39.— CEECOSAUfilD-^. (1 Genus, 5 Species.) 

Gbnerai Distribution. 






1 ! 

The genus Cercosaura, is known onlyfrom Brazil and Ecuador. 

Family 40.— CHAM.^SAUKID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 
General Distribution. 

This family, consisting of a single species of the genus Chamce- 
sawa, is confined to South Africa. 


Family 41.— GYMNOPTHALMID^. (o Genera, 14 Species,) 

General Distbibutl 

1.8.3- -a-4 

The GymnopthalmidEe, or Gape-eyed Soinks, so called from 
their rudinieiitary eyelids, form a small group, which is widely 
and somewhat erratically distributed, as will be seen by the 
following account of the distribution of the genera : — 

Lerista (1 sp.) and three other species for which Dr. Gray has 
established the genera — Moretkria (1 sp.), and Menetia. (2 ep.), 
are confined to Australia ; OryptoUephams (4 sp.), is found in 
West Australia, Timor, New Guinea, the Fiji Islands, and 
Mauritius; Ablepharm {4 sp.), inhabits Eastern and South- 
eastern Europe, Persia, Siberia, West Africa, and the Bonin 
Islands ; and Gymnopthalmus (3 sp.), is found in Brazil and the 
West Indies. 

Family 42.— PYGOPODID^. (2 Genera, 3 Species.) 

Gbsbral Distbidtjtios. 

l—ss. 1 ,.==. [ s™= 1 sS=i 1 »?;=.. 1 »'.sr=. 

--I--I--I— I--I — 

This small family - of two-legged Lizards, comprising the 
genera Pye/opus and Delma, is found only in Australia proper 
and Tasmania. 



Family 43.— APEASIADJi;. (1 Genua, 2 Species.) 

General Distributiok. 




1 la 

1 1 1 

The genus Aprasia, constituting this family, is found in West 
and South Australia. 

Family 44— LIALIDiE. (1 (Jenus, 3 

Gbnekal Distbibution. 




•„. &iZSl 



k Su 






— - 


- - 



This family is also confined to Austi'alia, the single genus, 
Zialis, inhabiting the Western and Northern districts. 

Family 45.- 

-SCINCID^. {60 Genera, 300 Species 


Obhbral Diktbibution. 

Neotropical 1 Nfab 

'^SB 1 lo^^ig 1 S^XiOKS I S?fl''lSwvs 1 Su™ 


l.a.3.4 1.2.! t.a.3.4 

The Scincidffi. or Scinks, are an extensive family of smooth- 
scaled lizards, frequenting dry and stony places, and almost 
universally distributed over the globe, being only absent from 
the cold northern and southern zones. The family itself is a 
very natural one, and it contains many natural genera ; but a 
large number have been established which probably require 
careful revision. The following include the more important and 
the best established groups : — 


CHAP. Xix,] REPTILES. 397 

Scincus (2 sp.), North Africa and Arabia ; SiwuUa (20 sp.), 
most of the Australian and Oriental regions ; Gyclodi%a (1 sp.), 
ffombroma (1 sp.), and Lygosomella (1 ap.), all from New 
Zealand ; Kmmxia (1 sp.), Philippines, Moluccas, and Papuan 
Islands; Elania (1 sp.) New Guinea; Carlia (2 sp.), North 
Australia and New Guinea; Mocoa (16 sp.), Australia and New 
Zealand, with species in Borneo, West Africa, and Central- 
America; Lipinia (3 sp.), Philippine Islands and New Guinea; 
Lygosoma (12 sp.), Australia, New Caledonia, Pelew and Philip- 
pine Islands; Tetradactylus (1 sp.), Semierges (2 sp.), Chelomeles 
(2 sp.), Omolepida, (1 sp.), LissoUpis (1 sp.), Siaphos (I ap.), 
Bhodona (3 sp.) Anomalpm (1 sp.), Soridia (2 sp.), and OpMo- 
scincm (1 sp.) all confined to Australia; Cophosdneua (3 sp.), 
Philippine Islands, Celebes, and Queensland; Plestiodon (18 
sp.), China and Japan, Africa, and America as far north as 
Pennsylvania and Nebraska ; J!umeces (30 sp.). South Palffi- 
arctic. Oriental and Austrdian regions, to New Ireland and 
North Australia ; Mabouya (20 sp.), Oriental region, Austro- 
Malaya, North Australia, the Neotropical region, and to Lat. 
42° 30' in North America; Amphixeslus (1 sp.), Borneo; Hagria 
1 sp.), and Chiamela (1 sp.), India ; Senira (1 sp.), Philippine 
Islands; Brackymeles (2 sp.). Philippine Islands and Australia; 
OpModes (1 sp.), Brazil ; AvgvAs (3 sp.). West Paliearctic region 
and South Africa; Triholonotus (1 sp.). New Guinea; Tropido- 
phorua (2 sp.), Cochin-China and Philippine Islands; Morbea 
(2 sp.), Borneo and Australia ; Trachydosauras (1 sp.), Australia ; 
Cydodus (8 sp.), Australia, Aru Islands, and Ceram; Siluhosaurus 
(2 sp.), Figerina {2 sp.), and Tropidolepisma (6 sp.), all pecuhar 
to Australia ; Heteropua (7 sp.}, Australia, Austro-Malaya, and 
Bourbon; Pygomdes (1 ap.), Madagascar; Dasia (1 sp.), Malaya; 
Euprepes (70 sp.), Ethiopian and Oriental regions, Austro- 
Malaya, South America (?) ; Cdestus (9 sp.), peculiar to the An- 
tilles, except a species in Costa Eica ; Diphglosms (7 sp,), the 
Neotropical r^ion ; — with a number of other genera founded on 
single species from various parts of the world. 



Family 46.— OPHIOMOEID^. (2 Genera, 2 Species.) 


The snake-like Lizard constituting the genus Ophwmorus, is 
found in Southern Huasia, Greece, and Algeria ; while Zygnopsis 
having four weak limbs, has been recently discovered by Mr. 
Blanford in South Persia. Tlie family is therefore confined to 
our Mediterranean sub-region. 

Family 47.— SEPID^. (7 Genera, 22 species.; 


The Sepidte, or Sand-Lizards, are a very natural group, almost 
confined to the Ethiopian region, but extending into the desert 
country on the borders of the Oriental region, and into the south 
of the Paltearctie region as far as Palestine, Madeira, Spain, 
Italy, and even the South of France. The genera are : — 

Seps (10 sp,). South Eui-ope, Madeira, Teneriffe, Palestine, 
Xorth Africa, South Africa and Madagascar ; Sphenops (2 sp.). 
North Africa, Syria, West Africa ; Scelotes (3 sp.), Angola to 
South Africa, Madagascar ; Thyms (1 sp.), Bourbon and Mauri- 
tius ; -impAz^'/ossMS (1 sp.), Madagascar; Sphenocephalus (1 sp.}, 
Afghanistan ; and Sepsina (4 sp.), South-west Africa. 




Tamily 48.- 

-ACONTIAD^. (3 Genera, 7 Species.) 


MroTROPicii, Nkahi 

This small family of snake-like Lizards haa a very curious dis- 
tribution, being found in South and West Africa, Madagascar, 
Ceylon, and Ternate in the Moluccas. Anotiiias (4 sp.), is found 
in the four first-named localities ; Nessia (2 sp.), is confined to 
Ceylon ; TypklosciTiom (1 sp.), to Temate. 

Family 49.— GECKOTID^. (50 Genera, 200 Species.) 


The Geckoes, or Wall-Lizards, form an extensive family, of 
almost universal distribution in the warmer parts of the globe ; 
and they must have some exceptional means of dispersal, since 
they are found in many of the most remote islands of the great 
oceans, — as the Galapagos, the Sandwich Islands, Tahiti, New- 
Zealand, the loo-Choo and the Seycbelle Islands, the Nicobar 
Islands, Mauritius, Ascension, Madeira, and many others. The 
following are the lai^er and more important genera ; — 

Oedura (3 sp.), Australia; Dvplodaetylusifi s^)., Australia, 
South Africa, and California; Pkyllodactylus (8 sp.), widely 
scattered in Tropical America, California, Madagascar, , and 
Queensland ; Hemidadylm {40 sp.), all tropical and warm 
countries ; Peropus (12 sp.), the Oriental region, Papuan Islands, 
Mauritius, and Brazil ; Pmtadaciyliis (7 sp.). Oriental region and 
Australia; Qei^o (12 sp.), Oriental region to New Guinea and 



North Australia; Gehp-a (5 sp.), Australia, New Guinea and 
Fiji Islands ; Tarmtola (7 sp.), North Africa, North America, 
Madeira, Borneo, South Africa ; Phelsuma (6 sp.), Madagas- 
car, Bourbon, and Andaniaa Islands ; Packydactyl'm (5 sp,), 
South and West Africa, and Ascension Island ; Spluerodactylus 
(5 sp.), the Neotropical region ; Naultiims, (6 sp.). New Zealand ; 
Qoniodadylus (5 ap.), Australia, Timor, South America and 
Algiers ; Ederonota (4 sp.), Australia, Fiji Islands, New Guinea 
and Borneo ; CuUna (4 sp.), the Neotropical region ; Gymno- 
daetylus (16 sp.), all warm countries except Australia; Phyllm-us 
(3 sp.), Australia ; Stmodactylus (4 sp.). North and West Africa, 
and Eio Grande in North America. 

The remaining genera mostly consist of single species, and 
are pretty equally distributed over the various parts of the world 
indicated in the preceding list. Madagascar, the SeycheUe Islands, 
ChiU, the Sandwich Ishtnds, South Africa, Tahiti, the Philippine 
Islands, New Caledonia, and Australia — aU have peculiar genera, 
while two new ones have recently been described from Persia. 

Family SO.—IGUANID^. {o& Genera, 236 Species.) 


The extensive family of the Iguanas is highly characteristic 
of the Neotropical region, in every part of which the s 
abound, even as far as nearly 50° South Latitude in ! 
They also extend northwards into the warmer parts of the 
Nearctic region, as far as California, British Columbia, and 
Kansas on the west, and to 43° North Latitude in the Eastern 
States. A distinct genus occurs in the Fiji Islands, and one 
has been described as from AustraHa, and another from 
Madagascar, but there is some doubt about these. The most 
extensive genera are : — 

Anolivs (84 sp.), found in most parts of Tropical America and 



north to California ; SVopidolepis (15 sp.), which has nearly the 
same range ; Leioeephalus (14i sp.), Antilles, Guayaquil, aud 
Galapagos Islands ; L&iolcemus (14 sp.), Peru to Patagonia ; 
Soeloponis (9 sp.), from Brazil to California and British Columbia, 
and on the east to Florida ; FroctotreHs (6 sp.). Chili and Pata- 
gonia ; PhrynosoriKt (8 sp.), Hew Mexico, California, Oregon 
and British Columbia, Arkansas and Florida; Iguana (5 sp.), 
Antilles and South America ; Cydum (4 sp.), Antilles, Hon- 
duras, and Mexico. 
Among the host of smaller genera may be noted : — 
Brachylophus, found in the Fiji Islands ; Trackycepkalus and 
Oreocephaliis, pecuhar to the Galapagos ; Oreodeira, said to be irom 
Australia ; Diplolmmus and Phymatwnis, found only in Chili and 
Patagonia; and Callisawtis, Uta, Eufkryne, Uma, and Hol- 
brooMa, from New Mexico and California. All the other genera 
are from various parts of Tropical America. 

Family 51.— AGAMIDJi. (42 Genera, 156 Species.) 

General DisTRiBrTioN. 

'2.3.4 1. 2. 3. 4 1.2. 3. 4 

The extensive family Agamidte — the Eastern representative 
of the Iguanas— is highly characteristic of the Oriental region, 
which possesses about half the known genera and species. Of the 
remainder, the greater part inhabit the Australian region ; others 
range over the deserts of Central and Western Asia and Northern 
Africa, as far as Greece and South Eussia. One genus extends 
through Africa to the Cape of Good Hope, and there are three 
peculiar genera in Madagascar, but the family is very poorly 
represented in the Ethiopian region. Many of these creatures 
are adorned with beautifully varied and vivid colours, and the 
little " dragons " or fiying-Uzards are among the most interesting 
forms in the entire order. The larger genera are distributed as 
follows : — 



Draco (18 sp,), ihe Oriental region, excluding Ceylon; 
Otoaryptis (4 sp.), Ceylon, North India, Malaya ; Ceratophora (3 
sp.), Ceylon ; Qmiyocephalm (8 sp.), Papuan Islands, Java, Borneo, 
Pelew Islands ; Bilophyms (7 sp.), Indo-Malaya and Slam ; 
Japalura (6 sp.), Himalayas, Borneo, Formosa, and Loo Choo 
Islands ; Sitana (2 ap.), Central and South India and Ceylon ; 
Bronchocela (3 sp.), Indo-Malaya, Cambodja, and Celehes; 
Galotes (12 sp.). Continental India to China, Philippine Islands ; 
Ch-iocalotes (2 sp.), Himalayas ; Acantkosaura (5 sp.), Malacca 
and Siam ; Tiaris (3 sp.), Andaman Islands, Borneo, Philip- 
pine and Papuan Islands; Physignathus (3 sp.), Cochin-China 
and Australia; PJtwiasira (5 sp,). South Eussia, North Africa, 
Central India ; StelUo (5 sp.), Caucasus and Greece to Arabia, 
High Himalayas and Central India ; Trapdus (5 sp.), Tartary, 
Egypt, and Afghanistan ; Phrynocephctlm (10 sp.), Tartary and 
Mongolia, Persia and Afghanistan ; Lophura (2 sp.), Amboyna 
and Pelew Islands; Qrammatophorus (14 sp.), Australia and 
Tasmania ; Agama (14 sp.), North Africa to the Punjaub, South 
Africa. The remaining genera each consist of a single species. 
Eight are pecuhar to Australia, one to the Mji Islands, one t-o the 
Aru Islands, three to Ceylon, five to other parts of the Oriental 
region, one to Persia, and one to South Russia. 

Family 52.— CHAMiELEONID^. (1 Genixs, 30 Species.) 

.2.3.4 i.a - 

The Chamseleons are an almost exclusively Ethiopian group, 
only one species, the common Chamasleon, inhabiting North 
Africa and Western Asia as far as Central India and Ceylon. 
They abound all over Africa, and peculiar species are found in 
Madagascar and Bourbon, as well as in the Island of Fer- 
nando Po. 


General Eemarks on the Hi&trihitwn of the Lacertilia. 

The distribution of the Lacertilia is, in many particulars, 
strikingly opposed to that of the Ophidia. The Oriental, 
instead of teing the richest is one of the poorest regions, both 
in the number of famOiea and in the number of peculiar genera 
it contains ; while in both these respects the Neotropical is by 
izx the richest. The distribution of the families is as follows : — 

The Nearctic region has 7 families, none of which are peculiar 
to it; but it has 3 peculiar genera — GMrotes, OpMsaunis, and 

The Palsearctic region has 12 families, with two (Ophio- 
moridfe and Trogonophidfc, each consisting of a single species) 
peculiar ; while it has 6 peculiar , or very characteristic genera, 
TrogoTwphis in North Africa, Psammodromus in South Europe, 
Syalosawnis in North Africa, Seineiis in North Africa and Arabia, 
Ophiomtyms in East Europe and North Africa, and Pkrynocsphaliis 
in Siberia, Tartary, and Afghanistan^ We have here a striking 
amount of diversity between the Nearctic and Paltearctic 
regions with hardly a single point of resemblance. 

The Ethiopian r^ou.has 13 families, only one of which (the 
Cham£eaaurid£e, consisting of a single species) is altogether pecu- 
liar; but it posaesses 21 pecuKar or characteristic genera, 9 
belonging to the Zonuridte, 2 to the Sepidte, 7 to the Geekotidie, 
and 3 to the AgamidEC. 

The Oriental . region has only 8 families, none of which are 
pecuKar; but there are 28 peculiar genera, 6 belonging to the 
Scincidce, 1 to the Acontiadte, 5 to the , Geckotidje, and 16 to the 
Agamidfe. Many lizards being sand and desert-haunters, it is not 
surprising that a number of forms are common to the border- 
lands of the Oriental and Ethiopian regions ; yet the Sepid^, so 
abundant in all Africa, do not range to the peninsula of India ; and 
the equally Ethiopian Zonuridte have only one Oriental species, 
found, not in the peninsula but in the Khasya Hills. The Acon- 
tiadse alone offer some analogy to the distribution of the Lemurs, 
being found in Africa, Madagascar, Ceylon, and the Moluccas: 

The Australian region has 11 families, 3 of which are'pecu- 



liar ; and it has about 40 peculiar genera in ten families, about 
half of these genera beiongii^ to the Scineidre. Only 3 
families of almost universal distribution are common to the 
Australian and Neotropical regions, with one species of the 
American Iguanidte in the Fiji Islands, so that, as far as this 
order is concerned, these two regions have Httle resemblance. 

The Keotropical region has 15 families, 6 of -which are peculiar 
to it, and it possesses more than 50 peculiar genera. These are 
distributed among 12 families, but more than half belong to the 
Iguanidte, and half the remainder to the Teidte, — the two families 
especially characteristic of the Heottopical region. All the Ne- 
arctic families which are not of almost universal distribution are 
peculiarly Neotropical, showing that the Lacertilia of the former 
region have probably been derived almost exclusively from the 

On the whole the distribution of the Lacertilia shows a 
remarkable amount of specialization in each of the great tropical 
regions, whence we may infer that Southern Asia, Tropical 
Africa, Australia, and South America, each obtained their original 
stock of this order at very remote periods, and that there has 
since been little intercommunication between them. The peculiar 
affinities indicated by such cases as the Lepidosternidfe, found 
only in the tropics of Africa and South America, and Tachydrovms 
in Eastern Asia and West Africa, may be the results either of 
once widely distributed families surviving only in isolated locali- 
ties where the conditions are favourable, — or of some partial and 
temporary geographical connection, allowing of a limited degree 
of intermixture of faunas. The former appears to be the more 
probable and generally efficient cause, but the latter may have 
operated in exceptional cases. 

Fossil Lacertilia. 
These date back to the Triassic period, and they are found in 
most succeeding formations, but it is not till the Tertiary period 
that forms allied to existing genera occur. These are at present 
too rare and too ill-defined to throw much light on the geo- 
graphical distribution of the order. 


CHAP, xix-j REPTILES. 405 

Famlt 53.— EHYNCOCEPHALLD^. (1 Genus, 1 Species,) 

General Distribution. 

The singular and isolated genus Hatt&i-Ui — the " Tuatara " or 
fringed lizard— which alone constitutes this family, has peculiari- 
ties of structure which separate it from both lizards and crocodiles, 
and mark it out as an ancestral type, as distinct from other living 
reptiles as the Marsupials are from other Mammalia, It is con- 
fined to Kew Zealand, and is chiefly found on small islands near 
the uorth-east coast, being very rare, if not extinct, on the main 
land. A fossil reptile named Hyperoda^edon, of Triassie age, has 
been found in Scotland and India, and is supposed by Professor 
Huxley to be more nearly allied to Hatteria than to any other 
living animal. 


Family 54.— GAVIALIDJi. (2 Genera, 3 Species.) 

General Distribution. 








— - 

-- 1 


-1— -!— -1 



The Gavials are long-snout«d Crocodiles with large front teeth, 
and canines fitting in notches of the upper jaw. They consist 
of two genera, Gavialis (1 sp.), inhabiting the Ganges ; Tomistoma 
(2 sp.), found in the rivers of Borneo and North Australia. 



Family 55.— CEOCODILID^. (1 Genus, 12 
General Distribution. 

Tbe true Crocodileg, which have the canines in notches, and 
the large front teeth in pite in the upper jaw, are widely 
distributed over the tropical regions of the globe, inliahiting all 
the rivers of Africa, the shores and estuaries of India, Siam, 
and eastward to North Australia. Other forms inhabit Cuba, 
Yucatan, and Guatemala, to Ecuador and the Orinooko. Four 
species are Asiatic, one exclusively Australian, three African, 
and four American. These have been placed in distinct 
groups, but Dr. Giinther considers them aU to form one 
genus, Crocodilus. 

Family 56.- 






Gbbbeal DiSTHIBU'J 



™rZo^ s™f. 



1 s!S"« 


1 AueriuLiAS 




1 i 



The Alligators, which are distinguished by having both the 
large front teeth and the canines fitting into pits of the 
upper jaw, are confined to the Neotropical, and the southern 
part of the Nearctic regions, from the lower Mississippi and 
Texas through all Tropical America, but they appear to be 
absent from the Antilles. They, are all placed by Dr. Giinther 
in the single genus. Alligator. 

General Semarks on the ZHstrtbutioji of Croeodilia. 

These animals, being few in number and whoUy confined 

to the tropical and sub-tropical regions, are of comparatively 





little inteiest as regards geographical distribution. America 
possesses botli Crocodiles and Alligators; India, Crocodiles 
andGaviah; while Africa has Crocodiles only. Both Croco- 
diles and Gavials are found in the northern part of the 
Australian region, so that neither of, the three families are 
restricted to a single region. 

Fossil Grocodilia. 
The existing famiJiea of the order date back to the 
Eocene period in Europe, and the Cretaceous in North 
America. In the south of England, Alligators, Gavials 
and Crocodiles, aU occur in Eocene beds, indicating that the 
present distribution of these families is the result of partial 
extinction, and a gradual restriction of their range— a most 
instructive fact, suggesting the true explanation of a lai^e num- 
ber of cases of discontinuous distribution which are sometimea 
held to prove the former union of lands now divided by the 
deepest oceans. In more ancient formations, a number of 
Crocodilian remains have been discovered which cannot be 
classed in any existing families, and which, therefore, throw no 
light on the existing distribution of the group. 

Order V.— CHELONIA. 
Family 57.— TESTUDINID^. (14 Genera, 126 Species.) 

1.3.3. 4- I. a. 3. 4 l.S-4| 

The TestudinidEe, including the land and many fresh-water 
tortoises, are very widely distributed over the Old and New 
worlds, but are entirely absent from Australia. They are 
especially abundant in the Nearctie region, as far north as 
Canada and British Columbia, and almost equally so in the 

Vol. II.— 27 



Neotropical aud Orientd regions ; in tlie Ethiopian there is a 
considerable diminution in the number of species, and in the 
Palfearetie they are still less numerous, being confined to the 
warmer parts of it, except one species which extends as far north 
as Hungary and Prussia. The genera are : — 

Testudo (25 sp.), most abundant in the Ethiopian region, 
hut also extending over the Oriental region, into South 
Europe, and the Eastern States of North America ; Emys 
(64 sp.), abundant in North America and over the whole 
Oriental region, less so in the Neotropical and the PalEearctic 
regions; Cinosternon (13 sp.). United States and California, 
and Tropical America; Aromoahelys (4 sp.), confined to the 
Eastern States of North America ; Stawotypm (2 sp.), Guate- 
mala and Mexico; Ghdydra (1 sp.), Canada to Louisiana; 
Glaitdius (1 sp.), Mexico ; Dermatsmys (3 sp.). South America, 
Guatemala, and Yucatan ; Terrapette (4 sp.), Maine to Mexico, 
Sumatra to New Guinea, Shanghae and Formosa — a doubtfuUy 
natural group; Ginyxis (3 sp.). Pyxis (1 sp.), Ghersma (4 sp.), 
are all Ethiopian ; Dmmrilia (1 sp.), is from Madagascar only. 

Family 58.— CRELYDID^ (10 Genera, 44 Species.) 

General Distribution. 




. Z^.Z!Z. 







..a. 3 

-— , 


The Chelydidfe, or fresh-water tortoises with i 
retractile heads, have a remarkable distribution in the three 
great southern continents of Africa, Australia, and South 
.America; the largest number of species being found in the latter 
country. The genera are : — 

Pdtocephalus (1 sp.), Podocnevds (6 sp.), Hydromedwa (4 sp ), 
Chdys (1 spi), and FlaUmys (16 sp.), inhabiting South America 
from the Orinooko to the La Plata, the latter genus oeenning 
also in Australia and New Guinea; Chelodina (5 sp.), Ghhmys 
(1 sp.), and Mseya (2 sp.) from Australia; while Sit) nothfies 


(6 sp.), and Pelomedusa (3 sp.), inhabit Tropical and South Africa 
and Madagascar. 

Family 59.— TEIONYCHIDiE. (3 Genera, 25 Species.) 

General Distbibvtion. 

(fEoTBOPiaiL 1 NEiaerio 

PiLffiAECTIC ErmopiAH 1 ObIENTAI: j Atistbiliak 

|— »- 

4 1.2.3-|l.2.3.4J 

The distribution of the TrionycMdffi, or Soft Tortoises, is very 
different from that of the Chelydidfe, yet is ec[ually interesting. 
They abound most in the Oriental region, extending beyond it 
to I>rorthem China and Japaa In the Nearctic region they are 
only found in the Eastern States, corresponding curiously to 
the distribution of plants, in which the affinity of Japan to 
the Eastern States is greater than to California, The Triony- 
chidse are also found over the Ethiopian region, but not in 

The genera are, — Thonyx (17 sp.), which extends over the 
whole area of the family as above indicated ; Cycloderma (5 sp.), 
peculiar to Africa; Emyda (3 sp.), the peninsula of India, 
Ceylon, and Africa. 

Family 60.— CHELONIIC^. <2 Genera, 5 

Gbbebal Distribution. — All tlie warm and tropical Seas. 

The Marine Turtles are almost universally distributed. 
Dermatochelys (1 sp.), is found in the temperate seas of both 
the Northern and Southern Hemispheres ; Chelone {4 sp.), ranges 
over all the tropical seas — 0. mridis, the epicureans' species, 
inhabiting the Atlantic, while 0. iwhricata which produces the 
"tortoiseshell" of commerce is found in the Indian and Pacific 


410 GEOaBAPHICAL ZOOLOGY. [part rv. 

Eemarks on the Disiributiort of the Ghelonia. 

The four families into which the Chelonia are classed have 
all of them a wide disttibubion, though none are universal. 
The Ethiopian region seems to be the richest, as it possesses 3 
of the four families, while no other region has more than 2 ; 
and it also possesses 7 peculiar genera. Next comes the Neo- 
tropical region with 2 families and 6 peculiar genera ; the 
Australian with 3, and the Nearctic with 2 peculiar genera; 
while the Oriental and Palsearctic regions possess none that 
are peculiar. There are about 30 genera and 200 species 
in the whole order. 

Fossil Chelonia. — The earliest undoubted remains of this order 
occur in the Tipper Oolite. These belong to the Cheloniidse 
and Emydidffi, which are also found in the Chalk. In the 
Tertiary beds Chelonia are more abundant, and the Trionychidfe 
now appear. The Testudinidfe are first met with in the Miocene 
formation of Europe and the Eocene of North America, the 
most remarkable being the gigantic Colossochelys Atlas of the 
Siwalik Hills. It appears, therefore, that the families of the 
order Chelonia were already specialised in the Secondary period, 
a fact which, together with their more or less aquatic habit^ 
sufficiently accounts for their generally wide distribution. 
Species of Testudo, Emys, and Tnonyx, are found in the Upper 
Miocene of the south of France. 



Family 1.— C^CILIAD^. (4 Genera, 10 Species.; 


Sub-rbqioks. J Sdb-beoions. 1 Sdb-beqiohb. 

— I-— 1 — 

— 1'-- 

The C^ciliadBe are a curious group of worm-like Amphibia 
sparingly scattered over the three great tropical regions. The 
genera are, — Ocedlia, which inhabits West Airica, Malabar and 
South America ; Siphonopm, peculiar to Brazil and Mexico ; 
Ichihyopsis, trom Ceylon and the Khasya Mountains ; ajiAMhina- 
trrnia from Cayenne. 

Order n.—UEODELA. 
Family 2.— SIEENTD.^. (1 Genus, 3 


The genus Sir&n, consisting of eel-like Batrachians with two 
anterior feet and permanent branchife, inhabits the South- 
Eaatern States of North America from Texas to Carolina. 



Family 3.— PEOTEID.^. (2 Genera, 4 Species.) 

Gbnbral Distribution. 

The Proteidse have four feet and persistent external branchise. 
The two genera are, — Protms (1 sp.), found only in caverns of 
Centi'al Europe ; and Menobranehus, ■which are like newts in 
form, and inhabit the Eastern States of North America. 

Family 4.— AMPHITJMID^. {1 Genus, 2 Species.) 

General Distriiiiition. 




3 1- 

_ 1 



The genua Awphivma, or Mwrmnopsis, consists of slender eel- 
like creatures with four rudimentary feet, and no external 
branehife. The species inhabit the Southern United States from 
New Orleans to Carolina. 

Family 5,— MEN0P0MIDJ3. (2 Genera, 4 Species,) 

General Distribittion. 



a 1 4 1 1 1 

\ * 1 1 1 

There are large Salamanders of repulsive appearance, found 
only in Eastern Asia and the Eastern United States, The 
genera are, — Sieboldia (2 sp.), Japan and north-west China; 
Menoj)0'ma = Protonopsis (2 sp.), Ohio and Alleghany rivers. 


Family 6.— SALAMANDEID^. (20 Genera, ) 

General DiaTRiinrnoN. 


s™fB™o^. s™-k^™a. 



The SalamandridiB, of whicli our common Newts are charac- 
teristic examples, form an extensive family highly characteristic 
of the North Temperate regions, a few species only extending 
into the Neotropical region along the Andea to near Bogota, and 
one into the Oriental region in Western China, The genera, as 
arranged by Dr. Strauch, are as follows : — 

Salamand/ra (2 sp.), Central and South Europe and North 
Africa ; Plev/roddes (1 sp.), Spain, Portugal, and Morocco ; Brady- 
hates (1 sp.), Spain ; Triton (16 sp.J, all Europe except the 
extreme north, Algeria, North China and Japan, Eastern States 
of North America, California and Oregon ; Chioglossa (2 sp.) 
Portugal and South Europe ; Salamandrina (1 sp.), Italy to Dal- 
matia; EUipsoglossa (2 sp,), Japan; Isodactyliwm (2 sp.). East 
Siberia; Onyckodactylus (1 sp.), Japan; AmUystoma (21 sp.), 
Nearctie region from Canada and Oregon to Mexico.most abundant 
in Eastern States ; Sanodon (1 sp.), Tartary and North-east China ; 
Dicamptodon (1 sp.), California; Plethodmi (5 ap.), Massachusetts 
to Louisiana, and Vancouver's Island to California ; DeBitiognathus 
(4 sp.), Eastern United States south of latitude 43° ; Anaides (1 
sp.), Oregon and Northern California; Memidactylium (2 sp.). 
South-eastern United States and Southern California; Heredia 
(1 sp.), Oregon and CaHfornia ; jSpe/^es (18 sp.). Eastern United 
States from Massachusetts to Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica and 
Andes of Bogota, with a species in South Europe ; Batrackoseps 
(2 ap.), South-eastern United States and California ; Tylotriton 
(1 sp.), Yunan in West China. 



Family 7.— EHINOPHBYNID^, (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

General Disthibutioit. 




1 1 



1 I 


The EhinophrynidEe are Toads with imperfect ears and a 
tongue which is free in front. The single species of ^MMopAiy- 
nus, is a native of Mexico. 

Family 8.— PHEYNISCID^. (5 Genera, 13 Species.) 
GsNEBAt Distribution. 

,...3- I I |...__|__- 

The Phryniseidie, or Toads with imperfect ears and tongue 
fixed in front, are widely distributed over the warmer regions of 
the earth, hut are most abundant in the Neotropical region and 
Australia, while only single species occur in the Old World, The 
genera are :— 

Phrynisms (7 sp.), from Costa Eica to Chili and Monte Video ; 
BrachAfc&phalus (1 sp.), Brazil ; Pseudophryne (3 sp.), Australia 
and Tasmania ; Keniims (1 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Micrhyla {1 sp.), 

Family 9.- 



Genus, 5 



»?^."£ sS. 



I SubTS 

SS, 1 S^'uZ^^o'^^ 

.24 1 1 1 1 

1 "■ [ 




The Hylaplesidse are Toads with perfect ears, and they 
seem to be confined to the Neotropical region. The only genus, 
Hylaplesia (5 sp.), inhabits Brazil, Chili, and the Island of 

Family 10.— BUFONID.^. (6 Genera, 64 Species.) 

General Distju 

Nbotbopioal ] Neabctic 





12 3 41334 

13 3 4 

13 3 


Hie rather extensive family of the Bufonidse, which includes 
our common Toad, and is characterised by prominent neck glands 
and tongue fixed in front, is almost universally distributed, but 
is very rare in the Australian region ; one species being found 
in Celebes and one in Australia. The genera are : — 

KalophryvMS (2 sp.), Borneo ; Eufo (58 sp.), has the range of 
the entire family, except Australia; Otilophus (1 sp.), South 
America; Peltaphn/ne (1 ap.), Porto Eico; Pseudobu/o (1 sp.), 
Malay Peninsula; Schismaderma (1 sp.), Natal; Notadm{l sp.). 
East Central Australia. 

Family 11.— XENOKHINID^ (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

General Distkibuti 

The Xenorhinidie may be characterised as Toads with j 
ears and tongue free in front. The only species of Jmorhma is 
a native of New Guinea. 





Family 12.- 

-ENGYSTOMIDJi:. (15 Genera, 31 



= l'" 



i.a.3 - 1 - - 

3_| |-..,_|..«.S.4 

1 — 

The EngystomidiB are Toads without neck-glands and with the 
tongue tied in front. They are most abundant in the Oriental 
and Neotropical r^ions, especially in the latter, which contains 
about half the known species, with isolated species in Australia, 
Africa, and the Southern States of Korth America. They appear 
to be the renmanfc of a once extensive and universally distributed 
group, which has maintained itself in Vwo remote regions, but is 
dying out everywhere else. The genera are ; — 

Engystoma (9 sp.), Carolina to La Plata, with one species in 
South China ; Diplopelma (3 sp.), Soath India to China and 
Java ; Cacopus (2 sp.). Central India ; Glyphoglossm (1 sp.), Pegu ; 
Callida (4 sp,), Sikhim, Ceylon, China, and Borneo ; Brachymerm 
X sp.), South Africa; Adenomera (1 sp.), Brazil; Pdchybatraehus 
(1 sp.), Australia ; Brevieeps (2 sp,), South and "West Africa ; 
Chelydoiatrachus (1 sp,). West Australia; Sypopachus (1 sp.), 
Costa Rica; Ehinoderma (1 sp.), Cluli; Atelopm (1 sp.), Cayenne 
and Peru; Copea (1 sp.), South America; Paludieola (1 sp.), 
New Granada. 

Family 13.— BOMBINATOEIDiE. (8 Genera, 9 Species,) 



The Eombinafcorid^ are a family of Frogs which have imper- 
fect ears and no neck-glands, and they have a very peculiar and 



interesting diatribittion, "being confined to Central and South 
Europe, the southern part of South America, and New Zealand. 
They consist of many isolated groups forming five separate sub- 
families. The genera are : — 

Bomhinaior, Central Europe and Italy ; Pelobates and Didoms, 
Central Europe and Spain ; Telmatoiius {2 sp.), Peru and Brazil; 
Alsodes, Chonos Archipelago ; Cacotus, Chih ; lAopdma, New 
Zealand ; H^a/MiffpTi/rynB, Straite of Magellan. 

Family 14- 


(1 Genus, 1 Species.) 


&™OKt 1 9 "b' 

"™ToN5. Su"^™3, 1 BDB-RECi'o^ 

,, 1 s™™™s. 1 s* B.™t^. 

, 1 1 1 1 1 

1 1 

1 1 

The Pleotromantidffi, which are Erogs with neck-glands, and 
ttie toes but not the fingers dilated, consists of a single species of 
the genus Fleetromantis. It inhabits the region west of the 
Andes, and south of the Equator. 

Family 15.— ALYTIDiE. (5 Genera, 37 


The Alytidse are Frogs with neck-glands and undilated toes. 
They are most abundant in the Ethiopian region, with a few 
species in the Nearctic and Australian regions, and one in 
Europe and Brazil respectively. The genera are : — 

Alytes [X 8p.), Central Europe; Scaphiopus (5 sp.), California 
to Mexico and the Eastern States ; Wyperolius (29 sp.), all Africa, 
and two in New Guinea and North Australia ; Helioporus {1 sp.), 
in Australia ; Nattereria (1 sp.), BraziL 



Family 16.— PELODUYADiE. {3 Genera, 1 Species.) 
Geseeal Distkibittion. 


The Pelodryadse are Tree Frogs with neck-glands, and are 
confined to bhe Australian and Keotropical regions. Tlie genera 

Pkyllomedusa (3 sp.). South America to Paraguay ; 
Australia ; and Pelodryaa (3 sp.), Moluccas, New Guinea and 

Family 17.— HYLID^ (11 Genera, 94 Species.) 
Gbsebai. Dibtribtjtion. 

.2.3.4. 1.2.3 - 

The Hylidffi are glandless Tree Fi'ogs with a broadened sacrum. 
They are most abundant in the Neotropical region, which con- 
tains more than two-thirds of the species ; about twenty species 
ate Australian ; six or seven are Nearctic, reaching nortliward to 
Great Bear Lake ; while one only is European, and one Oriental. 
The genera are : — 

Syla (62 sp.), haying the range of the whole family ; Hyhlla 
(1 sp.), Ololygon (1 sp.), Pohlia (2 sp.), Trvprvm (1 sp.), OpiUho- 
delphys (1 sp.), and Hfototrema (4 sp.), are South American ; while 
Trachycephalus (8 sp.), is peculiar to the Antilles, except one 
South American species ; Pseudaa-is (1 sp.), ranges from Georgia, 
United States, to Great Bear Lake ; Litona {1 sp,), is Australian 
and Papuan, except one species in Paraguay ; Ceratohyla {4 sp.), 
is only known from Ecuador. 


F\MILT 18 



(24 Genera, 



General Distribution. 

a,!^" oTral! s 


I P.i,.«iS(Tic 1 Ethi 




l.a.3.4 3— 3 A l.a.3.4 1.2, 3. 4 l.a.3 — 

The Polypedatidas, or glandless Tree Frogs with narrowed 
sacrum, are almost equally numerous in tlie Oriental and Neo- 
tropical r^ons, more than forty species inhabiting each, while 
in the Ethiopian there are about half this number, and the re- 
mainder are scattered over the other three regions, as shown in 
the enumeration of the genera : — 

Ixalus (16 sp.), Oriental, except one in Japan, and one in 
Western Polynesia ; Hhacqphorus (7 sp.), and Theloderma (1 sp.), 
are Oriental ; Hylarana (10 sp.), Oriental, to the Solomon Islands 
and Tartary, Nicobar Islands, West Africa, and Madagascar; 
Megalixalus (1 sp.), Seychelle Islands ; Leptornantis (1 sp.), Phihp- 
pines ; Platymamiis (5 sp.). New Guinea, Philippines, and Fiji 
Islands ; Gormifer (2 sp), Java and New Guinea ; Polypedates (1 9 
sp.), mostly Oriental, but two species in West Africa, one Mada- 
gascar, two Japan, one Loo-Choo Islands, and one HongKong; 
Hylanibates (3 sp.), ffemimantis (1 sp.), and Ckiromantis (1 sp.), 
are Ethiopian ; Eappia (13 sp.), is Ethiopian, and extends to 
Madagascar and the SeycheUe Islands ; Aeris (2 sp.), is North 
American ; Elosia (1 sp.), Epirhixis (1 sp.), BkylldbateB (9 sp.), 
Bylodes (26 sp.), Hyloxalm (1 sp.), Pristimantis (1 sp.), Crosso- 
dactylus (1 sp.), Galoatetkvs (1 sp.), Strabontaniis (1 sp.), and 
Leiyla (1 sp.), are Neotropical^ the last two being Central Ame- 
rican, while species of Hylodes and PhyllobaUs are found in the 
West Indian Islands. 




Family 19.— RANID^ (26 Genera, 150 Species.) 



foZ l.a.3.4 1. a. 3. 4 1. a. 3. 4 1.2.3. 4 i.a 

The Ranidffi, or true Froga, are characterised hy having simple 
undiiated toes, hut neither neck-glands nor dilated aacrmn. 
They are almost cosmopolitan, extending to the extreme north 
and south from the North Cape to Patagonia, and they are equally 
at home in the tropics. They are perhaps most abundant in 
South America, where a large number of the genera and species 
are found ; the Ethiopian region comes next, while they are 
rather less abundant in the Oriental and Australian regions ; the 
Nearctic region has much less (about 12 species), while the Palas- 
arctie has only five, and these two northern regions only possess 
the single genus Hana. The genera are distributed as follows : — 

Sana (60 sp.), ranges all over the world, except Australia and 
South America, although it extends into New Guinea and into 
Mexico and Central America ; it is most abundant in Africa. 
Pyxieephalus (7 sp.), extends over the whole Ethiopian region, 
Hindostan, the Himalayas, and Japan; Cystignatlms (22 sp.), 
is mainly Neotropical, but haa three species Ethiopian. All the 
other genera are confined to single regions. The Neotropical 
genera are : — Odontophiyims (1 sp.), Psewdds (1 sp.), Pithecopsis 
(1 sp.), Ensophlmis (1 sp.), Zimiwcharis (1 sp.), Remiph/ractus 
(1 sp.), all Tropical South American east of Andes ; Ceratophrys 
(5 sp.), Panama to La Plata ; Cydoramphus (1 sp.). West Ecuador 
and Chili ; Plmrodema (6 sp.), Venezuela to I 
(12 sp.), Mexico and St. Domingo to 
(1 sp.), ChUoe. The Australian genera are : — Myxophyes (1 sp.), 
Queensland ; Platypleetrvm (2 sp.), Queensland and West Aus- 
tralia ; Neobatrachus (1 sp.). South Austraha ; Limnodynastes 
7 ap.), and Crinia (11 sp.), Australia and Tasmania. The 



Oriental genera are : — Dicroglossits (1 sp.), Western Himalayas ; 
Oxyglossus (2 ap.), Siam to Java, Philippines and China ; Eoplo- 
hatraclms (1 sp.), Ceylon; Phrynoglosms (1 sp,), Siam. The 
Ethiopian genera are : — Phrynobatrachm (1 sp.), Stenorhyncfms 
(1 sp.), botli from NataJ. 

Family 20.— DISCOGLOSSID^ (14 Genera, 18 Species.) 


TTeotcopioai. 1 


1 i^^^l 1 


1 s?^!^;^*.. ' 



1 1 2 3 4] 

a 3 1 

3 3 4 



1 1 



The Liscoglossidte, or Frogs with a dilated sacrum, are re- 
markable for the number of generic forms scattered over a large 
part of the globe, being only absent from the Kearetic and the 
northern half of the Neotropical regions, and also from Hindostan 
and East Africa, The genera are : — 

Ohirol&pies {4 sp.), Australia ; Galy^locejihalws (1 sp,), allied to 
the preceding, from ChUi ; Cryptotis (1 sp.), Australia ; As- 
t&rophys (2 sp.). New Guinea and Am Islands ; ^enophrys (1 sp.). 
Eastern Himalayas ; Megalophrys (2 sp.), Ceylon and the Malay 
Islands ; Fannophrys (1 sp.), Ceylon ; Pdodytes (1 sp,), France 
only ; LeptobracMum (1 sp.), Java ; Discoglosms {\ ap.), Vienna 
to Algiers ; Laprissa (1 sp.), Latonia (1 sp.), Paltearctic region ; 
Arthroleptis (2 sp.), West Africa and the Cape; Qrypisciis (1 
sp.); South Brazil 

Family 21.— PIPID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

General DiaritiBUTioN. 

g=,= 1 .£=.. [ l-i=£. 1 .r.=. ; ,?."=.. j i-;s 


a 1 - 1 1 1 1 

"II 1 I "1 



The Pipidje ai-e toads without a tongue or maxillary teeth, and 
with enormously dilated sacram, The only species of Fipa ia a 
native of Guiana. 

Family 22.— DACTYLETHEID^, (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 

General Distkibutiom, 




1 P«L«ABCTia 1 ETHIOPIA!! | 



1 S^Jk^ 


The Paetylethridffi are Toads with maxillary teeth hut no 
tongue, and with enormously dilated sacrum. The species of 
Dactylethra, are natives of West, East, and South Africa 

General Bemarks on the Disiribuiion of tlie Ampliibia. 

The Amphibia, as here enumerated, consist of 22 families, 
162 genera, and nearly 700 species. Many of the families have a 
very Hmited range, only two (Eanidse and PolypedatidEe) being 
nearly universal ; iive more extend each into five regions, whUe 
no less than thirteen of the famihes are confined to one, two, or 
three regions each. By far the richest region is the Neotropical, 
possessing 16 families (four of them peculiar) and about 50 
peculiar or very characteristic genera. Next comes the Austra- 
lian, witii 11 families (one of which is peculiar) and 16 pecu- 
liar genera. The Nearctie i-egion has no less than 9 of the 
families (two of them peculiar to it) and 15 peculiar genera, 
13 of which are tailed Batrachians which have here their 
metropolis. The other three regions have 9 families each; 
the PaUearctic has no peculiar family but no less than 15 
peculiar genera ; the Ethiopian 1 family and 12 genera peeuHar 
to it; and the Oriental, 19 genera but no family confined to it. 

It is evident, therefore, that each of the regions is well 
characterised by its peculiar forms of Amphibia, there being 
only a few genera, such as Hpla, Eana, and £u/o which have a 
wide range. The connection of the Australian and Neotropical 



regions is well shown in this group, by the Phryniscidse, 
Hylidfe, and Discoglossid^, which present allied forms in both ; 
as well as by the genus Liopelma of New Zealand, allied to 
the Bombinatoridfe of South America, and the absence of the 
otherwise cosmopolitan genus Eana from both continents. The 
affinity of the Nearctic and Paliearctic regions is shown by the Pro- 
teidffl, which are confined to them, as well as by the genus Triton 
and almost the whole of the extensive family of the Salaman- 
dridfe. The other regions are also well differentiated, and there 
is no sign of a special Ethiopian Amphibian fauna extending 
over the peninsula of India, or of the Oriental and Paltearctic 
regions racing into each other, except by means of genera of 
universal distribution. 

Fossil Amphibia. — The extinct labyrinthodontia form a separ- 
ate order, which existed from the Carboniferous to the Triassie 
period. No other remains of this class are found till we reach 
the Tertiary formation, when Newts and Salamanders as well 
as Frogs and Toads occur, most frequently in the Miocene de- 
posits. The most remarkable is the Andrias schmchseri from 
the Miocene of (Eningen, which is allied to Sieboldia maxima 
the great salamander of Japan. 

VoL. II.— 28 




Sub-class I.— TELEOSTEI. 


Family 1.— GASTEEOSTEID^. (1 Genus, 11. Species.) 

" Fresh- water or marine sealeless fishes, with elongate com- 
pressed bodies and with isolated spines before the dorsal iin." 

Distribution. — Pal^arotie and Nearctic r 

The species of Gasterosteus, commonly called Sticklebacks, are 
found in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and seas, as far south as Italy 
and Ohio. Four species occur in Britain. 

Family 2.— BERYCID^. (10 Genera, 55 & 

" Marine fishes, with elevated compressed bodies covered with 
toothed scales, and large eyes," 

Distribution. — Tropical and temperate seas of both hemi- 

Their northern limit is the Mediterranean and Japan. Most 
abundant in the Malayan seas. 


Family 3.— PEECIDiE. (61 Genera, 476 Speciea.) 

" Marine or fresh-water carnivorous fishes, with oblong bodies 
covered with toothed scales." 

Distribution. — Seas, rivers and lakes, of all regions. 

The genera which inhabit fresh- waters are the following: — . 

Perca (3 sp.), inhabits the Neatctic and Palffiarctic regions as 
far south aa Ohio and Switzerland ; one species, the common 
perch, is British. Fereichthys (6 sp.), Chili and Patagonia, with 
one species in Java; Paralahrax (2 sp.), Cahfomia; Lahrax 
(8 sp.), six species are marine, inhabiting the shores of Europe 
and North America, one being British, two species inhabit the 
rivers of the northern United States ; Lates (2 sp.), Nile and 
large rivers of India and China ; Acerina (3 sp.), Europe, from 
England to Eussia and Siberia ; Permrina (1 sp.), Eiver Dniester ; 
Lueioperca (6 sp.). North America and Europe ; Pileoma (2 sp.), 
North America, Texas to Lake Erie ; Bokosoma, (3 sp.), Texas to 
Lake Superior ; Aspro (2 sp.), Centi-al Europe ; Huro (1 sp.), Lake 
Huron ; FerciUa, (1 sp.), Eio de Maypu in Chili ; Ceidrarclius (10 
sp.). North America and Cuba ; Bryttus (8 sp.). South Cai-olina 
to Texas ; Pomotis (8 sp.). North America, Lake Erie to Texas. 

Of the exclusively marine genera a species of Polyprion 
and one of Serranus are British. The latter genus has nearly 
150 species spread over the globe, but is most abundant in the 
Tropics. Mesoprion is another extensive genus confined to the 
Tropics. Apoyon abounds from the Eed Sea to the Pacific, but 
has one species in the Mediterranean and one in the coast of 

Family 4— APHEEDODEEID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

"Fresh-water ftsh, with oblong body covered with toothed 
scales, and wide cleft mouth." 

Distribution — Atkntie States of North America. 



Family 5.— PEISTIPOMATID^. (25 Genera, 206 Species.) 

" Marine carnivorous ffslies, with compressed oblong bodies, 
and without molar or cutting teeth." 

Distribution. — Seas of temperate and tropical regions, a few 
only entering fresh water. 

Of the more extensive ■ genera, nine, comprising more than 
half the species, are confined to the Indian and Austiulian seas, 
while only one large genus (ffrnmulmi) is found in the Atlantic 
on the coast of Tropical America. The extensive Pacific genus, 
Diagramma, has one species in the Mediterranean. One genus 
is confined to the Macquarie Eiver in Australia. A species of 
Sentex has oeenrred on the English coast, and this seems to be 
the extreme northern range of the family, which does not 
regularly extend beyond the coast of Portugal, and iu the East to 
Japan. Ai^tralia seems to form the southern limit. 

Family 6.— MULLID^. (5 Genera, 34 Species.) 

" Marine fishes, with elongate slightly compressed bodies 
covered with large scales, and two dorsal fins at a distance from 
each other." 

Distribution, — All tropical seas, except the West Coast o 
America, extending into temperate regions as far as the Baltic, 
Japan, and i^ew Zealand. 

Two species of MuUvs (Mullets) are British, and these are 
the only European fish belonging to the family. 

Family 7.— SPAEIDiE. (22 Genera, 117 Species.) 

" Herbivorous or carnivorous marine fishes, with oblong com- 
pressed bodies covered with minutely serrated scales, and with 
one dorsal fin." 

Distribution, — Seas of temperate and tropical regions, a few 
entering rivers. 


CHAP, xs.] FISHEa 427 

Cantharus, Pagellus, aad Ghrysophrys, have occurred on the 
English Coast. Haplodactyliis is confined to the Weat Coast of 
South America, and Australia ; Sargus to the temperate and- 
waiTa parts of the Atlantic and the shores of East Africa; 
Pagellus to the western coasts of Eilrope and Africa 

The other large genera have a wider distrihution. 

Family 8.— SQUAM1PENNE8. (12 Genera, 124 Species.) 
" Carnivorous marine flahes, "with compressed and elevated 
bodies, and scaly vertical fins." 

Distribution. — The aeaa between the tropics, most abundant 
in the Oriental and Australian regions, a few enterii^ rivers or 
extending beyond the tropics. 

The extensive genus Chcetodon (C7 sp.), ranges from the Eed 
Sea to the Sandwich Islands, and from Japan to Western Aus- 
tralia, while two species are found in the West Indies. Holaean- 
tkits (36 ap.), has a similar distrihution, one species only occurring 
in the West Indies and on the coast of South America. Only 
one genus {Pomaca/itthusj, with a single species, is confined to 
the West Atlantic. 

Family 9.— CIREHITID^. (8 Genera, 34 Species,) 
" Cainivorous marine fishes, with a compressed oblong body, 
covered with cycloid scales." 

Distribution. — The tropical and south temperate waters of 
the Indian and Pacific oceans, from Eastern Africa to Western 
America. Absent irom the Atlantic, 

Family 10.— TEIGLID^. (50 Genera, 259 Species.) 
"Carnivorous, mostly marine fishes, with oblong compressed 
or suhcylindrical bodies, and wide cleft mouths. They live at 
the bottom of the wfiter," 

Distribution, — All seas,' some entering fresh water, and a few 
inhabiting exclusively the fresh waters of the Arctic r 


428 GEOGEApmCAL ZOOLOGY. [paet iv. 

They are divided by Dr. G-iinther into four groups. The 
Heterolepidina (comprising 4 genera and 12 species) are con- 
fined to the North Pacific. The ScorpEenina (23 genera 113 
species) have an almost universal distribution, but the genera 
are each restricted to one or other of the great oceans. Sebastes 
has occurred on the English coast. The Cottina (28 genera 110 
species) have also a universal distribution ; the numerous species 
of Cottus are found either in the seas or fresh waters of Europe 
and North America ; four species are British, as well as seven 
species of the wide-spread genus Trigla. Ptyonotiis (1 sp.) is 
confined to Lake Ontario. The Cataphracti (5 genera, 23 species) 
have also a wide range ; one genus, Agonus, is found in the 
British seas, and also in Kataschatka and on the coast of Chih. 
Periaietkm is also British. 

Family 11.— TEACHINID^. (24 Genera, 90 Species.) 

" Carnivorous marine fishes, with elongate bodies, living at the 
bottom, near the shore." 

Distribution. —Almost or quite universal. 

TracMnus is a British genus. A species of Aphritis inhabits 
the fresh waters of Tasmania, while its two allies are found on 
the coasts of Patagonia. 

Pamily 12. SCI^NID^. (13 Genera, 102 Species.) 

" Marine or fresh-water fishes, with compressed and rather 
elongate bodies, covered with toothed scales." 

DiSTEiBunoN. — Temperate and tropical regions, but absent 
Irom Australia. 

Larimm is found in the Atlantic, and in African and American 
rivers. Gorvina. Sdmna, and Otilothus are also marine and fresh- 
water, both in the Atlantic and Pacific. The other genera are of 
small extent and more restricted range. Umirina and Sdwna 
have occurred in British seas. 


Family 13.— POLYNEMID^. (3 Genera, 23 Species.) 
" Marine or fresh-water fishes, with compressed oblong bodies 

and entire or ciliated scales." 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — Tropical seas and rivers of both the great 

oceans,, but most abundant in the Pacific. 

Family 14.— SPHYEENID.^. (1 Genus, 15 Species.) 
"Carnivorous marine fishes, with elongate sub-cylindrical 
bodies covered with small cycloid scales." 
DiSTBiRUTiON. — The warm and tropical seas of the globe. 

Family 15.— TEICHIUEID^. (7 Genera, 18 Species.) 
" Marine fishes, with elongate compressed bodies covered with 
minute scales or naked." 

Distribution. — -All the tropical and sub-tropical seas. 

Family 16.— SCOMBEID^. (20 Genera, 108 Species.) 
" Marine fishes, with elongate compressed bodies, scaled or 

Distribution. — All the temperate and tropical oceans. Mostly- 
inhabiting the open seas. 

Seamier, (the Mackerel) Thynrvas, Nauf^ates, Zfftis, Centra- 
lopMs, Brama, and Lam^is, are genera which have occurred in 
the British seas. 

Family 17.— CAEANGID^ (27 Genera, iVl Species.) 
" Marine fishes, with compressed oblong or elevated bodies 
covered with small scales or naked," 

DlsTEiEUTlON.^ Air temperate and tropical seas ; some species 
occur in both the great oceans, ranging from New York to Aus- 

Trarkiirus and Cap-os are genera which occurin British seas. 



Family 18.— XIPHIID^ (2 Genera, 8 Species.) 

" Marine lishes, with elongate compressed body and a produced 
sword-shaped upper jaw," 

Distribution. — Mediterranean, and open seas between or near 
the Tropics. 

Xiphias (the Sword-fish) has occurred on the I 

Family 19.— GOBIID^. (24 Genera, 264 Species.) 

" Carnivorous fishes, with elongate low, naked, or scaly bodies, 
living at the bottom of the shallow seas or fresh waters of tem- 
perate or tropical regions. Individuals of the same species often 
differ in inhahiting exclusively fresh or salt water. 

Distribution. — All temperate and tropical regions, from 
Scotland and Japan to New Zealand. Species of Gobius, Latrun- 
cidus, and Oallionym/iis oecnr in Britain, Several genera are 
confined to the East Indian seas and rivers, but none seem 
peculiar to America. The genus Periopthalnms consists of the 
curious, large-headed, projectiug-eyed fishes, so abundant on the 
muddy shores of African and Eastern tidal rivers, and which seem 
to spend most of their time out of water, hunting after insects, &c. 

Family 20.— DISCOBOLI. (2 Genera, 11 Species,) 

" Carnivorous fishes, with ohlong nated or tubercular hodies, 
living at the bottom of shallow seas, and attaching themselves 
to rocks by means of a ventral disc. 

Distribution. — All northern seas, as far south as Belgium, 
England, and San Francisco. 

Species of both genera {Cycl&pterm and Liparis) occur in 
British seas, 


Family 21.— OXUDERCTDiE. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" A marine fish, with an elongate sub-cyUadrical body and no 
ventral fins." 

DiSTRiBUTiON,~Macao, China. 

Family 22.— BATEACHID^. (3 Genera, 12 Species.) 

" Marine fishes, with sub-cylindrical body and broad depressed 

DlSTHlBUTiON. — The coasts of nearly all tropical and south 
temperate regions, ranging from New York and Portugal to 
Chili and Tasmania. 

Family 23.— PEDICULATI. (8 Genera, 40 Species.) 
" Marine carnivorous fishes, with very large heads and without 

DiSTRiBTmoN. — Seas of all temperate and tropical regions, 
extending south to New Zealand and north to Greenland. 

A species of Jbophius (the Fishing-frog or Sea- Devil) is found 
in British seas. The genus Ant&nnarius, comprising two-thu'ds 
of the species, ia wholly tropical 

Family 24.— BLENNID^ (33 Genera, 201 Species.) 

" Carnivorous fishes, with long sub-cylindrical naked bodies, 
living at the bottom of shallow water in seas, or tidal rivers." 

DiSTRiBTjTiON. — All soas from the Arctic regions to New 
Zealand, Chdi, and the Cape of Good Hope, 

Species of AnarrhK-hat Elennmi Blemnops Cmtronotus and 
Zoarces occur in Bntish seas Chasmod-tA fS sp ) is confined to 
the Atlantic coasts of Temperate North America; Petrosdrtes 
(26 sp.) to the tropical p'lits of the Indnn ^nd Pacific ( 
and 8tick^us (9 sp) to the Arctic ''eas 



Family 25.— ACANTHOCLIKID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

"A eamivocous marine fish, with long flat body and very 
long dorsal fin." 

DiSTRiEUTlo:f. — Coasts of New Zealand. 

Family 26.— COMEPHOKID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" An elongate, naked, large-headed fish, with two dorsal fina." 

Distribution. — Lake Baikal. 

Dr. Giinther remarks, that this fish approaches the Scombrina 
(Maj^kerel) in several characters. These ate exclusively marine 
fishes, while Lake Baikal is fresh-water, and is situated among 
mountains, at an elevation of nearly 2000 feet, and more than a 
thoiusand miles from the ocean 1 

Family"27.— TRACHYPTEEIDJS. (3 Genera, 16 Species.) 
"Deep sea fishes, with elongate, much compressed, naked 

Distribution. — Europe, East Indies, West Coast of South 
America, New Zealand. Dr. Giinther remarks, that little is 
known of these fishes, from their being so seldom thrown on 
shore, and then rapidly decomposing. The Eibbon-fish (EegaJe- 
CMS hanksii) has occurred frequently on our shores. They have 
soft bones and muscles, small mouths, and weak dentition. 

Family 28.— LOPHOTID^.. (1 Genus, 1 

1 fish, with elongate compressed naked body, and 
high crested head." 

Distribution. — Mediterranean Sea and Japan. 


Pamily 29.— TEUTHIDIDiE. (1 Genus, 29 

"Marine, herbivorous fishes, with eompresaed, oblong, small- 
scaled bodies." 

DiSTKiBXJTiON. — Eastern tropical seas, from Bourbon and the 
Ked Sea to the Marianne and Fiji Islands. 

Family 30.— ACEONUEID^. {5 Genera, 64 Species.) 

" Marine, herbivorous lisbes, with compressed, minutely-scaled 

DiSTElBUTiON. — All tropical seas, but most abundant in the 
Malay region, and extending to Japan and New Zealand. 

Family 31 .— HOPLEGNATHID.^. (1 Genus, 3 Species.; 

" Marine fishes, with compressed elevated bodies, covered with 
very small toothed scalea" 

Distribution. — Seas of Australia, China, and Japan. 

Family 32.— MALACANTHID^. (1 Genus, 3 S 

" Mai-ine fishes, with elongate bodies covered with very small 
scales, and with very long dorsal and anal fins." 

UlSTElBUTiON. — Atlantic coasts of Tropical America, Mauritius, 
and New Guinea, 

Family 33.— NANDID^. (6 Genera, 14 Species.) 

" Marine or fresh-water carnivorous iishes, with oblong, com- 
pressed, scaly bodies." 

Distribution. — From the Eed Sea to the coasts of China 
and Australia; and the fresh waters of the Neotropical and 
Oriental regions. Badis, Nandus, and Catop-a inhabit the 



rivers of India and the Malay Islands ; Acharnes the i 
British Guiana. 

Familt 34— POLYCENTEID^ (2 Genera, 3 Species.) 

"Fresh- water carnivorous fishes, with compressed elevated 
scaly bodies, and many-spined dorsal and anal fins." 

DiSTEiBtiTioN. — Rivers of Tropical America. 

Family 35.— LABYEINTHICI. (9 Genera, 25 Species.) 

"Fresh-water fishes, with compressed oblong bodies, and 
capable of living for some time out of water or in dried mud." 

Distribution. — Freshwaters of South Africa and the East 
Indies from the Mauritius to China, the PhUippines, Celebes, 
and Amboyna. 

Family 36,— LUCIOCEPHALIDjE. (1 Genus, 1 Species,) 

" Fresh-water fish, with elongate scaled body, and a dilated 
branchial membrane." 

DlSTRiBCTlON.— Eivers of Borneo, Biliton, and Banca. 

Family 37.— ATHEEINID,^. (3 Genera, 39 Species.) 

" Marine or fresh-water carnivorous fishes, with subcylind- 
rical scaled bodies, and feeble dentition." 

DisTUlBunoH.—AU temperate and tropical seas, from Scotland 
and New York to the Straits of Magellan and Tasmania, 

AtJierina. preshyter ocoms in British seas. Species oi Atherim. 
and Atherinichtlm are found in fresh-water lakes and rivers in 
Europe, America, and Australia. 


Family 38.— MUGILID^. (3 Genera, 78 Species.) 

" riesh-water and marine fishes, with oblong compreased 
bodies, cycloid scales, and small mouths, often without teeth." 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — Coasts and fcesh waters of all temperate and 
tropical regions. 

Mugil (66 sp.) is mostly marine, and is very widely distri- 
buted ; several species (Grey iVIuUets) occur on the British 
coasts. Agonostoma (9 sp.) is confined to the fresh waters of 
the West Indies, Central America, New Zealand, Australia, 
Celebes, and the Comoro Islands. Myams (3 sp.) is marine, and 
occurs both in the Atlantic and Pacific. 

Famly 39.— OPHIOCEPHALID^. (2 Genera, 26 Species.) 

"Presh-water fishes, with elongate subcylindrical scaled bodies ; 
often leaving the water for a considerable time." 

Distribution. — Eivers of the Oriental r^on:— India, Ceyloi 
China, Malay Islands to Philippines and Borneo. 

Family 40.~TEICHONOTID^. (2 Genera, ,2 S 

" Marine carnivorous fishes, . with elongate subcylindrical 
bodies, cycloid scales, and eyes directed upwards." 

DlSTEiEUTlON. — Coasts of Celebes, Ceram, and New Zealand. 

Family 41.— CEPOLID^ (I Genus, 7 Species.) 

" Marine fishes, with very long, compressed, band-like bodies, 
covered with small cycloid scales." 

Distribution. — Temperate seas of Western Europe and East- 
em Asia, and one species in the Malayan Seas. 

C^ola rubescms (the Band fish) ranges from Scotland to the 
Mediterranean. All the other species but one are from Japan. 



Famzly 42.— GOBEESOCID^ (9 Geuem, 21 Species.) 

"Carnivorous marine fiahes, elongate, anteriorly depressed 
and scaleless, with dorsal fin on the tail." 

Distribution.— Temperate and tropical aeas ; Scandinavia to 
the Cape, California to Chili, West Indies, Eed Sea, Australia, 
New Zealand, and Fiji Islands. 

Three species of Lepadogaster have occurred in the English 

Family 43.— PSYCHEOLUTID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" A laa^e-headed, elongate, nalced marine fish, with small 
teeth, and dorsal fin on the tail." 

Distribution.— West Coast of North America (Vancouver's 

Family 44.— CENTEISCID^. (2 Genera, 7 

" Marine fishes, with compressed, oblong or elevated bodies, 
elongate tubular mouth and no teeth." 

Distribution. — West Coast of Europe and Africa, Mediterra- 
nean, Indian Ocean to Java, Philippines, and Japan. 

A species of Oentriscus has occurred on the South Coast of 
England, and another species is found both at Madeira and 

Family 45.— FISTULARID.^. (2 Genera, 4 Species.) 

" Marine fishes, very elongate, with long tubular mouth 
and small teeth." 

Distribution.- Tropical seas, both in the Atlantic and Indian 
Ocean, and as far east as the New Hebrides. 


Family 46— MASTACEMBELID^. (2 Genera, 9 Species.) 

" Freali-water fishes, with eel-hke bodies and very long dorsal 

Distribution. — Eivers of the Oriental region, one species from 
Ceram (?). 

Family 47.~N0T ACANTHI. (1 Genus, 5 Species.) 
" Marine fishes, with elor^ate hodies covered with very smfjl 
scales, and snout protruding heyond the mouth." 

Distribution. — Greenland, Mediterranean, and West Aus- 


Family 48.— POMACENIEID^. (3 Genera, 143 Species.) 

"Marine fishes, with short compressed hodies covered with 
toothed scales, and with feeble dentition." 

Distribution. — Tropical parts of Pacific and Indian Ocean, 
less numerous in Tropical Atlantic, a few reaching the Medi- 
terranean, Japan, and South Auatraha. Pomacentrus, GlypM- 
dodon, and Heliastes are Atlantic genera. 

Family 49.— LABEID^. {46 Genera, 396 Species.) 
" Herhivorous or carnivorous marine fishes, with elongate 
hodies covered with cycloid scales, and teeth adapted for 
crushing the shells of moUusea." 

DiSTEiBUTlON. — Temperate and tropical regions of all parts 
of the globe. 

The genera Lairus, Grmilabrus, Ctenolabnis, Aeantkotabms, 
Centrolahrus, and Coris, have occurred in British seas, and all of 


438 GEOGRAPHICAL ZOOLOGy. [part iv. 

these, except the iast, are confined to the Mediterranean and the 
Atlantic as far as Madeira. Eight other genera are characteristic 
of the Atlantic, most of them being West Indian, but one from 
the coasts of North America. Seven genera are common to all 
the great oceans ; the remainder being confined to the Indian 
and Pacific Oceans, ranging from Japan to New Zealand, but 
being far more abundant between the Tropics. 

Family 60.— EMBEOTOCID^. (2 Genera, 17 Species.) 
" Marine viviparous fishes, with compressed elevated bodies 
covered with cycloid scales, and with small teeth." 

DiSTRiBunoK. — Pacific Ocean from Japa.n and California 
northwards. One species enters the fresh waters of California. 

Tamily 51.— G-ERElDiE. (1 Genus, 28 Species.) 

" Marine fishes, with compressed oblong bodies covered with 
minutely serrated scales, and with small teeth." 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — Tropical seas ; ranging south as far as the 
Cape of Good Hope and Australia, and north to Japan and 
(one species) to New Jersey, U.S. 

Family 52.— CHROMID^. (19 Genera, 100 Species.) 

" Fresh- water herbivorous or carnivorous fishes, with elevated 
or elongate scaly bodies, and small teeth." 

Distribution. — The Oriental, Etliiopian, and Neotropical re- 

Eutroplm (2 sp.) is from the rivers of Southern India and 
Ceylon; Chromis (15 sp.), Sarotherodon (2 sp.), and Hemi- 
ehromis (4 sp.), are from the rivers and lakes of Africa, ex- 
tending to the Sahara and Palestine. The remaining 15 genera 
are American, and several of them have a restricted distribution. 
Acara (17 sp.) inhabits Tropical South America and 'the 
Antilles ; Theraps (1 sp.), Guatemala ; S^os (26 sp.), Texas and 



Mexico to La Plata ; Mesmauta (1 sp.), Brazil ; Felenia (1 sp.), 
Lake Peten, Guatemala ; Uaru (2 sp.), Brazil ; Hygrogonus 
(1 sp,), Brazil ; Cichla (4 sp.), Eq^uatorial America ; Crenicichla 
(9 3p.), Brazil and Guiana; Chmtdbranchus (3 ep.), Brazil and 
Gaiana ; Mesops (2 sp.), Brazil ; Sataiwperca (7 sp.), Amazon, 
Valley and Guiana ; GeopJiagus (1 sp,). North Brazil and Guiana ; 
Synvphysodon (1 sp.). Lower Amazon; Fterophyllum . (1 sp.). 
Lower Amazon. 


Family 53.— GADOPSID^, (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" Fresh-water fish, with rather elongate body covered with very 
small scales, the upper jaw overhanging the lower, forming an 
obtuse snout." 

DlSTsiBunoN.-— Eivers of Australia and Tasmania. 

Family oSct.— LYCODID^. (3 Genera, 14 Species.) 

"Marine fishes, with elongate bodies, and the dorsal united 
with the anal fin." 

DlSTKlBUTiON, — Arctic seas of America and Greenland, and 
Antarctic seas about the Falkland Islands and Chiloe Island. 

Family 54.— GADIDiE. (21 Genera, 58 Species.) 

"Marine fishes, with more or less elongate bodies covered 
with smaR smooth scales," 

DiSTElBUTiON. — Cold and temperate regions of both hemi- 
spheres ; in the North extending as far south as the Mediterranean, 
Canary Islands, New York and Japan (and one species to the 
Philippines and Bay of Bengal), and in the South to Chili and 
New Zealand. 

Gadus (Cod), Merlucdus (Hake), Fhyeis, Lota, Molva, Couchia, 
Motella, and Ranieeps, are BritisK Lota inhabits fresh waters. 
Vol. II.— 29 



Family 55.— OPHIDIID^. (16 Genera, 43 S 

"Marine fishes, with more or less elongate todies, the dorsal 
and anal fins united, and the ventral fins rudimentary or absent." 

Distribution. — Almost universal ; from Greenland to New 
Zealand, but most abundant in the Tropics. 

Opkidmm and Ammodytes occur in British seas ; Lucifiiga 
inhabits subterranean treah waters in Cuba. 

Family 56.— MACROUEIDjE. (3 Genera, 21 Species.) 

" Marine fishes, with the body terminating in a long, eom- 
tapering taU, and covered with spiny, keeled or striated 

DiSTRXBUTiON. — North Atlantic from Greenland to Madeira 
and the Canary Islands, Mediterranean, Japanese and Austrahan 

None of these fishes have occurred in the British seas. 

Family 57.~ATELE0P0DID-^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" Marine fishes, with the naked body terminating in a long 
compressed, tapering tail" 

Distribution. — Japan. 

Family 58.— PLEUEONECTIDJj;. (34 Genera, 185 Species.) 
" Marine carnivorous fishes, with strongly compressed flat 
bodies, one side of which is colourless, and eyes unsyrametrically 
placed, both on the coloured side. They inhabit the sandy 
bottoms of shallow seas, and often ascend rivers." 

Distribution.- Universal, on Arctic, Temperate, and Tropical 


CHAP. XX.] nsHES. 441 

Seven genera occur in British seas, viz. : Hippoglossvs, Hippo- 
glossoides, Ehombus, Phrynorhomius, Amoglossus, Pleuroneetes 
(Turbot), and Solea- (Sole). There are 13 genera in the Atlantic 
and 23 in the Pacific, 4 being common to both ; and 2 found 
only in the Mediterranean. A Pacific genus, Synaptura, Jias 
one species in the Mediterranean. 


Family 59.— SILURID^. (H4 Genera, 547 Species,) 

"Fresh- water or marine, scaleless fishes, often with bony 
shields, and the head always furnished with barbels." 

Distribution. — The fi«sh waters of all the temperate and 
tropical regions, those which enter the salt water keeping near 
the coast. 

This extensive family is divided by Dr. Giinther into eight 
sub-famihes and seventeen groups, the distribution of which is 
as follows :— 

Sub-family 1 (SiLTJitiD^ffl Homalofter*:) is confined to the 
Old World. It consists of three groups : Clarina (2 genera, 
Clarias and Hcterohranchus)- ranges over the whole area of the 
Ethiopian and Oriental regions, to which it appears to be strictly 
confined ; Plotosina (3 genera, Plotosas, Gopidoglanis, and Cnido- 
glams) ranges from the eastern coasts of Africa to Japan, Poly- 
nesia, and Australia, in seas and rivers ; Cbacina (1 genus, Chaca) 
ranges from India to Borneo. 

Sub-family 2 (SlLUElD^ Heteeopter^) js also confined to the 
Old World ; it consiste of one group, — Silurina, containing 19 
genera, viz. : — Saccdhranchus (4 sp.), India to Cochin China and 
Ceylon ; Silunts (5 sp.), PalEearctio region from Central Europe 
to Japan, China, and Afghanistan, and a species in Cochin China; 
Silv/richthys (3 sp.), Cashmere, Java, and Borneo ; Wallago (2 sp.), 
Hindostan, Sumatra, and Borneo ; Belodontichihys (1 sp.}, Su- 
matra and Borneo ; Eutropiichthys (1 sp.), 'Bengal ; Grypinpterus 


442 GEOaRAPHICAL ZOOLOGY. [past jv. 

(15 sp.), Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, with a species in the 
Ganges, in Siam, and (?) in Amboyna; Callichrous (10 sp.), 
Afghanistan to Borneo and Java ; ScMlbe (5 sp.), Tropical Africa; 
Eutropius (6 sp.), Tropical Airica and Central India ; ffemisilurm 
(2 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; SUuranodon (1 sp.), Nile ; Ailia 
(2 sp.), Bengal ; Sohilbkhthys (1 sp.), Bengal ; Lais (1 sp.), Java, 
Sumatra, Borneo ; Psmdeutropius (6 sp,), India and Sumatra ; 
Pangasius (7 sp.), Ganges, Sumatra, Java, Borneo ; Helicophoffus 
(2 ap,), Sumatra ; Silondia (1 sp.), Ganges. 

Sub-family 3 (SlLURlD^ Anomalopter^) is confined to 
Equatorial America; it consists of the group Hypopthalmina, 
containing 2 genera : Rdogenes (1 sp.), Hyp<yp{halmvs (4 sp.), 
from the country north of the Amazon, Surinam, and the Kio 

Sub-family 4 (Silueid^ Proteropter.*;) ranges over all the 
tropical and most of the temperate parts of the globe, except 
Europe and Australia. It consists of four groups : Bagrina 
(16 genera), ranging over most of the Old World and North 
America; Pimelodina (15 genera), confined to Tropical America, 
except one genus which is African; Ariina (10 genera), all 
Tropical regions ; and Bagarina (3 genera), Oriental region. The 
distribution of the genera is as follows ; — 

Bagrus (2 sp.), Nile ; Ch/rysicMhys (5 sp.). Tropical Africa ; 
Clarotes (1 sp.). Upper Nile; Macrones (19 sp,), India, Ceylon 
to Borneo, and one species in Asia MinoT ; Psmtdobagrtis (4 sp.), 
Japan, China, and Cochin China ; lAocassis (5 sp.), Japan, China, 
Java, Sumatra, and Borneo ; Bagroidcs (3 sp.), Sumatra and 
Borneo ; Bagrichthys (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo ; Rita (5 sp.), 
Continental India and Manilla ; Acroclwrdonichthys (6 sp,), Java 
and Sumatra ; Alcysis (3 sp,), Java and Sumatra ; Olyra (1 sp,), 
"Khasya; Branchiosteus (1 sp.), Khasya; Amiurus (13 sp.), 
Nearctic region to Guatemala and China ; Hopladelus (1 sp.), 
North America ; N'otums (4 sp,), North America ; SorvMm 
(1 sp.), Amazon; Platyslmna (11 sp.). Tropical South America; 
ffemisoruiim (1 sp.) Eio Negro, Brazil; Platistomatiehthys 
(1 sp.),.Iiio Branco, Brazil; Phractocephalus (1 sp.), Amazon; 
Pimmiitana (2 sp.). Equatorial Amei-ica ; Platynematichthys 


(1 sp.), northern and southeru tributaries of Amazon ; Piratinga 
(3 sp.), Amazon Valley; Sciades (2 sp.), Amazon; Pividodus 
(42 sp.}, Mexico to La Plata, single aberrant species from West 
Africa, Java and the Sandwich Islands ; Pirinampm (1 sp.), 
Brazil ; Conorhynchus (1 sp.), Brazil ; Notoglawis (1 sp.), Madeira, 
Amazon Valley ; Gallophi/sus (3 sp.). Tropical South America ; 
Auchenaspis (1 sp.). Tropical Africa ; Arim (68 sp.), all Tropical 
regions ; Galeiehtkys (1 sp.), Cape of Good Hope ; Gmidens (1 
sp.), Brazil; Memipimelodus {3 sp.), India, Sumatra, and Borneo; 
Ketmgus (1 sp.), Sunda Islands; jElv/ncMkys (4 sp.). Eastern 
United States to Guiana ; Paradiplortiystax (1 sp.), Brazil ; Si- 
plorn/ystax (1 sp.). Chili ; Osieogeniosus {3 ap.), India to Java ; 
Batrachoc&phaX'os (1 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; Baga/rms {1 sp.), 
India to Java; Mucli/ptoslemum (1 sp.), India; Glyptoste^-num- 
(8 sp.), Himalayas, Central India, Java, and Sumatra; Sara (3 
sp.), Continental India; Ainhlyceips (3 sp.). Continental India, 

Sub-family 5 (Silurid^ STENOBEitfCHL*;} is confined to South 
America and Africa, with one genus and species in the Gaines. 
It consists of three groups : Doradina (12 genera). South America 
and Africa; Ehinoglanina (3 genera). Central Africa and the 
Ganges ; Malapterurina (1 genus). Tropical Africa. The distri- 
bution of the genera is as follows :— 

Ageniosm (4 sp.), Surinam to La Plata ; Tetranematwkthys (1 
sp.), Central Brazil, Eio Guapore ; Utianemm (1 sp.), Surinam 
and Brazil ; Aiichenipterus (9 sp.). Equatorial America ; Centro- 
mocklus (2 sp.). Equatorial America ; Traekdyopterm (2 sp.). 
Equatorial America ; Gdopsis (3 sp.), Brazil ; Asterophyms (1 
sp.), Eio Negro, North Brazil; Doras (l.^S sp.),. Tropical South 
America east of Andes ; Oxydoras (7 sp.), Amazon Valley and 
Gniana; Rhinodoras (3 sp.). Tropical South America east of 
Andes ; Synodontis (12 sp.). Tropical Africa ; Rhinoglanis (1 sp.). 
Upper Nile ; Mochoous (1 sp.), Nile ; Gallomystax (1 sp.), Nile ; 
Malaptemrus (3 sp.). Tropical Africa, 

Sub-family 6 (Sn-UKiD^ Peoteropodes) inhabits Tropical 
America and Northern India as far as Tenasserim. It consists 
of two groups : the Hypostomatina (lY genera), with the same 
distribution as the sub-family, and the Aspredinina (3 genera). 



confined to Equatorial America. The distribution of the genera 
is as follows : — 

Arges (2 sp.), Andes of Peru and Ecuador ; Stygogenes (2 sp.), 
Andes; Brontes {1 spl), Andes; Astroblepus (1 sp.), Popayau; 
CalUehthys (11 sp.). Tropical South America east of Andes, and 
Trinidad; Pleeostomus (15 sp.), Tropical South America east of 
Andes, and Triuidad ; Ziposarcm (3 sp.), Surinam and Brazil; 
Chtetostomus (25 sp.), Tropical America, Trinidad, and Porto 
Kico ; Ft&rygoplicklhijs (4 sp.), Brazil ; Eh/indepis (1 sp.), Brazil; 
AeantMcus (2 sp.). Equatorial America; Loricaria (17 sp.). 
Tropical South America east of Andes ; Aeestra (4 sp.),. Brazil 
and Guiana ; Sisor (1 sp.), Northern Bengal ; Ereihistes (1 sp.), 
Assam ; Pseudecheneis (1 sp.), Khasya Hills ; Exostoma (2 sp.), 
Assam and Tenasserim; Punoeephalus (2 sp.), Guiana; Bimo- 
cepkaiwhtli'e/s (1 sp.); Eio Branco, North Brazil ; Aspredo (6 sp.), 

Sub-family 7 (SlLURlD^ Opisthoptee^) consists of two 
groups: Nematogenyina (2 genera), and Trichomycterina (3 
genera), and is confined to South America. The distribution of 
the genera is as follows : — 

Heptctpterus. (2 sp.), South America; Nematogenys (1 sp.), 
Chili; Trichomyderus (7 sp.), South America to 15,000 feet 
elevation; .EremopkUvs (1 sp.), Andes of Bogota; Pariodon (1 
sp.), Amazon. 

Sub-family 8 (SlLUKlD^ Beanchicol^si) is confined to. Tropi- 
cal South America. It consists of one group, Stegopbihna, and 
.2 genera : , Stegophilus (1 sp.), Brazil ; and VandelMa (2 gp.), 
Amazon Valley. 

Family 60. CHARACIN1D./E. (47 Genera, 230 Species.) 

" Tresh-water fishes, with scaly bodies and without barbels." 

Distribution.— The Neotropical and Ethiopian regions. 

This extensive family is divided by Dr, Giinther into 10 groups, 
viz. : Erythrinina (5 genera). South America ; Curumatina 



(6 genera), South America; Cithariiiina (1 genus), Tropical Africa ; 
Anostomatina (3 genera). South America ; Tetragonopterina (16 
genera), South America aad Tropical Africa; Hydrocyonina 
(9 genera). Tropical America and Tropical Africa ; Distichodon- 
tina (1 genus), Tropical AfiicA ; Icthyborina (1 genus), Africa ; 
Grenucliina (1 genus), Equatorial America ; Serrasalmonina (4 
genera). South America. 

The following is the distribution of the genera : — 
Macrodon (4 sp.). Tropical America ; Eryihrmvs (5 sp.}, 
Brazil and Guiana; Lehiasina (1 sp.). West Equatorial Ame- 
rica ; PyrrhuZiiui {1 sp.), Guiana ; Corynopoma f4 sp,), Trinidad 
only ; Curvmatus (15 sp.), Tropical South America and Trini- 
dad; Prockilodus (12 sp.). South America to the La Plata; 
Gcentropus (2 sp.). East Equatorial America; Hemiodus (8 sp.). 
Equatorial America east of Andes ; Saccodon (1 sp.), Ecuador ; 
Parodon (1 sp.), Brazil; OUharinm (2 sp.). Tropical Africa; 
Anostomus (8 sp.). Tropical America ; BkptiodiiB (2 ap.). Equa- 
torial America; Leporimis (14 sp.). South America East of 
Andes ; Piabueina (2 sp.), Guiana ; Alestes (4 sp.). Tropical 
Africa : Brackyalestes (5 sp.). Tropical Africa ; Teiragonopierus 
(32 sp.), Tropical America ; (Scissor (1 sp.), South America; Pseu- 
dochalcms (1 sp.). West Ecuador ; Ckirodon (2 sp.). Chili ; Clial- 
ceiis (I 8p.), Guiana; Brecon (10 sp.). South America east of 
Andes; OJmleinqpsis (4 sp.), Central America and Ecuador; 
Bryanwps (2 sp.), Tropical America; Oreagrtdus (1 sp.), Wtsteva 
Ecuador ; Ghalcinm (4 sp.), Tropical South America ; Qastro- 
pelecus (8 sp.), . Tropical South America ; Piabuca (2 sp.). Equa- 
torial America ; Agoniates (1 sp.), Guiana ; Anaci/rtits (7 sp.), 
Central and South America ; Hystricodon (1 sp.). Equatorial 
America ; Salminm (3 sp.). South America ; Bydrocyon (3 sp,). 
Tropical Africa ; Sareodaces (1 sp.). West Africa ; Oligosarms 
(1 sp.), Brazil; Xiphoramphus (7 sp,). South America east of 
Andes ; Xiphostotna (5 sp.). Equatorial America east of Andes ; 
Cynodtm (3 sp.). Tropical America East of Andes ; Didichodus 
(7 sp.). Tropical Africa ; Icthyborus (3 sp.), Nile ; Crenuchvs (1 
sp.), Guiana; Mylesiniis (1 sp.), Equatorial America; Serrasalmo 
(13 sp.). Tropical South America east of Andes ; MyUtes (18 sp.), 



Tropical South America east of Andes ; Catoprion (3 sp.), Brazil 
and Guiana. 

Family 61.— HAPLOCHITONID^. (2 Genera, 3 Species.) 

" Fresh-water fishes, with naked or scaly bodies and without 

DisTKiBUTlON. — Temperate South America and South Aus- 

The genera are, Haphdviton (2 sp.), Tierra del Fuego and the 
Falkland Islands ; Prototrodes (2 sp.), Southern Australia and 
Kew Zealand. 

Family 62.— STERNOPTYCHIDiE. (6 Genera, 12 Species.) 

" Marine iishes, with very thin deciduous scales or none, and 
■with a row of phosphorescent spots or organs on the under 
surface of the body," 

Distribution.— Mediterranean and Atlantic. 

These are deep-sea fishes found in the Mediterranean sea, and 
in the deep Atlantic from the coasts of Norway to the Azores 
and the 'Tropics. 

Family 63.— SCOPELID^. (11 Genera, 47 Species.) 

"Marine fishes, somewhat resembling the fresh-water Siluridfe." 

Distribution. — ^Almost universal, but most abundant in warm 
and tropical seas. 

These are deep-sea fishes, abounding in the Mediterranean 
and the . great oceans, a few extending north to near Greenland 
and south to Tasmania. 


Family 64.— STOMIATID^. {4 Genera, 8 Species.) 

" Small marine fishes, naked or with very fine scales." 

Distribution.— The Mediterranean and Atlantic. 

These are deep-sea fishes, ranging from Greenland to beyond 
the Equator. 

Family 65.~SALM0NID/E. (15 Genera, 157 Species.) 

"Fresh-water fiahes, many species periodically descending 
to the aea and a few altogether marine : — ^Salmon and Ti-out." 

DisTElBUTlON. — The Paltearctic and Nearctie Regions, and one 
genus and species in New Zealand. A considerable number of 
species are confined to single lakes or rivers, others have a wide 

The genera are distributed as follows : — 

Salmo (83 sp.), rivers and lakes of tlie Palfearctic and 
Nearctic Eegions, as far south as Algeria, Asia Minor, the Hindoo- 
Koosh and Kamschatka, and to about 38° North Latitude in 
North America, many of the species migratory ; Onehm-hynehus 
(8 sp.), American and Asiatic rivers entering the Paoific, as far 
south as San Francisco and the Amur ; Sraahymystax (1 sp.), 
Siberian rivers, from Lake Baikal and the Atlai Mountains 
northwards ; Ludotrutta (2 sp.), Caspian Sea and Volga; 
Plecoglossm (1 sp.), Japan and Formosa ; Osinerm (3 sp,), rivers 
of temperate Europe and North America entering the Atlantic, 
and one species in California; Thaleiokthys (1 sp.), Columbia 
Eiver, Vancouver's Island; Hypomesvs (1 sp.), coasts of Cali- 
fornia, Vancouver's Island, and North-eastern Asia; Mallotus 
(1 sp.), coasts of Arctic America from Greenland to Kams- 
chatka; Eetropinna (1 sp,), fresh waters of New Zealand; 
Coreffonus (41 sp.), fresh waters of northern parts of temperate 
Europe, Asia and North America, many of the species migra- 
tory ; Tkymallus (6 sp.), fresh waters of temperate parts of 


448 &BOQEAPHICAL ZOOLOGY. [past iv. 

Europe, Asia, and North America ; Argentina (4 sp.), Mediter- 
ranean and deep seas of Western Europe ; Microstoma (2 sp.), 
Mediterranean, and seas of Greenland ; Salarix (2 sp,), China and 
Japan, in seas and rivers. tSalmo, Osmerus, Coregonm, and 
ThymaUus, are British genera. 

Jamily 66.— PEECOPSID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 
" A fresh-water iish covered with toothed scales." 
PiSTfilBUTlON. — Lake Superior, North America. 

Eamily 67.— GALAXID.^. {1 Genus, 12 Species.) 

" Fresh-water iishes, with neither scales nor barbels." 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — The temperate zone of the Southern Hemi- 

The only genus, Galacdas, is found in New Zealand, Tasma- 
nia, and Tierra del IHiego, ranging north as far as Queensland 
and Chili ; and one of the species is absolutely identical in the 
two regions. 

Family 68.— MOEMYEID.^. (3 Genera, 25 f 

" Fresh-water fishes, with scales on the body and tail but not 
on the head, and no barbels." 

Distribution. — The Ethiopian Eegion. 

Most abundant in the Nile, a few from the Gambia, the 
Congo, and Rovuma. The genera are :■ — 

Mormyrm (1 sp,), Nile, Gambia, West Africa, Mozambique, 
KoVuma ; Hyperopsius (2 sp.), Nile and West Africa ; Mor^ny- 
rops (4 sp.), Nile, West Africa and Mozambique. 


Family 69.— GYMNAECHID^, (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" Presh-water fishes, reseinbling the Mormyridse, but with 
tapering finless tail, and neither aual nor ventral fins." 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — Ethiopian region. 

The only geuus, GymnarcJnts, inhabits the Nile and the rivers 
of West Africa. 

Family 70.— ESOCID^. (1 Genus, 7 Species.) 

" Fresh-water fishes, with scaly bodies, no barbels, and dorsal 
flns situated towards the tail." 

DlSTEiBUTlON.— The Nearctic and Palsearctio regions. 

One species, the Pike (Hsox lucius) ranges from Lapland to 
Turkey, and in America from the Arctic regions to the Albany 
river ; the remainder are American species extending South as 
far as New C 

Fajiily 71.— UMBEID^. (1 Genus, 2 i 
"Small fresh-water scaly fishes, without barbels or adipose fin," 
DiSTRiBUTioH. — Central Europe and TemperateNorth America. 

Family 72.— SCOMBEESOCID^Jl. (5 Genera, 136 Species.) 

" Marine or fresh-water fishes, with scaly bodies and a series 
of keeled scales along each side of the belly." 

LiSTKiBUTiON. — ^Temperate and tropical xi 

All the genera have a wide distribution. A species of Belone 
and one of Scombresox are found on the British coast. The Flying 
fishes {Exoaetws, 44 sp.), belong to this family. They abound 
in all tropical seas and extend as far as the Mediterranean aiid 
Australia. None of the genera are exclusively fresh-water. 



but a few species of Belone and Hemiramphus are found in rivers 
in vai'ious parts . of the world. 

Family 73.— CYPEINODONTID^. (20 Genera, 106 Species.) 

"Presh- water fishes, covered with scales, the sexes freiiuently 
differing, mostly viviparous," 

DlSTRlBtirioN. — Southern Europe, Asia, Africa and North 
America, but most abundant in Tropical America. 

The distribution of the genera is as follows -.^ 
Cyprinodon (11 sp.), Italy, North Africa and Western Asia to 
Persia, also North America from Texas to New York ; Fitzroya 
(1 sp.), Montevideo ; Characodon (1 sp.), Central America ; Tellia 
(1 sp.), Alpine pools of the Atlas : Limnwrgus (1 sp.), Mexican 
plateau ; Ltic/inia (1 sp.), Texas ; Ha^lochilvs (18 sp.), India, 
Java, Japan, Tropical Africa, Madagascar, and the Seychelle 
Islands, Carolina to Brazil, Jamaica ; Fimdidus (17 sp.), North 
and Central America and Ecuador, Spain and East Africa ; 
Rivuliis (3 sp.). Tropical America, Cuba and Trinidad ; Orestias 
(6 sp.). Lake Titacaca, Andes ; Jmynsia (1 sp.), Eio Plata ; Pseu- 
doadphophorus (2 sp.). Central America ; Belonesox (1 sp.). Cen- 
tral America; Qawiusia {8 sp.), Antilles, Central America 
ana Texas ; Anahleps (3 sp,). Central and Equatorial America ; 
Pcecilia (16 sp.), Antilles, Central and South America; Mol- 
limesia (4 sp.), Louisiana to Mexico; Platypfedlus (1 sp.), 
Mexico; Girarddtius (10 sp.), Antilles and South Carolina to 
Uruguay; Zepistes (1 sp.), Barbadoes, 

Family 74— HETEEOPYGII. (2 Genera, 2 Species.) 

" Fresh-water fishes, with posterior dorsal fin, and very small 

Distribution.- — Fresh waters of the United States. 

AmUyopds (1 sp.) is a blind fish found in the caverns of Ken- 
tucky ; while Chologastes (1 sp.), which only differs from it in 
having perfect eyes, is found in ditches in South Carolina. 


Family 75.— CYPEINID^. (109 Genera, 790 Species.) 

" Fresh-water fishes, generally scaly, with no adipose fin, and 
pharyngeal teeth only, the mouth being toothless." 

DlsTEIBUTiON. — Fresh waters of the Old World and North 
America, but absent from Australia and South America. 

This enormous family is divided by Dr. Gtinther into fourteen 
groups, the distribution of which is as follows :— 

Catostomina (4 genera). North America and North-east Asia ; 
Cyprinina (39 genera), aame range as the family ; Eohteichthyina 
(1 genus), Malay Archipelago ; Leptobarbina (1 genus), Malay 
Archipelago ; Easborina (5 genera), East Africa to China and 
Boi'neo ; Semiplotina (2 genera). Western Asia ; Xenocypridina 
(3 genera). Eastern Asia; Leuciscina (10 genera), PalEearctic 
and Nearctic r^ons ; Ehodeina (3 genera), Palsearetic region ; 
Danionina (9 genera), India to China and Japan ; Hypophthal- 
michthyina (1 genua), China; Abramidina, (16 genera), same 
range as the family; Homalopterina (2 genera), India to Java ; 
Cobitidina (10 genera), Paliearctic and Oriental regions. 

The following is the distribution of the genera :— 

Caiostomus (16 sp.), Nearctic region and Eastern Siberia; 
Moxosioma (2 sp.). Eastern United Stat-es; SclerognatJms (5 sp.), 
Temperate North America to Guatemala, also Northern China ; 
Oarpiodes (1 sp.). United States ; Cypriwus (2 sp.). Temperate 
parts of Paltearctic region (1 sp, British) ; Carassius (3 sp.), 
Temperate Pa]«arctic region (1 sp. British) ; Catla (1 sp.). 
Continental India ; CirrMna (5 sp.). Continental India to China; 
Dangila (6 sp.), Java, Sumatra, Borneo; Odeochilus (14 sp.), 
Siam to Java and Sumatra ; Laheo (27 sp.). Tropical Africa and 
Oriental region ; Tylognathus (10 sp.), Syria, India to Java ; 
AbrostOTiivs (2 sp.). South Africa; Discognaihus (4 sp.), Syria to 
India and Java, mostly in mountain streams ; Crossochihis (9 sp.), 
India to Sumatra and Java ; Gymnostoinus (7 sp.). Continental 
India ; Epalzeerhynckus (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo ; Capoeta 
(13 sp.). Western Asia; Barbtis (163 sp.). Temperate or Tropical 



parta of Evirope, Asia, and Africa {1 sp. Britiah) ; 
(2 sp.), Pegu, Borneo, and Sumatra ; BarbicMhys (1 sp,), Java, 
Sumatra, and Borneo ; AmMyrhynchichthys (1 sp.), Sumatra and 
Borneo ; Albulickthys (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo ; Oreinm (3 
sp.), Himalayan region ; Sehixothorax (13 sp.), Himalayan region 
and west to Afghanistan and Persia ; Ptychobarhus (1 sp,), Thibet ; 
QymnoGypris (1 sp.), loc. unknown ; SchizopygopsisX^ sp.), Thibet; 
Liptyehius (1 sp.), Himalayas and Thibet ; Aviopyge (1 sp.). 
Western Asia ; QoUo (2 sp.). Temperate Europe (1 sp. British) ; 
Psmdogdbio (4 sp.), China, Japan, and Fonnosa ; Cemtickthys (9 
sp.). Temperate North America ; Bungia (1 sp.). Western Asia, 
Herat ; Pimephales (2 sp.), Eastern United States ; Hyhorhyiiohiis 
(3 sp.). Eastern United States; Bricymba (1 sp,), United States; 
I^eudorasbora (1 sp.), Japan, China ; Cachlognatkus (1 sp.), Texas; 
Bxoglosswm (2 sp,). United States ; Ehiniehthys (6 sp.), Eastern 
United States ; Bohteiehthys (1 sp,), Borneo and Sumatra; Lepto- 
bat^na (1 sp.), Sumatra and Borneo; Easbora (12 sp.), East 
Coast of Africa, India, to Java and Borneo ; Lueiomna (3 sp.), 
Java, Sumatra, and Borneo ; Nuria (2 sp.), India, Tenassevim, 
and Ceylon ; Aphyocypris (1 sp.). North China ; AmUypkaryn- 
godon (3 sp.), India to Tenasserim ; Cyprinion (3 sp.), Syria and 
Persia ; Semiplotus (1 sp.), Assam ; Xenocypris (1 sp.), China ; 
ParacanthoiraTita (1 sp.), China; Mystacolmcus (1 sp.), Sumatra; 
Zeudseus (84 sp.), Nearetic and Palsearctie regions (5 sp. are 
British); Ctenopharyngodon {1 sp.), China; Mylopkarodon (], 
sp.), California ; BarapJuxdnus (2 sp.). South-eastern Europe ; 
Meda (1 sp.). River Giia ; Tmca (1 sp.), Europe (Britain to Con- 
stantinople) ; ZmcosoMUS (8 sp.), Nearetic region ; Ckondrostoma 
(t sp.), Europe and Western Asia; Orthodon (1 sp.), California; 
Acrochilus (1 sp.), Columbia River ; Achilognathws (6 sp.), China, 
Japan, and Formosa ; Bhodeus (3 sp.). Central Europe and China; 
Pseudoperilampus (1 sp.), Japan; Banio (8 sp.), India and Cey- 
lon; Bterosarion (2 sp.). Central India and Assam ; Aspidoparia 
(3 sp.), Continental India ; .BaWK'«s(15sp.),EastAfricaand Con- 
tinental India ; Sola (1 sp.), Ganges to Bramahputra ; Schtm-a 
(1 sp,), Bengal; Opsariichthys (5 sp,), Japan and Formosa; 
Squalidbarhus (1 sp.), China ; OchetoUus (1 sp,), North China ; 


CHAP, xs.] PISHES. 453 

Hypo;phthalimchthys (2 sp.}, China; Abramis (16 sp,). North 
America, Central Europe, and Western Asia (1 sp. is British) ; 
Aspim (3 ap.). East Europe, Western Asia, China ; Alhimus (15 
sp.), Europe and Western Asia (1 British sp.) ; Basborichtkys 
(1 sp.), Borneo; Mopichfhys (1 sp.), China; Pelotrophm (2 sp.). 
East Africa; Acanthoh-ama (3 sp.), Western Asia; Ostedbrwma 
(5 sp.). Continental India; Chanodichthys (6 sp.), China and 
Formosa ; SmUiogaster (1 sp.), Bengal ; CuUer (2 sp.), China ; 
Fdecm (1 sp.). Eastern Europe ; Eustira (1 sp.), Ceylon ; Chela 
(16 sp,), India to Siam, Java and Borneo; Pseudolahiea (1 sp.), 
China ; Gachim (1 sp.). Continental India ; Som/daptera (8 sp.), 
India to Cochin China, Java, and Sumatra ; Psilorhynclmis (2 
sp.). North-eastern India; Misgurrms (5 sp.), Europe to India, 
China, and Japan ; Nmiachiliis (37 sp.), Europe and Asia ; 
Cohiiis (3 sp.}, Europe, India, Japan ; Zepidocepalichthys (3 sp.), 
India, Ceylon, and. Java; Acanihopsis (2 sp,), Tenaaserira, Su- 
matra, Java, and Borneo ; Sotia (7 sp.), India to Japan and 
Sunda Isles ; Orecnieeies (I sp.), China ; Lepidoeephalvs (1 sp,), 
Java and Sumatra ; Acanthopthalmus (2 sp.), Java and Sumatra ; 
Apua (1 sp.), Tenasserim ; Kneria (2 sp.). Tropical Africa. 

Faiuly 76.— GONOEHYNCHIDiE. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" A marine fish with spiny scales, mouth with harhels, and 
with short dorsal fin opposite the ventrals." 

Distribution,— Temperate parts of Southern Oceans, and 

Family 77.— HYODONTID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" A fresh-water fish with cycloid scales and posterior dorsal 

DiaTElBUTioN. — Fresh waters of North America, 



Family 78.— OSTEO&LOSSID^. (3 Genera, 5 Speciea.) 

"Fresh-water fishes, with lai^e hai-d scales, and dorsal fin 
opposite and equal to the anal fin," 

Distribution. — Tropical rivers. 

The genera are : — Osteoglossum (3 sp,), Eastern South America, 
Sunda Islands, and Queensland; Arapavma (1 sp.), Eastern 
South America^-tbe " Pirarucii " of the Amazon ; Heterotis (1 
sp.). Tropical Africa. 

Family 79.— CLUPEID/E. (18 Genera, 161 Species,) 

" Marine scaly fishes, without barbels, and with the abdomen 
often compressed and serrated." 

Distribution. — Seas of the whole globe, many species enter- 
ing rivers. Tliey are most abundant in the Indian seas, less so 
in America, scarce in Africa, while they are almost absent from 
Australia, The Henlng, Sprat, Shad, and Pilehard, are British 
species of Clwpea, a genus which contains 61 species and ranges 
all over the world. 

Family 80.— CHIROOENTEID^. (1 Genus, 1 Sp-ecies.) 

"A marine fish, with thin deciduous scales, no barbeis, and 
posterior dorsal fin." 

DiSTEiBUTlON. — The Eastern seas from Africa to Chma. 

Family 81.— ALEPOCEPHALIDjT:. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" A marine fish, covered with thin cycloid scales, no barbels, 
and posterior dorsal fin." 
Distribution. — Deep waters of the Mediterranean. 


Familt 82.— NOTOPTEEID^.. (1 Genua, 5 Species.) 

" Fresh-water fishes, without barbels, head and body scaly, 
long tapering tail, and short posterior dorsal fin." 

Distribution. — Eivers of India, Siam, the Sunda Islands, and 
West Africa. 

Family 83.— HALOSAUEID^, (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" Marine fishes, with cycloid scales, a short median dorsal iin, 
and no barbels." 

DisTEiBUTiON. — Deep waters of the Atlantic, Madeira. 

Family 84— GYMNOTID^ (5 Genera, 20 Species.) 
" Fresh-water fishes, with elongate bodies, pointed tail, and no 

Distribution. — Tropical America from Trinidad to the Eiver 

The genera are distributed as follows : — 

Stemarchiis (8 ap.), Guiana and Brazil ; RkamjihicMhys 
(6 sp.), Guiana and Brazil ; Sternoph^gus (4 sp.), Tropical 
America ; Carapus (1 sp,), Trinidad to Brazil ; GymMotus, (1 sp. 
— the Electric eel), Tropical South America. 

Family 85.— SYMBEANCHID,.^. (4 Genera, 6 Species.) 

" Marine and fresh-water fishes, having elongate bodies without 
fins, and very minute scales or none." 

Distribution. — Fresh waters and coasts of Western Australia 
and Tasmania. 

The genera are : — 

Airvphipniym (1 sp.), Bengal; Monopterus (1 sp.), Siam to 
Northern China and Sunda Islands ; Symbranckm (3 sp.), Tropical 
Vol. II.— 30 



America, and India to Australia; Chilohranchus (1 sp.), Australia 
and Tasmania. 

FAMlLf 86.— MUE^NIDiE. (26 Oienera, : 

" Marine or fresh-water fishes, with cylindrical or band-like 
bodies and no ventral fins." 

Distribution. — The seas and fresh waters of temperate and 
tropical regions. This family is divided by Dr. . Giinther into 
two sub-families and nine sections. The genus Anguilla, com- 
prising our common Eel and a number of species from all parts 
of the world, is the only one which is found. in fresh water, 
thougli even here most of the species are marine. AngwUla and 
Conger are the only British genera. 

Fmiily 87.— PEGASIDiE. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) 

" Small marine fishes, covered with bony plates, and short 
opposite dorsal and anal fins." 

DiSTEiBTjnos. — Indian Ocean and seas of China and Aus- 


"Fish with a segmented bony covering, long snout, and small 
toothless mouth." 

Family 88.— SOLENOSTOMTD^. (1 Genus, 3 

"Marine Lophobranchii, with wide gill openings and two 
dorsal fins." 

DiSTEiBUTlON. — Indian Ocean, from Zanzibar to China and 
the Moluccas. 


Faiuly 89.— SYNGNATHID^. (15 Genera, 112 Species.) 

" Marine Lophotraneliii, with very small gill opening and one 
soft dorsal fin." 

DlSTElBOTlON. — All the tropical and temperate seas. Some 
species of Syngnathm, Doryiehthys, and Gailonotvs enter fresh 
water, and a few live in it exclusively. Siphonostmnct, Syngna- 
ik/us, MeropMs, and Sippocampm are British genera. The 
Hi^pocampina (5 genera, 25 sp.), or Sea-horaes, are peculiar to 
the Indian and Pacific Oceans, except three or four species of 
s in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. 


"Eishes covered with rough scales or shields, having a 
narrow mouth, and soft posterior dorsal fin." 

Family 90.— SCLEEODERMI. (7 Genera, 95 Species.) 

"Marine Pleetognathi, with toothed jaws." 

Distribution. — Temperate and Tropical seas, but much more 
abundant in the Tropics. 

FAMiLy 91.— GYMNODONTES. (10 Genera, 82 Species.) 

" Marine or fresh-water Pleetognathi, with jaws modified into 
a beak." 

DiSTEiBTJTiON. — Temperate and tropical regions. 

s of Tetrodon are found in the rivers of Tropical 

America, Africa, and Asia. Species of Tetrodon and Orfha- 
goriseus have been found on the British coasts. 



Sub-class II.— DIPNOI. 

Family 92. — Sieenoidei. (3 Genera, 3 Species.) 

"Eel-shaped fresh-water fishes, covered with cycloid s 
the vertical fins forming a continuous border to the com 
tapering tail." 

Distribution. — Elvers of Tropical Africa, South America, and 

The genera are : — Protopterus (1 sp.), Tropical Africa ; Lepido- 
sir&i (1 sp.), Amazon Valley ; Ceraiodm (1 sp.), Queensland. 

Sub-class III.— GANOIDEI. 

Order l—HOLOSTEI. 
" Body covered with scales." 

Family 93.— AMIID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" A fresh-water fish, with cycloid scales and a long soft dorsal 

DisTEiBUTioN. — United States. 

Family 94— POLYPTEEID^. (2 Genera, 2 Species.) 

" Fresh-water fishes, with ganoid scales and dorsal spines." 

Distribution. — Central and Western Africa. 

The genera are ; — 

PolypUrus (1 sp.), the Nile and rivers of West Africa; Gitla- 
■moiehthys (1 sp.). Old Calabar. 


Family 95.— LEPIDOSTEID^. (1 Genus, 3 Species.) 

" R'esh-water fishes, with ganoid scales, and dorsal and anal 
fins composed of articulated rays." 

DiSTKlBUTiON. — The genus Lepidostms, the Garfishes or Bony 
Pikes, inhabits North America to Mexico and Cuba. 


" Sub-cartilaginous scaleless fishes with heterooercal tail, the 
skin with osseous bucklers or naked." 

Family 96.— ACOIPENSEEID^ (2 Genera, 20 Species.) 

"Marine or fresh-water fishes with osseous bucklers and inferior 

Distribution. — Temperate and Arctic regions of the northern 
hemisphera Aacipcnmr (19 sp.), comprising the Sturgeons, has 
the distribution of the family ; most of the species are marine, 
but some are confined to the Caspian and Black Seas and the 
great American lakes with the rivers flowing into them, while 
the Danube, Mississippi, and Columbia Elver have peculiar 
species. The other genus, Scafldrhynckus (1 sp.), is confined to 
the Mississippi and its tributaries. 

Family 97.— POLTDONTID^. (1 Genus, 2 Species.) 

" Fresh-water fishes, with wide lateral mouth and nak< 

DiSTElBUTlON. — The Mississippi and Yang-tse-kiang rivers. 



Subclass IV.— CHONDROPTERYGII. (Sharks 
AND Rays.) 

Order I.—HOLOOEPHALA. (CMnueras.) 

Family 98.— CHIM^RID^. (2 Genera, 4 Species.) 
" Shark-like mariae fishes, snout of the male with a prehensile 

DI3TEIBUTI0N, — Korthern and Southern temperate seas. CJii- 
intxra, is British. 

Suh-order. — Selachoidea. (Sharks,) 

PAMny 99.— CAECHAEIID^. (11 Genera, 59 Species.) 

" Sharks with two dorsals and a nictitating membrane." 

DrsTEiBUTiON. — Seas of the Arctic, temperate, and tropical 
regions. Species of Galeus and Mustelus have occurred on our 

Family 100.— LAMNIDJi. (5 Genera, 7 Species.) 

" Sharks with two dorsals and no nictitating membrane." 

Distribution. — Temperate and tropical seas. Species 
Zamna, Alopecias, and Sdache have occurred in Biitish sea& 


CHAP. XX.] FISHEa 461 

Family 101.— EHINODONTID^. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" Sharks with two doraal fina, the second small, and no nicti- 
tating membrane." 

Distribution. — South and East Africa. 

Family 102.— NOTIDANID^. (I Genus, 4 Species.) 

" Sharks with one dorsal fln and no nictitating membrane." 

Distribution. — Temperate and tropical seas, from the Koith 
Atlantic to the Cape of Good Hope and California. One species 
has occurred on our southern coasts. 

Family 103.— SCYLLIID^ (7 Genera, 25 Species.) 

" Sharks with one dorsal fin and no nictitating membrane," 

Distribution.— All temperate and tropical seas. Species of 
Scyllium and Fristiurm are British. 

Family 104.— CESTEAOIONTID^. (1 Genus, 4 Species.) 

" Sharks with two dorsal fins and no nictitating membrane." 

Distribution. — Pacific Ocean from Japan to Kew Zealand, 
Moiuccan Sea. 

Family 105.— SPINACIDiE. (10 Genera, 21 Species.) 
" Sharks with two dorsal fins and no nictitating membrane, no 

Distribution. — Arctic, temperate, and tropical seas, 
of AcoMhim, Lcemargm, and Eckinorhinus have occurred on oui 



Tamly 106.— EHINIDJE. (1 Genus, 1 
" Sharks with depressed flat body and laige 

DismiBUTioN. — Temperate and tropical seaa, from Britain to 
California and Australia. 

Family 107.— PEISTIOPHOEID^ (1 Genus, 4 Species.) 
" Sharks with produced flat snout, armed with teeth on each 
Distribution. — Seas of Japan and Australia. 

Sub-order Batoidbi. (Eays.) 

Family 108.— PEISTIDJS. (1 Genus, 5 Species.) 
" Eays with produced snout and lateral saw-like teeth." 
Distribution. — Seas of tropical and sub-tropical regions. 

Family 109.— EHINOBATID^, (3 Genera, 15 Species.) 

"Eays with long and strong tail, having a caudal and two 
dorsal fins." 
Distribution. — Tropical and sub-tropical seas. 

Family 110.— TOEPEDINID^. (6 Genera, 15 Species.) 

" Eays with broad smooth disc, and an electiic organ." 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — Tropical and temperate seas, from Britain to 

Family 111.— EAIID^. <4 Genera, 29 Species.) 
" Eays with broad rhombic disc and no serrated caudal spine," 
Distribution. — All temperate and tropical seas. Several 
species of Raia are found on our coasts. 


Pamily 112.— TKYGONID^ (6 Genera, 43 Species.) 

" Kays with the pectoral fins extending to end of snout." 

DiSTBlBUTiOK. — Seas of all temperate and tropical regions, and 
rivers of Tropical America. A species of Trygon has occurred 
on our Southern coa^t. ElUpesurm and T(eniura are found in 
the fresh waters of the interior of South America, while the 
latter genus occurs also in the Indian seas, tut not in the 

Family 113.— MTLOBATID^. (5 Genera, 22 Species.) 

" Bays with very broad pectoral fins not extending to end 
of snout." 

Distribution, — Temperate and tropical seas. A species of 
Myliobatis is British, but most of the species and genera are 
confined to tropical seas. Dicardbatis and Geratoptera are very 
large Rays, commonly called Sea-devils. 

Sub-class V.— CYCLOSTOMATA. 

fishes, with suctorial mouths and without 

Family 114.— PETROMYZONTIDiE, (4 Genera, 12 Species.) 

" Marine or fresh-water eel-like fishes, with suctorial mouths 
and without barbels," 

BiSTaiBTrriON.— Coasts and fresh waters of temperate regions 
of both hemispheres. Three species of Pdromyzon (Lampreys), 
are British. 



Family 115.— MYXENTDiE. (2 Genera, 5 Species.) 
" Marine eel-like fishes, with four pairs of harbels." 
DiSTBiBunoN. — Seas of the temperate regions of both hemi- 


Family 116.— CrEHHOSTOMr. (1 Genus, 1 Species.) 

" A small marine fish with no jaws or fins, and with rudi- 
mentary eyes." 

Distribution.— The only species, the Lancelet {AmpMoxus), 
is the lowest form of living vertebrate, It is found in the tem- 
perate regions of both hemispheres, and has occurred on our 
southern coast. 

Eemarks on the Distribution of Fishes. 

Marine Msk. — There are about 80 families of marine fishes, 
and of these no less than 50 are universally, or almost uni- 
versally, distributed over the seas and oceans of the globe. Of 
the remainder many are widely distributed, some species even 
ranging from the North Atlantic to Australia. Six families are 
confined to the Northern Seas, but four of these consist of single 
species only, the other two being the Discoboli (2 genera, 
11 sp.), and the Accipenseridse (2 genera and 20 sp.). Only one 
family (AcanthocHnidEe) is confined to the Southern oceans, and 
that consists of but a single species. Four families (Stemop- 
tychidse), StomiatidiE, Alepocephalidfe and Halosauridfe) are 
confined to the Atlantic Ocean, while 13 are found only in the 
Pacific ; and of the remainder several are more abundant in the 
Pacific than the Atlantic. Two families (Lycodida and Gadid^) 
are found in the Arctic and Antarctic seas only, though the 


CHAP, zx.] FISHES. 466 

latter family has a single species iu the Indian seas. Among the 
curiosities of distribution are, — the extensive genus DiagraTuma, 
confined to tlie Pacific with the exception of one species in the 
Mediterranean ; the single species constituting the family Lopho- 
tidje, found only in the Mediterranean and Japan ; tlie small 
family of Notacanthi, confined to Greenland, the Mediter- 
ranean, and West Australia; and the four families, Sternop- 
tychidfe, Stomiatid«, Alepocephalidas, and Halosaurid^, which 
are heheved to inhabit exclusively the depths of the ocean, and 
are therefore vel?y rarely obtained. 

Fresh-icater Fish. — There are 36 families of fishes ■which 
inhahit fresh water exclusively, and 5 others, which are hoth 
marine and fresh-water. These present many interesting pecu- 
liarities of distribution. The Keotropical region is the richest 
in famihes, and probably also in genera and species. No less 
than 22 families inhabit it, and of these 6 are altogether peculiar. 
The Ethiopian and Nearctic regions each have 18 families, the 
former with 3, and the latter with 5 peculiar. Several isolated 
forms, rec^oiring to be placed in distinct families, inhabit the 
great American lakes ; and, no doubt, when the African lakes 
are equally weU known, they will be found also to possess many 
peculiar forms. The Oriental region comes next, with IT families, 
of which 3 are peculiar. The Paltearctic has 12, and the Aus- 
tralian 11 famihes, each with only 1 altogether peculiar to it. 

If we talie those regions which are sometimes supposed to be 
so nearly related that they should be combined, we shaJl find the 
fresh-water fishes in most cases markedly distinct. The Nearctic 
and PaliEarctic regions, for example, together contain 20 famihes, 
but only 11 of these occur in both, and only 5 are exclusive 
inhabitants of these two regions. This shows an amount of 
diversity that would not, perhaps, be exhibited by any other 
class of animals. The Ethiopian and Oriental regions together 
possess 24 families, only 11 of which are found in both, and 
only 1 exclusively characteristic of the two. The Australian 
and Neotropical regions possess together 27 families, of which 7 
are found in both, and 3 are exclusively characteristic of the 
two. This last fact is' very interesting ; the marine family of 


466. GEOaEAPHICAL ZOOLOGY. [fakt iv. 

TrachinidEe possesses a fresh-water genus, Aphritis, one species 
of which inhabits Tasmania, and two others Patagonia; the 
Haplochitonidte (2 genera, 3 ep.) are found only in Tierra del 
Fuego, the Falkland Islands, and South Australia ; and the 
Galaxidte (1 genus, 12 sp.) inhabit the same regions, but extend 
to Chili, to New Zealand and to Queensland. We have here an 
illustration of that connection between South America and 
Australia which is so strangly manifested in plants, but of which 
there are only scattered indications in most classes of animals. 
The dividing line across the Malay Archipelago, separating the 
Oriental from the Australian regions, and which is so strikingly 
marked in mammalia and birds, is equally so in fresh-water 
fishes. No less than six famihes have their eastern limits in 
Java and Borneo ; while the extensive family of Cyprinidie has 
no less than 23 genera in Java and Borneo, but not a single 
species has been found in Celebes or the Moluccas. 

The distribution of fresh-water fishes leuds no support to the 
view that the peninsula of India belongs to the Ethiopian 
region. A large praportion of the Oriental families are common 
to the whole region ; while there is hardly a single example, of 
a characteristic Ethiopian family or genus extending into the 
peninsula of India and no further. 

Among the special peculiarities of distribution, is the curious 
fish, forming the family Comephorida, which is confined to Lake 
Baikal, among the mountains of Central Asia, 2,000 feet above 
the sea, and a thousand miles distant from the ocean ; yet 
having its nearest alhes in the exclusively oceanic family of the 
mackerels (Seomberidfe). The Characinidte are confined to Africa 
and South America, distinct genera inhabiting each region. The 
Salmonidse are coniined to the two northern regions, except a 
single species of a peculiar genus in Wew Zealand. The genus 
Osteoglossum, has a species in South America, another in the 
Sunda Islands, and a third in Queensland ;' while the curious 
Sirenoidei are represented by single species of peculiar genera 
in Tropical America, Tropica:! Africa, and Tropical Australia, 

Fossil Fishes. — Fishes have existed from a very remote era, 
and it is remarkable that the first whose remains have been dis- 



covered belong to the Ganoidei, a highly developed group which 
has contimied to exist down to our times, and of which the 
sturgeon is the best known example. We may therefore be sure 
that the Upper Silurian roelis in which these are found, although 
so very far back in geological history, do not by any means lead 
us to the time when the primitive fish-type appeared upon the 
earth. In the Carboniferous and Permian formations numeioua 
remains of fishes are found, allied to the Lepidostms or Gar-pike 
of North America, The next group in order of appearance, ai-e 
the Plagiostomata, containing the existing Sharks and Eaya. 
Traces of these are found in the highest Silurian beds, and be- 
come plentiful in the Devonian and Carboniferous formations 
and in aR succeeding ages, being especially abundant in Creta- 
ceous and Eocene strata. The Holoeephali appear first in the 
Oolitic period, and are represented by the living ChunEeridaj. 
The Dipnoi, to which belong the Lepidosiren and Ueratodm, are 
believed to have existed in the Triassic period, from the evidence 
of teeth almost identical with those of the existing Australian 
fish. All the ancient fossil fishes belong to the above-mentioned 
groups, and many of them have little resemblance to existing 
forms. The Teleoatean fishes, which form, the great bulk of 
those now Hving, cannot be traced back further than the Creta- 
ceous period, while by far the larger number first appear 
in the Tertiary beds. The SalmonidEC, Scopelidse, Peroidse, 
Clupeidte, Scombresocidse, Mugilidie, and SiluridEC, or forms 
closely aUied to them, are found in the Cretaceous formation. 
In the Eocene beds we first meet with Squammipennes, Cypri- 
iiidse, Pleuronectidje, Characinidse, MurtenidEe, Gadid^e, Pedi- 
culati, Syngnathidie, and HippocampidEe. 

Most of these fossils represent marine fishes, those of fresh- 
water origin being rare, and of little importance as an aid in 
determining the causes of the distribution of living forms. To 
understand this we must look to the various changes of the 
land surface which have led to the existing distribution of all 
the higher vertebrates, and to those special means of dispersal 
which Mr, Darwin has shown to be possessed by all fresh-water 




Although insects are, for the most part, truly terrestrial a 
and illustrate in a very striking manner the characteristic pheno- 
mena of distribution, it is impoEsible here to treat of them in 
much detail. This arises chiefly from their excessive numbers, 
but also from the minuteness and obscurity of many of the 
groups, and oni imperfect knowledge of all but the European 
species. The number of described species of insects is uncertain, 
as no complete enumeration of them has ever been made ; but 
it probably exceeds 100,000, and these may belong to some- 
where about 10,000 genera — many times more than all verte- 
brate animals together. Of the eight Orders into which Insects 
are usually divided, only two — the Coleoptera and Lepidoptera 
—have been so thoroughly collected in all parts of the globe 
that they can be used, with any safety, to compare their distri- 
bution with that of vertebrate animals ; and even of these it is 
only certain favourite groups which have been so coUected. 
Among Lepidoptera, for example, although the extensive group 
of Butterflies may be said, in a general sense, to be thoroughly 
well known — every spot visited by civilized man having fur- 
nished ite quota to our collections — yet the minute Tineidse, or 
even the larger but obscure Koctuidse, have scarcely been col- 
lected at all in tropical countries, and any attempt to study 
their geographical distribution would certainly lead to erroneous 
results. The same thing occurs, though perhaps in a leas degree, 
among the Coleoptera. While the Carabidffi, Buprestidse, and 


ouAr. XXI.] IMSECT8. 469 

Longicoms of the Tropics, are almost as well known as those of 
the Temperate Zones, the Staphylinid^, the smaller ElateridEe, 
and many other obscure and minute groups, are very imperfectly 
represented from extra-European eoimtries. I therefore propose 
to examine with some care the distribution of the Butterflies, 
and the Sphingina among Lepidoptera, and the following large 
and well-known families of Coleoptera ; — Cicindelidte, Carabidge, 
Lueanid£e, Cetonlidaj, Buprestidfo, and the three families of Lon- 
gicorns. These families together contain over 30,000 species, 
classed in nearly 3,000 genera, and comprise a large proportion 
of the best known and most carefully studied groups. We may 
therefore consider, that a detailed examination of their distribu- 
tion will leiid Tis to results which cannot be invalidated by any 
number of isolated facts drawn from the less known members of 
the class 

Ranqe of In'UGts m Time. — In considering how much weight 
IS to be given to ficts in insect distribution, and what inter- 
pietation is to be put upon the anomalies or exceptional cases 
that may be met ^ith it is important to have some idea of the 
anticLuit^ of the eM&tir^ groups, and of the rate at which the 
forms of m^iect Me have undergone modification. The geo- 
logical leeord if imperfect in the case of the higher animals, 
is fragmentaiy in the extreme as regards indications of former 
msect lite, >et the positive faets that it does disclose are of 
great mteiest and have an important bearing on our subject. 
These facts and the conclusions they lead to have been discussed 
in our first volume (p. 166), and they must be carefully weighed 
in all cases of apparent conflict or incongruity between the dis- 
tribution of insects and that of the higher animals. 



Sub-order — Lepidopteea Ehopalocera, or Buitebi'libs. 
Family 1.— DANATDiE. (24 Genera, 630 Speciea.) 

General Distbibution. 
Keotbofioal I NEsacTic I PaLasnoTH! / Ethiopian [ Objentjl I austbjiian 

8T.-B.BE010S3. SoB-EEOlOHa. SuB-I.EaiOBa. BUB-REGIOSK SuD-BEfllONa. SOB-KEniONa. —2 1.2. 3. 41. 2. 3. 4 

The Danaidse are now held to comprehend, not only the whole 
of the group so named by Doubleday, but a large portion of the 
Heliconidfe of that author. Their range is thus extended over the 
whole of the tropical regions. A few species spread north- 
wards into the Palfearctic and Nearctic regions, but these are 
only stragglers, and hardly diminish the exclusively tropical cha^ 
racter of the group. The more remarkable genera are, — Hestia 
(10 sp.), and Ideopsis (6 sp.), confined to the Malayan and 
Moluccan districts ; Danaia (50 sp.), which has the range of the 
whole , family ; i'wp^fea (140 sp.), confined to the Oriental and 
Australian regions, but especially abundant iu the Malayan and 
Moluccan districts ; Hamadryas (4 sp.), Australian region only. 
The remaining genera constitute the Danaioid HeHconidte, and 
are strictly confined to Tropical America, except a few species 
■which extend into the southern parts of the Nearctic region. 
The chief of these genera are : — 

Ithomia (160 sp.), Melincm (18 sp.), Napeogmes (20 sp.), Me- 
chanitis (4 sp.), Ceratina (32 sp.), Dircenna (10 sp.), and Lycorea 
(4 sp.). Florida, Louisiana, and Southern California, mark the 
northern extent of these insects. 


Tamily 2.~SATYEID^. (60 Genera, 835 Species,) 


.3.3.4 1.2. 3. 4 

TMs family has an absolutely universal distriliution, extending 
even into the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Many of the genera 
are, however, restricted in their range. 

Hcetera, Lyman&poda, Galisto, Oci'ades, Taygetis, Pronopkila, 
Eiiptyehia, and some allied fonns (25 genera in all) are Neotropi- 
cal, the last named extending north to Canada ; Behis, Mdanitis, 
MyaxleBis and Yptkima, are mostly Oriental, but extending also 
into the Australian and the Ethiopian regions ; Gnapkodes, 
Leptoneura, and a few other small genera, are exclusively Ethio- 
pian ; X(mca, Hypocisfa, and Heteronympha, are Australian ; Ere- 
Ma, Satyrus, Hipparchia, Ccenonympha, and allies, are mostly 
Palsearctic, hut some species are Ethiopian, and others Nearctic ; 
Ghionabas, is characteristic of the whole Arctic regions, hut is ' 
also found in Chili and the Western Himalayas. The peculiar 
genera in each region are, — Neotropical, 25; Australian, 7; 
Oriental, 11 ; Ethiopian, 5 ; Pahearctic, 3 ; Nearctic, 0, 

Family '— ELTMNIID-^ (1 C- us ^'^ Species.) 











1 — 






The genus Elymnias, which constitutes this family, is char- 
acteristic of the Malayan and Moluecan districts, with some 
species in Northern India and one in Ashanti. It thus agrees 
with several groups of Vertehrata, in showing the resemblance 

Vol, II.— 31 



of Malaya with West Africa independently of the Peninsula 

Family 4. MOEPHID^, (10 Genera, 106 Species.) 

Geneeai. Disteibution. 

The Morphidfe are a gronp of generally large-sized butterflies, 
especially characteristic of the Malayan and Molucean districts, 
and of Tropical America; with a few species extending to the 
I on the west, and to Polynesia on the east. The 

genera ate: — 

Amathusia (6 sp,), Northern India to Java ; Zeuxidia (9 sp.), 
the Malay district ; Discophora (7 sp.). Northern India to 
Philippines, Java and Timor ; Snispe (S sp.), Northern India ; 
Shades (15 sp.), Moluecan and Polynesian districts, except one 
species in Java ; Glermne (11 sp.), Northern India to Philippines 
, and Celebes ; Minona (1 sp.), Sikhim ; Hya/idis (1 sp,), Waigiou ; 
Thaumaniis (10 sp.), Indo-Chinese and Malayan districts; 
Mbrpko (40 sp.). Neotropical region, Brazilian and Central 
American sub-regions. 

Family 5. ERASSOLID^ (7 Genera, 62 Species.) 

Grnbbal Distribution 

The Brassolidte have the same distribution as the genus 
Morpho. The genera are : — 

Brassolis (6 sp.) ; Opsiphanea (17 sp.) ; Dynastor (2 sp.); 
Pene/es (1 sp,) ; Caligo (21 sp.) ; iVarope (5 sp.) ; and Dasyof- 
tkalma (3 sp.) 


Family e.—ACRJElDM. (1 Genus, 90 Species.) 


Z,3 I 

The genus Acrma is especially abundant in the Ethiopian 
region, which contains two-thirds of all the known species ; 3 or 
4 species only, range ovei the whole Oriental, and most of the 
Australian regions ; while all the i?est inhabit the same districts 
of the Neotropical region as the Brassolidie. 

Family 7.— HELICONID.^. (2 Genera, 114 Species.) 

Geneeai, DiaTlilBUTION. 


-,.3..!-3-l ] j— -1 

The true Heliconidfe are very charaeteristjc of the Neotropical 
region ; one species only extending into the Southern States of 
North America as far as Ilorida, The genus Helieonms (83 
sp.), has the range of the family; while Eu&ides (19 sp.), is con- 
fined to the Brazilian and Central American sub-regions. 

Family 8.— NYMPHALID^. (113 Genera, 1490 Species.) 


NSOTROPIOAL I NliBCTIC I I 1.2. 3. 4 I. a. 3. 4 1. 2. 3. 41. 2. 3. 4 

This is the largest and most universally distributed family of 
butterflies, and is well illustrated by our common Fritillaries, 



Tortoise-shell, Peacock, Painted Lady, and Purple Emperor 
butterflies. They are found wherever butterfly-life can exist, 
and some single species — like the Painted Lady (Pp-ameis 
cardm) — range almost over the globe. A few of the more 
extensive and remarkable genera only, can be here noticed : — 

ColcBnis, Agrmdis, Eresia, SyncMoe, Mpiealia, Eunica, Eubagis, 
Catofffamma, Callithea, Ageronia, Timetes, Het&roehroa, Prepona, 
Eypna, PapMa, and Siderone, are wholly Neotropical, as well 
as many others ■which have a smaller number of species. 
Euryphsne, Momaleosoma, Aterica, and Harma, are exclusively 
Ethiopian. Terinos, Aihyma, Adolias, and Tanmcia, are Oriental, 
but they mostly extend iuto the Moluccan region; the last 
however is strictly Malayan, and Adolias only reaches Celebes, 
Mynes alone, is exclusively Australian, but Prothoe is almost so, 
having only one outlying species in Java. Eurytela and Ergo- 
lis are confined to the Oriental and Ethiopian regions, but the 
latter reach^ the Moluccas. Cethosia, Girrhoch/roa, Messaras, and 
Symphcedra, are both Oriental and Australian ; while JuTwnia, 
Cyre&tis, IHadema, Neptis, and Nymphalis, are common to the 
three tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisph ere, the latter ex- 
tending into the Mediterranean district, while Ju%onia occurs 
also in South America and the Southern United States. 

The most cosmopolitan genus is Fyramds, which has repre- 
sentatives in every region and every district. Apatwra is found 
in all but the Ethiopian and the Australian, although it ju$t 
enters the confines of the latter r^on in Celebes ; Limenitis 
is abundant in the Oriental r^on, but extends eastward to 
Celebes and westward into Europe, North America, and even 
into South America. Argynnis, Mditcea, and Vanessa, are almost 
confined to the PalEearctic and Nearctic regions; the former 
however occurs in the Himalayas end in the mountains of Java, 
and also in Chih and in Jamaica, Two genera — Diarorrhagia 
and Helcyra — have both one species in North India and another 
in the island of Ceram. The number of genera peculiar to each 
region is as follows : — Neotropical, 60 ; Australian, 2 ; Oriental 
1 5 ; Etbiopian, 14 ; Paleearctic, 1 ; Nearctic, 0. 




Family 9.— LIEYTHEIDiE. (1 Genus, 10 Species.) 

Genebal Distbibution. 



Tlie genus lAhyfhm, which constitutes this family, appears to 
have its head-quarters in the Oriental region, hut extends on all 
sides in an erratic manner, into various remote and disconnected 
portions of the glohe, as indicated ahove. 

Family lO.—NEJIEOEIID^. (12 Genera, 145 Species,) 


This group has heen separated from the Erycinidte of the 
older authors, and contains all the non- American genera and 
species. Half the genera and nearly four-fifths of the species of 
this group are, however. Neotropical ; one is European ; two or 
three Afiican; and twenty-six Oriental and Australian, The 
genera are : — 

Nemedbius (1 sp.), Europe; Dodona (6 sp.), North India; 
Zemeros (2 sp.), Noi-th India and Malaya ; AUsara, (11 sp,). 
North India, Malayan and Moluecan districts, Madagascar and 
West Africa ; Taxila (8 sp.). North India, and Malaya ; JXcal- 
lanmira (2 sp.), Moluecan district ; Alesa (6 sp.), Etmogyra (2 
sp.), Gremna (7 sp.), B^tis (3 sp.), are all from the Brazilian 
sub-region; Ewylna (10 sp.), Mesosemia {80 sp.), inhabit both 
the Brazilian and Mexican sub-regions. 






^m% luB M^S sS^RZi™a 8?™™,^ 1 i^^^"om 

-a. 3- 

1 — 

This amaE family, separated from the true Erycinidffi by 
Mr. Bates, is confined to the tropical foreat-diatricta of con- 
tinental America. The genera are :— 

Eurygona (71 sp.); Methonella (1 sp,); the latter found in 
Ec[uatorial South America. 

Family 12.— EEYCINID^. (59 Genera, 560 


This extensive family of small, hut exquisitely beautiful 
"butterflies, is especially characteriatie of the vii^n forests of 
the Neotropical region, only a few species of thiee genera ex- 
tending into the Nearctic region. The more important genera, 
and those which have an exceptional distribution, can alone be 
here noticed. Charis extends from Brazil to New York ; Apo- 
demia from Brazil to California, Utah, and Oregon; Amaryntlm 
inhabits the Brazilian and AntUlean sub-regions ; Lepricomis 
and Metapheles are small genera found only in the Mexican 
sub-region; Lymnas, Fecyria, Ancyluvis, Diorhina, Esihmiopm, 
Anteros, Emesis, Symmacftia, Crieosoma, Galydna, Lemonias, 
Nymphiditim, Theope, and Ancoris are common to the Brazilian 
and Mexican sub-regions. AH the other genera (40 in number) 
are only known from the Brazilian sub-region, and of these a 
considerable proportion are confined to the damp equatorial 
forests of the Amazon Valley. 


-LYC^NID* (39 Genera, 1,220 Species.) 


l.S.3.4 l.fl.3.4 l.a.3.4 1. a. 3. 4 1.2. 3. 4 

The LycEenidas — of the variety and beauty of which in tropical 
regions our own " Bluea " and " Coppers " give biit a faint idea 
— are a group of universal distribution. "VVe shall therefore in- 
dicate those genera which aie restricted to one or more regions, 
or are nearly cosmopolitan. The large genus Polyammatus (con- 
taining 325 species) has the same universal distribution as the 
entire family. Our common " Blues " well represent this genus. 
Lycwna, (comprising the " Coppers ") is more especially charac- 
teristic of the PalEearctic and Kearctic regions, hut straggling 
species occur also in Noilh India, South Africa, Chili, and New 
Zealand, Tkecla is especially characteristic of the Neotropical 
region, where there are about 370 species; in the Nearctic 
region, 36; in the Palfeaictie 13; and in the Ethiopian 3. 
Miletus, Lima, Eypolycmna, Mp-ina, and Dmdorix are common 
to the three tropical regions of the Eastern Hemisphere — the 
Ethiopian, Oriental, and Australian. Apkneus and lolwus are 
common to the Ethiopian and Oriental regions, the latter 
extending to Celebes. lalwenus, Fseudodipsas, Curetis, and 
Amblypodia are common to the Oriental and Australian regions, 
but the first-named is found also in Madagascar. Z^hyrus is 
found only in the Nearctic and Paljearctic, Sumi^iiS in the 
Nearctic and Neotropical regions. The Nearctic region has one 
peculiar genus (Feniseca) ; the Paltearctic has two — Thestor and 
Lmosopis; the Ethiopian has nine — Pentila, Liptana, S'Urhania, 
Aanocerces, Capya, Phytala, Epitola, Mewitsonia, and Deloneura ; 
the Oriental has five — Allotinm, Jlerda, PorUia, Camena, and 
Liphyra; the Australian has three — Hypochrys&ps, UHca, and 
Ogyris; and the Neotropical also three — LaitiproBpiliis, ThBoreTiia, 
and Trichoms. 





Family 14.- 

-PIEEID^. (35 Genera, 817 Species.) 



S^' 1 


"nb. 1 Su^^™. 1 SvrRroiosa. 1 S?^k™S^. 1 s"^, 


I n 

-. J- 



.4]l.a.3.4[l.a.3.4| 1.3 

The Pieridie are disfcributed almost, if not quite, as widely over 
the globe as the last family, and we shall group the genera in 
the same manner, Pieris (130 sp,) is cosmopolitan ; Terias 
and Callidryas. are found in all the four tropical regions, and as 
far north as Pennsylvania in the Nearctic region ; Pontia, 
Tachyris, Eronia, and Thestias are common to the Ethiopian, 
Oriental, and Australian regions, the last-named, however, 
only extending as far as Timor ; CoUas is pre-eminently 
Palfearetic and Nearctic, with a few Ethiopian species, one 
Indian, two in Chili, and one in the Sandwich Islands ; Antho- 
charis is wholly PaJffiarctic and Nearctic ; Midea has two species 
Nearctic, and one in Japan ; Oonepieri/x is Palsearetic and Neo- 
tropical, extending into Texas ; Idmais and Calloswae are 
Ethiopian and Oriental ; Thyca and Iphias are Oriental and 
Australian ; Meganostoma is Nearctie and Neotropical ; ifa- 
ihalis and Kricogonia are Neotropical, ranging into Florida, 
Texas, and Golomdo, 

The peculiar genera are pretty equally distributed. The 
Neotropical region has ten, two being confined to Chili ; Huterpe 
and Leptalis are the most remarkable, the latter containing a 
number of forms mimicking the Heliconidfe and Danaidse. The 
Oriental region has two, Prioums and Sercas; the Australian 
one, Modina ; the Ethiopian two, Teracolus and Pseudopontia ; 
the Paljeai-ctic two, Leucopliasia anA^ZegriB; the Nearctic one, 


TiMlLY 15— PAPILIOMD^. (13 (Jenera, 455 Species.) 

General Distkibuiion. 


ScB-RiiaiDsa SnB-aEQioNB. 3ub-regiun3, 



I ■ " * 

The PapilionidEe, comprising many of the noblest and richest- 
coloured butterflies, and long placed at the bead of the group, 
are almost as universally distributed as the Pieridfe, but they do 
not extend to so many remote islands nor so far into the Arctic 
and Antarctic regiona. Kine-tenths of the species belong to tbe 
genua Papilio, and these are especially abundant in tropical 
regions, although species occur in every region and every sub- 
region. Well-marked sub-divisions of this lai^e genus are 
characteristic of each great region — as tbe " iEneas" group in the 
Neotropical, the "Paris" group in the Oriental, tbe " jEgeus" group 
in the Australian, the " Zenobius " group in the EthiopiaUj and 
many others. The few species of the Palsearctic region belong, 
on the other hand, to a group of universal distribution, and tbe 
Nearctic has a good number of species allied to Neotropical 

The other genera have mostly a very restricted range. Far- 
nassius is an Alpine genus, confined to the PalEearctic and 
Nearctic r^ons. Tbe Paltearctic region further possesses 5 
peculiar genera — Mesapia, Sypermnestra, DorUis, Seridnus, and 
Thais; the Oriental has 4, Calmaga, Tmiopalpiis, Bhutanitis, 
and Leptocircus, the latter going as far as Celebes; the Aus- 
tralian has 1, Ev/rycus; and tihe Neotropical 1, Euryades, con- 
fined to the Chilian sub-region. The Ethiopian and the Nearetic 
s have no peculiar genera. 



Famhy 16.— HESPEEID^. (52 Genera (?) 1,200 Species.) 
Geneeal Distribution. 

l.a.a.A 1.2. 3. A 

The HesperidtC, or Skippers, are an immense group of mostly 
small obscurely coloured butterflies, universally distributed, and 
of which hosts of species still remain to be discovered and 
described. As the grouping of these into genera is not yet 
satisfactorily accomplished, only the more extensive and best 
known groups will be here noticed. Pamphila and Ifesperia 
are universally distributed ; Nisoniades seems to be only absent 
from the Australian region. The Neotropical region is pre- 
eminently rich in Hesperidfe, 33 genera being found there, of 
which 20 are peculiar to it; the Australian region has 12 
genera, only 1 {Eiischemon) being peculiar; the Oriental has 18, 
with 3 peculiar ; the Ethiopian, 13, with 3 peculiar ; the Palte- 
arctic 6, with 1 (Erynnis) almost peculiar, a species occurring 
in Mexico ; the Nearctic 9, with none peculiar, 4 being found 
also in the Neotropical region, 2 in the PalBearctio, and the rest 
being of wide distribution. Many new genera have, however, 
been recently described in the United States, but it is impos- 
sible yet to determine how many, if any, of these are peculiar. 
More than 100 species of the family are included in Mr. 
Edwards' " Synopsis of North American Butterflies," — a very 
large number considering that Europe possesses only about 30. 


Sub-order — Lepidoptbra Heterocera, or Moths. 

The Lepidoptera Heterocera, or Moths, are of such i 
extent, and are, besides, so imperfectly known compared with 
the Butterflies, that it would serve no purpose to go into the 
details of their distribution; especially as most of the famDies 
and a considerable number of the genera are cosmopolitan. We 
propose therefore to notice only the Sphingina, which, being 
generally of large size and finely marked or coloured, and many 
of them day-fliers, have been extensively collected ; and whose 
numbers are more manageable than the succeeding groups. 


Family 17.— ZYG-^NIDiE (46 Genera, about 530 Species). 

The Zygffinidie are uidversally distributed, but many of the 
genera are restricted in their range. Zygcma (85 sp.) is mainly 
Pal^arctic, but 2 species are South African, and 1 North 
American ; Proeris (22 sp.) has a scattered distribution, from the 
Palsearctic region to South America, South Africa and North 
India ; Heterogynis (3 sp.) and Dysamds (3 sp.) are European ; 
Pollanisiis (3 sp.) is Australian ; Qlaucopis (] 20 sp.) is mainly 
Neotropical, with a few Oriental ; Syntonvis (94 sp.) is found in 
all the Old-World regions; and Smhrnmia (150 sp.) is found 
in all warm countries, though especially abundant in South 

Family 18.— CASTNIID^ (7 Genera, 63 Species). 

The CastniidEe have an interesting distribution, being mainly 
Neotropical, with four genera in Australia and New Guinea. 
Castma, Coronis, and Gasera, with 51 species, are Neotropical ; 
Symmon, JEuschemon, Damias and Cocytia, with 12 species, are 
Australian, the latter being found only in the Papuan Islands. 



Family 19.— AGARISTID^ (13 Genera, 76 Species). 

The Agaristidfe are beautiful diurnal motlis, allied to the 
CastniidEe, but almost conlined to the Australian and Oriental 
regions, with a few in the Ethiopian. The most important 
genera are, — Agarista (21 sp.), Australia and Kew Guinea ; Eu- 
semia (31 ap.), ^gocera (7 sp.). Oriental and Ethiopian regions ; 
the other genera being confined to the islands from Java to New 

Family 20.— UEANIID^ (2 Genera, 12 Species). 

These magnificent insects have a singular distribution. 
The gold-spaogled Urania (6 sp.) is characteristic of Tropical 
America, but a single species of great magnificence occurs in 
Madagascar. The large but sober-tinted Nyctahimyib (6 sp.) is 
found in the Neotropical, Oriental, and Australian regions. 

Family 21.— STYGIIDJi. (3 Genera. 14 Species.) 

These insects are confined to the PalEeaictie and Neotropical 
regions, 2 genera in the former, 1 in the latter. 

Tamily 22.~^GEEIID^. (24 Genem, 215 Species.) 

This family is found in all parts of the world except 
Australia. y%ma is most abundant in Europe, but is found 
also in North and South America. 

F^iiiLY 23.— SPHINGID^ (40 Genera, 345 Species.) 

The Sphinx Moths are cosmopolitan. The most important 
genera are, — Macroglossa (26 sp.), Chm-ocampa (46 sp.), and 
Macrosila (21 sp.), all cosmopolitan ; Sesia (12 sp.), Europe, Asia, 
and North America; DdhpMla (19 sp.), Pahearctic and Oriental 
IS, Nearctic region, and Chili; Sphinx (21 sp.), Europe, 



North and South Ameiiea; Smennth'vs (29 sp.), all 
except Australia, Our Death's Head Moth {Ackerontia 
ranges to Sierra Leone and the Philippine Islands, 

General Bemarks on the Dtstnbution of the Diurnal Lepidoptera 
and Sphingidea, 

The Diurnal Lepidoptera or Butterflies, comprehend 431 
genera and 7,740 species, arranged in 16 families, according to 
Mr. Kirhy's Catalogue published in 1871. The Sphingidea con- 
sist of 135 genera and 1,255 species, arranged in 7 families, 
according to the British Museum Catalogue dated 1864 ; and as 
this includes all Mr. Bates' collections in America and my own 
in the East, it is probable that no very large additions have 
since been made. 

The distribution of the families and genera of Butterflies 
corresponds generally with that of Birds — and more especially 
■with that of the Passerine birds — in showing a primary division of 
the earth into Eastern and Western, rather than into Northern and 
Southern lands. The Neotropical region is by far the richest and 
most peculiar. It possesses 15 femilies of butterflies, whereas the 
other regions have only from 8, in the Palsearctie, to 12 in the 
Ethiopian and Oriental r^ons ; and as none of the Old World 
regions possess any peculiar families, the New World has a very 
clear superiority. In genera the preponderance is still greater, 
since the Neotropical region possesses about 200 altogether 
peculiar to it, out of a total of 431 genera, many of which are 
cosmopolitan. Comparing, now, the Eastern regions with the 
Weatem, we have two peculiar families in the fonner to 4 in the 
latter; while the Southern regions (Australian and Neotropical) 
possess not a single peculiar family in common. 

In the Sphingidea the same general features recur in a less 
marked degree, the Neotropical being the richest region; but 
here we have one family (Castniidse) which appears to be con- 
fined to the two southern regions, — the Australian and Neo- 

The distribution of the genera affords ns some facts of special 
interest, which must be briefly noticed. There are several 



genera typically characteristic of the Worth Temperate regions 
which have a few species widely scattered on mountains, or in 
the temperate parts of the Southern Hemisphera Chili possesses 
representatives of four of these genera — Argynnis, Lycwna, Co- 
lias, and Bdlepkila ; and this has been thought by some natura- 
lists to be of such importance as to ontwe^h the purely Neo- 
tropical character of a large portion of the Chilian fauna, and 
to render it advisable to join it on, as an outlying portion of a 
great North Temperate zoological region. But when we re- 
member that Argynnis occurs also in Java, and Lycmna, in New 
Zealand, while Colias ranges to Southern Africa, Malabar, and 
the Sandwich Islands, we can hardly admit the argument to be 
a sound one. Por a fuller discussion of this question see VoL 
II., pp. 43 — i7. The remarkable fact of the existence of the 
otherwise purely Neotropical genus, Uravm, in Madagascar is 
even more striking, supported as it is by the AntOlean, Solenedon, 
belonging to a family of Mammalia otherwise coniined to Mada- 
gascar, and by one or two Coleopterous genera, to be noticed 
farther on as common to the two countries. Our view as to the 
true explanation of this and analogous phenomena will he found 
at Vol. I., p. 284 

The division of the Castniida; (a family almost confined to 
the Tropics), between the Neotropical and Australian regions, is 
also a very curious and important phenomenon, because it seems 
to point to a more remote connection between the two countries 
than that indicated by the resemblance between the productions 
of South Temperate America with those of Australia and New 
Zealand; but we have already shown that the facts may be 
explained in another way. (See Vol. I, pp, 398 and 404). 

The division of the Malay Archipelago between, the Oriental 
and AustraJian regions is clearly marked in the Lepidoptera, 
and it is very curious that it should be so, for in this, if in any 
groiip of animals, we should expect an almost complete fusion 
to have been effected. Lepidoptera fiy readily across wide 
tracts of sea, and there is absolutely no elimatal difference to 
interfere with their free migration from island to island. Yet 
we find no less than 10 genera abundant in the Indo-Malayan 


CHAP, xsi.] INSECTS. 485 

sulj-region which never cross the narrow seas to the east- of 
them ; 6 others which only pass to Celebes ; and 2 more which 
have extended from Java along the closely connected line of 
islands eastwards to Timor, On the other side, we find 5 strictly 
Austro-Malayan genera, and 2 others which have a single re- 
presentative in Java. The fdlowing is a list of these genera: — 

Indo-Malayan Geneea ; — Amafhusia, Thawmantis, Tanwcia, 
Eurytela, Ilerda, Zemm-os, Tamla, Aphneus, Frioneris, X>ercas, 
Chrome, Adolias, Apaturct, Jyimenitis, lolaus, Lcptocircus, (the 
last six reach Celebes) ; Biscaphora, Thestias ; (the last two reach 

Austro-Malayan Geneea : — Ramadryas, Rypodsta, Mynes, 
Dicallanewra, Rhdina, Hyades, Prothoe (the last two reach 

The most characteristic groups, which range over the whole 
Archipelago and give it a homogeneous character, are the various 
genera of Danaidte, the genus Elymnias, and Amhlypodia with a 
few other LycEenidie, These are all abundant and conspicuous 
groups, hut they are nevertheless exceptions to the general rule 
of limitation to one or other of the regions. The cause of this 
phenomenon is probably to be found in the limitation of the larvae 
of many Lepidopfcera to definite species, genera, and families of 
plants ; and we shall perhaps find, when the subject is carefully 
investigated, that the groups which range over the whole Archi- 
pelago feed on genera of plants which have an equally wide range, 
while those which are limited to one region or the other, have food- 
plants belonging to genera which are similarly limited. It is 
known that the vegetation of the two regions differs largely in a 
botanical sense, although its general aspect is almost identical ; 
and this may be the reason why the proportion of wide-ranging 
genera is greater among such insects as feed upon dead wood, 
than among those which derive their support from the juices of 
the living foliage. This subject wiU be again discussed under 
the various families of Coleoptera, and it will be well to bear in 
mind the striking facts of generic limitation which have been 
here brought forward. 



Fossil Butterflies, apparently of existing genera, occur in the 
Miocene and Eocene formations, and an extinct form in the 
Lower Oolite ; bat these cannot he held to give any adequate 
idea of the antiquity of so highly specialised a group, which, in 
all probahility, dates ba«k to Palfeozoic times, since one of the 
Bombycidse, — a group almost as highly-organised— has been 
discovered in the coal formation of Belgium. (See Vol, I. p. 168.) 

Geodephaga, or Carnivorous Ground Beetles. 

The Geodephaga consist of two famiKes, Cieindelidas and 
Carabid^, differing in their form and habits no less than in their 
numbers and distribution. The former, comprising about 800 
species, are far more abundant and varied in Tropical regions ; 
the latter, more than ten times as numerous, are highly charac- 
teristic of the North Temperate zone, where fully half of all the 
itnown species occur. 

CICINDELID-^. (35 Genera, 803 Species.) 

The Cicindelidffi, or Tiger Beetles, are a moderately extensive 
group, spread over the whole globe, but much more abundant 
in tropical than in temperate or cold countries. More than half 
of the species (418) belong to the single genus Cieindela, the 
only one which is cramopolitan. The other large genera are, — 
Collyris (81 sp,), wholly Oriental ; Odontochila (57 sp,). South 
American, with species in Java and Celebes ; Titracha (46 sp.), 
mostly South American, but with species in South Europe, 
Korth America, and Australia; Tricondyla (31 sp.), characteiistic 
of the Oriental region, but extending eastward to New Guinea ! 
Ctenostoma (26 sp.), wholly Neotropical; Dromica (24 sp.}, 
wholly African, south of Lake Ngami and Mozambique ; Theraies 
(18 sp.), wholly Malayan, from Singapore to New Guinea. 

The genera are distributed in the several regions as follows : — 
the Nearctic region has 5 genera, 3 of which are peculiar to it ; the 


CHAP. xxLj INSECTS. 487 

Pal^arctic has 2, but noue peculiar ; the Ethiopian 13, with 11 
peculiar ; the Oriental 8, with 3 peculiar ; the Australian 9, with 
2 peculiar; aud the Neotropical 15, with 10 peculiar. The 
connection between South America and Australia is shown by 
the latter country possesaing 9 species of the characteristic 
South American genus Tetracka, as well as one of Megaeepkala. 
The small number of peculiar genera in the Oriental and Aus- 
tralian prions is partly owing to the circumstance that two 
otherwise peculiar Oriental, genera have spread eastward to the 
Moluccas and New Guinea, a fact to be easily explained by the 
great facilities such creatures have for passing narrow straits, and 
by the almost identical physical conditions in the Malayan portion 
of the two regions. The insects of Indo-Malaya were better 
adapted to live in the Austro-Malay Islands than those of 
Australia itself, and the latter group of islands have tbus ac- 
quired an Oriental aspect in their entomology, though not with- 
out indications of the presence of an aboriginal insect-fauna of a 
strictly Australian type. The. relation of the Australian and 
Neotropical regions is exhibited by this family in an unusually 
distinct manner. Teiracha, a genua which ranges from Mexico 
to La Plata, has 9 species in Australia ; while Megacephala has 
2 American and 1 Australian species. Another curious, and 
more obscure relation, is that between the faunas of Tropical 
America and Tropical Africa. This is also illustrated by the 
genus MegacepJmla, which has 4 African species as well as 2 
South American ; and we have, also the genus Feridexm, which 
has 2 species in South America and 2 in Madagascar. 

Several of the sub-regions are also well characterised by pecu- 
liar genera; as Amhlychila and Offiws confined to California and 
the Eocky Mountains ; Manticora, 0;phryodera, Flatycfdle and 
UcowiMa, characteristic of South Africa; Megalomma and Fogonos- 
toma peculiar to the Mascarene Islands ; and Oaledonica to the 
islands east of New Guinea. The> extensive and elegant genus 
Gollyris is highly characteristic of the Oriental region, over the 
whole of which it extends, only just passing the limits into 
Celebes and Timor. 

The CicindelidEe, therefore, fully conform to those divi.5ions of 

Vol. II.— 32 



the eartli which have been found heat to represent the facts of 
distribution in the higher animals. 

CAEAEID.iE. (620 Genera, 8500 Species.) 
The enoimoua extent of this family, necessitates a somewhat 
general treatment. It has been very extensively collected, while 
its classification has been most carefully worked out, and a 
detailed exposition of its geographical diatrihntion by a compe- 
tent entomologist would be of the greatest interest. A careful 
study of Gemminger and Harold's Catalogue, however, enables 
me to sketch out the main featiu«a of its distribution, and to 
detail many of its peculiarities with considerable accuracy. 

The Carabidie are remarkable among insects, and perhaps 
among all terrestrial animals, as being a wonderfully numerous, 
varied, conspicuous, and beautiful group, which is pre-enunently 
characteristic of the Palsearctic region. So strikingly and 
unmistakably is this the case, that it must he held completely 
to justify the keeping that region distinct from those to which 
it has at various times been proposed to join it. Although the 
Carabidfe are thoroughly well represented by hosts of peculiar 
genera and abundant species in every part of the world without 
exception, yet the Palsearctic region alone contains fuEy one- 
third, or perhaps nearer two-fifths, of the whole. It may also be 
said, that the group is a temperate as compared with a tropical 
one ; so that probably half the species are to be found in the 
temperate and cold regions of the globe, leaving about an equal 
number in the much more extensive tropical and warm i-^ons. 
But, among the cold regions, the Paltearctic is pre-eminent. 
North America is also rich, but it contains, by far, fewer genera 
and fewer species. 

The magnificent genus Carahus, with its allies Procerus 
and Procrustes, containing about 300 species, aU of large size, 
is almost wholly confined to the Palsearetic region, only 10 
species inhabiting North America, and 11 Temperate South 
America, with one on the African mountain of Kilimandjaro. 
Twelve large genera, containing together more than 2000 species, 
are truly cosmopolitan, inhabiting both temperate and tropical 


CHA1-, XXI.] INSECTS. 489 

countries all over the globe ; but many of these are more abun- 
dant in the Palaearctic region than elsewhere. Such axe Scantes, 
Calosoma, BracMiius, Cymindis, Zebia, Chlxnius, Platynus, Har- 
palv^, BenAecidiv/m, PcecUus, and Argidor. Of tropical cosmopo- 
lites, or genera found in all the tropical regions, but not in the 
temperate zones, there seem to be only four, — Catascopus, Cop- 
todera, Colopodes, and Caamwnia. Pheropsophvs is confined to the 
tropica of the Old Worlci ; while Brimostoma, though widely 
scattered, is characteristic of the Southern Hemisphere. 

The Palfearctic T^on haa about 50 genera of CJarabidte which 
are strictly confined to it, the most important being, — Leistvs 
(30 sp.), Proc&iiis (5 sp.), Proermtes, (17 sp.), Zahrus (60 sp.), 
Pristonyehvs (42 sp.), and Ophomts (60 sp.) ; but it possesses a 
laige number in common with the Nearctic region. The more 
remarkable of these are, — Caralms, Nebria, Amara, Cyrtonotvs, 
Bradycelliis, Anopthalmus, Celia, Gychrus, Patrolus, Blaphrus, 
Hfotiopkiliis, Bradytvs, GcUlisthenus, Blethisa, and several others, 
Many too, though not strictly confined to the North Temperate 
regions, are very abundant there, with a few species isolated in 
remote countries, or widely scattered, often in an eccentric man- 
ner. Among these may be mentioned, Trechus (120 sp.), all 
North Temperate but 8, which are scattered in Java, New Cale- 
donia and South America ; Byschvrus (127 sp.), North Temperate, 
with 3 or 4 species in Australia, China and La Plata ; Omas&as, 
{88 sp.), Steropua (90 sp.), Plaiysoma (114 sp.), and Pterostichus 
(138 sp.), are mostly North Temperate, but each has a few 
species in the South Temperate zone. New Zealand, Australia, 
Chili, and the Cape of Good Hope. Dram/ms (54 sp.),.is about 
two-thirds Palsearctic, the rest of the species being scattered over 
the world, in Chili, North and South America, South Africa, 
Eurmah, Ceylon, and New Zealand, The Noith Temperate 
genera Oalatkus and Olisthopus, have each one species in New 
Zealand; Percus has most of its species in South Europe, but 3 
in Australia; Aiax is confined to the north temperate zone, 
but with one species in Madagascar while Lcemosthenes is said 
to have a species identically the same in South Europe and 
ChUi Some of these apparent anomalies may be due to wrong 



determination of the genera, but there can be Kttle doubt that 
most of them represent important facta in distribution. 

The Nearetic region ia comparatively poor in Carabidie. Its 
more important peculiar genera are, — Diccehis (22 sp.), Fcmmachtos 
(17 ip.),Surt/tricJms (9sp.), Spkwroderus (7 sp.), Pinacodera (6 sp,), 
and others of smaller extent, about 30 in all. It also possesses 
representatives of a considerable number of Palsearctic genera, 
as already indicated ; and a few of South American genera, of 
which Helluomorpha and Qalerita are. the most important. 

The Neotropical region is very rich in peculiar forma of Cara- 
bidse, as in almost all other great groups. It possesses more than 
100 peculiar genera, but about 30 of these are confined to the 
South Temperate sub-region. The more. important peculiar genera 
of Tropical America are,— Agra (144 sp.), Ardistomus (44 sp.), 
Schkogeniua (25 sp.), Fdeeivm,, (24 sp.), CalopheTut (22 sp.), 
Gtenodi^yld (7 sp.). Among the Chilian and South Temperate 
peculiar forms are, — Antarctia (29 sp,), jS'(;e/ot^(>K(is(10sp.), Tropi- 
dopterus (4 sp.). Amoi^ the Neotropical genera with outlying 
species are, — Pachptdes (60 sp.}, one of which is West African; 
Selenophm-us (70 sp.), with 4 African, 4 Oriental, and 1 from New 
Caledonia ; £ga (11 sp.), with one in the East Indies, and one in 
New Caledonia ; Galerita, with 36 American species, 8 African, 
and 3 Indian; Gallida, and Tetragonodems, mostly American, 
bxit with a few African, Oriental and Australian species ; and 
Psmdomorpha, common to America and Oceania. 

The Australian region is almost equally rich, possessing about 
95 peculiar genera of Oarabidse, no leas than 20 of which are con- 
fined to New Zealand. The most important are, Garenv/rn, Pro- 
mecodems, Scaraphites, Notonomus, Enigma, S^hallomorplm, Sil- 
phomorpha, and Adelotopus. The gigantic Gatadromus has 4 
Australian species and 1 in Java ; Homalosomcr, has 31 species 
in Australia and New Zealand, and 1 in Madagascar. Celebes 
and New Guinea have each peculiar genera, and one is common 
to Australia and the Cape of Good Hope. 

The Oriental region possesses 80 peculiar genera, 10 of which 
are confined to Ceylon. The more important are, — Pericallus, 
Flaneks. and Mormolyee. Disirigiis is also characteristic of this 



region, with one species in Madagascar ; while it has Orthogo- 
nius, Hexagonia, MaerocMlus, and Thyreopterus in common with 
the Ethiopian region, and is rich in the fine tropical genus, 

The Ethiopian region has 75 peculiar genera, 8 of which are 
eoniined to Madagascar. The more important are, — Polyhirma, 
Graphipterus, and Pima. Anthia is chiefly African, with a 
few species in India; Abacetus is wholly African, except a 
species in Java, and another in South Europe ; and HypoUthus 
is typically African, but with 7 species in Sonth America and 1 
in Java, 

The facts of distribution presented by this important family, 
looked at broadly, do not support any other division of the earth 
into primary regions than that deduced from a study of the 
higher animals. The amount of speciality in each of these 
regions is so great, that no two of them can be properly united ; 
and in this respect the CarabidEe accord wonderfully with the 
Vertebrates. In the details of distribution there occur many 
singular anomalies ; but these are not to be wondered at, if we 
take into consideration the immense anticLuity of Coleopterous 
insects— which existed under specialised forms so far back as the 
Carboniferous epoch, — the ease with which they may be dispersed 
as compared with larger animals, and the facilities afforded by 
theirsmallsize, habits of concealment, and often nocturnal habits, 
for adaptation to the most varied conditions, and for surviving 
great changes of surface and of the surrounding oi^anic forms. 
The wonder rather is, not that there are so many, but so few cases 
of exceptional and anomalous distribution; and. the fact that 
these creatures, so widely different from Vertebrates in organi- 
sation and mode of life, are yet on the whole subject to the same 
limitations of range as were found to occur among the higher 
animals, affords a satisfactory proof that the principles on which 
our six primary regions are founded, are sound ; and that they 
are well adapted to exhibit the most interesting facts of geo- 
graphical distribution, among all classes of animals. 

Much stress has been laid on the fact of a few species of such 
typical European genera as Carahis, Drcmiius, and others, being 



found in Chili and Temperate South America ; and it has been 
thought, that in a system of Entomological regions this part of 
the world must be united to the Northern Hemisphere, But these 
writers omit to take into account, either the lai^e numbers of 
isolated and peculiar forms characteristic of South Temperate 
America, or the indications of affinity with Tropical America 
and Australia, both of which are really more important than the 
connection with Europe, The three important Chilian genera, 
Cascdius, BarypuB, and Gardiopihalmiis, are closely allied to the 
AustraKan Fromecodenis ; others, as Omost&nus and PlagwUlium, 
are quite isolated; while Anta/rctia and Metius, according to 
Lacordaire, form a distinct division of the family. Chili, too, has 
many species of Fachyteles, C(^todera, and other South American 
genera ; and this affinity is far stronger in many other families 
than in the Carabidse. The existence of representatives of 
typical northern forms in Chili, is a fact of great interest, and 
may bo accounted for in a variety of ways ; (see VoL II. p. 44) 
but it is not of such a magnitude as to be of primary import- 
ance in geographical distribution, and it can only be estimated 
at its fair value, hy taking into account the affinities of all the 
groups inhabiting that part of the world. 

LTJCANID^. {45 Genera, 529 Species.) 

Passing over a number of obscure families, we come to the 
remarkable group of the Lucanidte, or Stag-beetles, which, being 
almost all of large size, and many of them of the most striking 
forms, have been very thoroughly collected and assiduoi^ly 

The most curious feature of their general distribution, is 
their scarcity in Tropical South America, and their complete 
absence from Tropical North America and the West Indian 
Islands, though they appear again in Temperate North America. 
In the New World they may, in fact, be looked upon as a 
temperate group characteristic of the extra-tropical regions and 
the highlands ; while in the Old World, where they are far more 
abundant, they are distinctly tropical, being especially numerous 



in the Oriental and Australian r^ions. No genus has the 
range of the whole family, Dorcus and Lucatms being absent 
from Africa, while Cladognathus is unknown in the New World 
and on the continent of Australia. The Oriental region is the 
richest in peculiar forms, possessing 16 genera, 7 of which are 
whoUy confined to it, while 3 others only just range beyond it 
to North China on the one side, or to the Austro-Malayan 
islands on the other. The Australian region comes next, with 
15 genera, of which 7 are wholly peculiar. South America has 
12 genera, 10 of which are peculiar. The Ethiopian region has 
10 genera, 7 of which are peculiar, and 2 of these aM confined 
to the island of Bourbon. The Palfearctic region has 8 genera, 
and the Nearctic 5 ; one genus being peculiar to Europe, and 
two confined to Europe and North America. The Ethiopian and 
Oriental regions have 3 genera in common and peculiar to them; 
the Oriental and Australian 3 ; while the Australian and Neo- 
tropical have 1 in common, to which may be added Streptocerus, 
which represents in Chili the Australian La-nvprima. 

Among the special features presented by the distribution of 
the Lucanidie, may be mentioned— the remarkable group of 
genera, Fholidotus, Chiasognathiis, and Sphenognaihns, confined 
to Temperate South America, the Andes, and mountains of 
Brazil ; Lueanus (19' sp.), almost confined to the Oriental and 
Paltearctic regions, three species only inhabiting North America ; 
Odontolahris (29 sp.), wholly Oriental, with 2 sp. in Celebes; 
Nigidius (11 sp.), Ethiopian, hut with species in Formosa, the 
Philippines, and Malacca; Syndems (11 sp.), common to Austraha, 
New Caledonia, and South America ; Figvivs (20 sp.), divided 
between Africa and Madagascar on the one hand, and Australia, 
with the Malay and Pacific Islands, on the other. 

The facts of distribution here sketched out are in perfect 
accordance with those of many groups of Vertebrates. The 
regions are sharply contrasted by their peculiar and character- 
istic genera; the several relations of those regions are truly 
indicated ; while there is a comparatively small proportion of 
cases of anomalous or eccentric distribution. 



CETONIID^ (120 Genera, 970 Species.) 

Aa representative of the enormous group of the Lainellicorna, 
which, according to continental entomologists, forma a single 
family numbering nearly 7,000 species, we take the Cetoniidfe 
or Eose-Ohafera. These comprise a number of the most bril- 
liant and beautifuUy-coloured insects, including the gigantic 
Goliathi, which are among the largest of known beetles. They 
have been assiduously collected in every part of the world, and 
their classification has been elaborated by many of our most 
eminent entomologists. 

The Cetoniida^ are especially abundant in tropical and warm 
countries, yet far more so in the Old World than in the New ; 
and in the Old World, the Ethiopian region exhibits a marvellous 
richness in this family, no less than 76 genera being found there, 
while 64, or more than half the total number, are peculiar to it 
Next in richness, though still very far behind, comes the Oriental 
region, with 29 genera, 17 of which are peculiar. The Neo- 
tropical has only 14 genera, but all except two are peculiar to it, 
and one of these is not found out of the New World. The 
Australian region has 11 genera, three only being peculiar. 
The Palsearctic region has 13, with 4 peculiar ; the Nearctic 7, 
with 2 peculiar. The affinities of the regions for each other, as 
indicated by the genera confined to two adjacent regions, are in 
this family somewhat peculiar. The Ethiopian and Oriental 
show the most resemblance, 6 genera being common and peculiar 
to the two ; the Oriental and the Australian are unusually well 
contrasted, having only one genus exclusively in common, while 
8 genera are found in the Indo-Malay Islands which do not 
cross the boundary to the Austro-Malayan division, and several 
othersonlypassto the nearest adjacent islands ; on the other hand, 
the only large Australian genus, Scliizurkina, is found in many 
parts of the Moluccas, but not further west. The Australian 
and Neotropical regions exhibit no direct affinity, the nearest 
ally to the South. American Uymnetidie being Clinteria, aa 
African and Asiatic genus ; while not a single genus is common 



to Australia and South America. The Nearctic and Palfearctie 
regions have 3 genera in common, which are found in no other 
part of the world. 

Among the special features of interest connected with the 
di&tnbutjon ot this familj v, e must iirst notice the exceptional 
nchneas ot Mada.,ascar which alone posseases 21 peculiar 
genen. South Africa is al&o very rich, having 8 peculiar 
.,eneia Stethodtama is ■\ery pecvdiar, being divided between 
Sjuth Ameiica and Mexico on the one hand, and West and 
South Africa on the other. Stalagmosoma is a desert genus, 
ranging from Persia to Dongola, No genus is eosmopoUtan, or 
even makes any approach to being so, except Valg^is, which 
occurs in all the regions except tlie Neotropical ; and even the 
family aeems to be not universaliy distributed, since no species 
are recorded either from New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, or 
the Antilles. 

The facts here brought forward, lead us to the conclusion that 
the Cetoniidfe are an Old-World tropical family, which had 
been well developed in Africa and Asia before it spread to 
Australia and America; and that it is only capable of being 
freely dispersed in the warmer regions of the earth. This view 
will explain the absence of affinity between the Australian and 
Neotropical regions, the only closer connection between which, 
has almost certaiidy occurred in the colder portions of the Tem- 
perate zone. 

BUPEESTID.^. (109 Genera, 2,686 Species.) 

The next family suited to our purpose is that of the Bupres- 
tidte, consisting as it does of many large and some gigantic 
species, generally adorned with brilliimt metallic colours, and 
attracting attention in all wann countries. A.lthough these in- 
sects attain their full development of size and beauty only in 
the Tropica, they are not much less abundant in the warmer 
parts of the Temperate zone. In the Catalogue of the Coleop- 
tera of Europe and the Mediterranean Basin, by M, de Marseul 
(1863), we find 317 species of Bupreatidte enumerated, although 



the district in question only forms a part of the Paltearetic 
I'egion, which would thus seem to possess its full proportion of 
the species of this family. Confining ourselves' to the generic 
forms, we find far less difference than usual between the 
numbers possessed by the tropical and the temperate regions ; 
the richest being the Australian, with 47 genera, 20 of which 
are peculiar; and the poorest the Nearctic, with 24 genera, of 
which 7 are pecrdiar. The Oriental has 41 genera, 14 of which 
are peculiar ; the Neotropical 39, of which the large proportion 
of 18 are peculiar ; the Ethiopian 27, of which 6 are peculiar ; 
and the Paljearctic also 27, but with 9 peculiar. 

A most interesting feature in the distribution of this family, 
is the strong affinity shown to exist between the Australian 
and Neotropical regions, which have 4 genera common to both 
and found nowhere else ; but besides this, the extensive and 
highly characteristic Australian genus, Stigmodera, is closely 
related to a number of peculiar South American genera, such as 
Conognatha, Hyperantha, Bactyloxodes, — the last altogether con- 
fined to Chili and Temperate South America. Here we have 
a striking contrast to the Cetoniidte., and we can hardly help 
concluding, that, as the latter is typically a tropical group, so 
the present family, although now so lai^ely tropical, had an 
early .and perhaps original development in the temperate regions 
of Australia, spreading thence to Temperate South A*merica as 
well, as to the tropical regions of Asia and Africa, The 
Australian and Oriental regions have 4 genera exclusively in 
common, but they also each possess a number of peculiar or 
characteristic genera, such as the Indo-Malayan Caioxwutha 
(which has only a single species in the Moluccas) and nine others 
of less importance ; and the exclusively Austro-Malayan genus, 
Savihus, with five smaller groups, and Cyphogastra, with only 2 
Indo-Malay species. The Oriental and Ethiopian regions are very 
distinct, only possessing the single genus, Stemocera, exclusively 
in common. The Nearctic and Palcearctic are also distinct, only 
one genus, D-kerca, being confined to America (North and South) 
and Europe, a fact which again points to a southern origin for 
this family, and its comparatively recent extension into the 



North Temperate zone. It must be remembered, however, that 
in view of the immense geological antiquity o£ the existing 
familiea of Beetles, dating back certainly to the Secondary and 
piwbably to the Paleozoic epoch, " comparatively recent " may 
still be of considerable antiquity. 

It is somewhat singular that Korth and South America have 
no genera exclusively in common. The connection between 
South America and Africa seems to be shown, — by the genus 
Psilaplera, the mass of the species being divided between these 
regions, with a few widely scattered over the globe; and the 
American genus Admodes, which has one species in West 
Africa. Somewhat allied, is the extensive genus Polyhoth-is, 
strictly confined to Madagascar. The genus Agrilus is perhaps 
cosmopolitan, although no species of the family is recorded from 
Uew Zealand. Among the peculiarities of distribution we may 
notice,— the genus Sponsor, with 8 species in the island of 
Mauritius, 1 in Celebes, and 1 in Kew Guinea ; Ptosima, scat- 
tered between the United States, Mendoza in South Temperate 
America, South Europe, tlie Philippine Islands, and North 
China ; Folycesta., which besides inhabitir^ South America, 
Korth America, and Europe, has a single species in Madagascar ; 
and Belionota, which has 8 species African, 8 Indo-Malayan, 2 
Austro-Malayan, and 1 in California. The extensive genus 
Acmisodenra, is most abundant in tlie warm and dry portions of 
the Palsearctic, Ethiopian, and Nearctic regions, with some in 
the Andes and South Temperate America, a few in Brazil and 
the West Indies, and 1 said to be from the Philippines. About 
one-thiii3 of the genera (containing more than half the species) 
have a tolerably extensive range, while the genera confined to 
single regions contain only about one-fourth of the total number 
of species. 

It will, I thint, be admitted, after a careful study of the 
preceding facts, that the regions and sub-regions here adopted, 
serve to exhibit> with great clearness, the chief phei 
distribution presented by this interesting family. 



LONGICOENIA. (1,488 Genera, 7,576 Species). 

The elegant and admired graup of the Longicom ] 
treated by continental authors as a single family, consisting of 
three sub-divisions — the Pri.onid^, Cerambycidse, and LamiidEe 
of English entomologists. These are so closely related, and^ are 
so similar in form, habits, and general distribution, that it will 
be beat to consider the whole as one group, noticing whatever 
peculiarities occur in the separate divisions. The endless 
structural differences among these insects, have led to their 
being classed in an unusual number of genera, which average 
little more than 5 species each ; a number far below that in any 
of the other families we have been considering, and probably 
below that which obtains in any of the more extensive groups 
of animals or plants. This excessive subdivision of. the genera, 
a large number of which consist of only, one .or two, Species, 
renders it diiflcult to determine with precision the relations of 
the several regions, since the affinities of these genera for each 
other are in many cases undetermined. A group of such 
enormous extent as this, cau only be , properly understood after 
years of laborious study ; we must therefore content ourselves 
with such results as may be obtained from a general survey of 
the group, and from a comparison of the range of the several 
genera, by means of a careful tabulation of the mass of details 
given in the recent Catalogue of Messrs. Gemminger and Harold 
and the noble work of Lacoi-daire. 

The proportionate extent of the three families of Longicoms is 
veiy unequal ; the Prionidfe comprising about 7 per cent., the 
Cerambycidse 44 per cent., and the Lamiidte 49 per cent, of the 
total number of species ; and the genera are nearly in the same 
proportions, being almost exactly 10, 40, and 50 per cent, of the 
whole, respectively ; or, 135 Priouidte, 609 Cerambycidse, and 746 
Lamiidie. The several regions, however, present marked differ- 
ences in their proportions of these famines. In the two North 
Temperate regions, the CerambycidEe are considerably more 
numerous than the Lamiidre, in the proportion of about 12 to 


CHAP, xx:.] INSECTS. 4a9 

9; and iu this reapect the Keotropieal region agrees with them, 
though the superiority in the proportion of CerambycidEe is 
somewhat less. In the Old World tropical regions, however, 
and. in Australia, the Lamiidre greatly preponderate — being 
nearly double in the Oriental and Ethiopian regions (or as 11 to 
6), while in the Australian it is as 6 to 5. The Prionidffi show 
a similar difference, though in a less degree ; being proportion- 
ately, more numerous in the Korth . Temperate and Neotropical 
i-egiona. Now, as regards the North . Temperate regions, this 
difference can be, to some extent explained, by a diff'erence iii 
the habits of the insects. The . Ijamiidse, which both in 
the larva and perfect state have exceedingly powerful jaws, 
exclusively frequent timber trees, and almost always such as 
are dead; while the CerambycidEe, are generally more delicate 
and have weaker mandibles, and many of the species live on 
shmbs, dead twigs, foliage, and even on flowers. The immense 
superiority of the Tropics in the number and variety of their 
timber trees, and the extent' of their forests, sufficiently accounts 
for their superiority to the Temperate regions in the develop- 
ment of Lamiidje ; but the great excess of CerambycidEe in 
South America as compared with the rest of the Tropics, is not 
to be so readily explained. 

Bearing in mind the different proportions of the families, as 
above noted, we may now consider the distribution of the 
Longicoma as a whole. In number of generic forms, the Neo- 
tropical region, as in so many other groups, has a marked 
superiority. It possesses 516 genera, 489 of which (or about 
^ of the whole) are peculiar to it. The Australian and Orien- 
tal regions come next, and are exactly equal, both possessing 
360 genera, and having almost exactly the same proportion (in 
each case a Kttle less' than ^) peculiar. The Ethiopian region 
has 262 genera, with about |- peculiar ; the Paltearctic 196, with 
51 (rather more than i) peculiar; and the Nearctic 111, with 
59 (a little more than half) peculiar. The more isolated of 
the sub-regions are also well characterised by peculiar genera. 
Thus, Chdi with Temperate South America possesses 37, a 
large proportion being Cerambycidaj ; the Malagasi group 26, 



with a prepouderance of Laraiidie ; and New Zealandl2, of which 
the CerambycidEe are only slightly in excess. 

The relations between the Longicorn fauna of the several 
regions, are such m are in accordance with the dependence of the 
group on a warm climate and abundant vegetation ; and indicate 
the efficiency of deserts and oceans as barriers to their migration. 
The Neotropical and Australian regions have only 4 genera in 
common, but these are sufficient to show, that there must proba- 
bly once have been some means of communication between the 
two regions, better adapted to these insects than any they now 
possess. The Nearctic and Neotropical regions have 5, and the 
Nearctic and Palgearetic liJ genera in common and peculiar to 
them, the latter fact being the most remarkable, because no 
means of inter-communication now exists, except in high lati- 
tudes where the species of the Longicorns are very few. The 
Oriental and Australian regions, on the other hand, are closely 
connected, by having no less than 52 genera of Longicorns in 
common and peculiar to them. Moat of these are specially 
characteristic of the Malay Archipelago, often extending over all 
the islands from Sumatra to New Guinea, This large number of 
wide-spread genera of course gives a character of uniformity to 
the entire area over which they extend ; and, with analogous facts 
occurring in other families, has led many entomologists to reject 
that division of the Archipelago between the Australian and 
Oriental regions, which has been so overwhelmingly demon- 
strated to be the natural one in the case of the higher animals. 
The general considerations already advanced in Chapter II. 
enable us, however, to explain such anomalies as this, by the 
great facilities that exist for the transfer from island to island 
of such small animals, so closely connected with woody vege- 
tation in every stage of their existence. That this is the true 
and sufficient explanation, is rendered clear by cerfadn additional 
facts, which those who object to the sharp division of the Indo- 
Malay and Austro-Malay sub-regions have overlooked. 

An analysis of all the Malay Longicorns proves, that besides the 
52 genera characteristic of the Archipelago as a whole, there are 
100 genera which are confined to one or other of its component 



sub-regions. , Many of these, it is ti'ue, consist of sii^Ie species 
confined to a single island, and we will not lay any stress on 
these ; tut there are also several important groups, which extend 
over the Indo-Malay or the Austro-Malay islands only, stopping 
abruptly at the dividing-line between them. For example, on 
the Indo-Malay side we have Emyarthrum, L&prodera, Aris- 
tdbia, Ceelosterna, and Entelopes, and what is perhaps even more 
satisfactory, the large genera Agelasta and Astathes, abundant in 
all the Indo-Malay islands, but having only one or two species 
just passing the boundary into Celebes. On the other side we have 
Tethionea, ^hingnotus, Arrhenotus, Tmesisienms (the last three 
genera abounding from Kew Guinea to Celebes, but totally 
unknown further west), Hestima, Trigonc^tera, Amblymora, Ste- 
silea, Mies, and the large genus Micracautha, with but a single 
species beyond the boundary, — 30 Austro-Malayan genera in all, 
each found in more than one island, but none of them extending 
west of Celebes, Here we have clear proof that the boundaiy 
line between the two great regions exists for Longicoms, as well 
as for all other animals ; but in this case an unusually large 
number have been able to get across it. This, however, does not 
abolish the barrier, but only proves that it is not absolutely effect- 
ual in all cases. Those who maintain that the Malay Archi- 
pelago forms a single Coleopterous region, must disprove or 
explain the instances of limited range here adduced. 

Out of nearly 1500 known genera of tliese insects, only one 
genus, Clytv4, appears to be cosmopolitan. Sa^erda and CalUchro- 
ma aie the only others that perhaps occur in every region ; hut 
these are both wanting over wide tracts of the earth's surface, 
Saperda being absent from Tropical Africa and the Malay Arohi- 
pelE^ ; and CalUchroma from the Australian region, except one 
species in Poljmesia. Many of the genera of Longicoms have a 
somewhat wide and scattered distribution, indicative of decadence 
or great antiquity, Mallodon and Parandra are mostly South 
American, but have species in Australia and Africa ; OeTtie is 
found in Era^;!! and the United States, with one species in West 
Africa ; Ceratcphorus has 2 species in West Africa and 1 in New 
Zealand. Xystrocera is mostly African, but has single s 



Borneo, Java, Ainboyna and South Australia ; Phyton has one 
species in North America and the other in Ceylon ; Pkilage- 
ies has 2 in South Africa, and 1 in Malacca : Toxotws abounds 
in North America and Europe, ■with one specie away in Mada- 
gascar. Zeptura is also North Temperate, but has a species at 
the Cape, one at Singapore and a third in Celebes. Necydalis 
has species in North and SouiJi America, Europe and Australia. 
Hylotrupes has 1 species in North America and Europe, and 1 in 
Austraha; iepiocerffi prefers islands, being found only in Ceylon, 
Madagascar, Bourbon, Batchian, the New Hebrides, New 
Caledonia and North Austraha ; HatMiodes is Australian, with 
1 species in Ceylon ; Sehcendonta, has 3 Malayan species, and 1 
in Natal. Many other cases ecLually curious could he quoted, 
hut these are sufficient. They cannot he held to indicate any 
close relation between the distant countries in A^hich species of 
the some genus are now found, hut perhaps serve to remind 
us that groups of great antiquity, and probably of great extent, 
have dwindled away, leaving a few surviving rehcs scattered far 
and wide, the sole proofs of their former predominance. 

General Ohservations on the D-lstrihution of ColeopUra. 
We have now passed in review six of the most important and 
best known groups of the Colooptera or Beetles, comprising 
about 2,40.0 genera, and more than 21,000 species. Although 
presenting certain peculiarities and anomalies, we have found 
that, on the whole, their distribution is in very close accordance 
with that of the higher animals. "We have seen reason to 
helieve that these great and well-marked groups have a high 
geological antiquity, and by constantly hearing this fact in mind, 
we can account for many of the eccentricities of their distribu- 
tion. They have prohahly survived changes of physical geo- 
graphy which have altogether extinguished many of the more 
highly diganised animals, and we may perhaps gain some insight 
into the hearing of those changes, hy considering the cross rela- 
tions between the several regions indicated hy them. On care- 
fully tabulating the indications given hy each of the groups here 
discussed, I arrive at the following approximate result. The 


CHAP, sxi.] INSECTS. 503 

best marked affinities between the regions are those between 
tiie Nearctic and Palfearctic, — the Oriental and Australian, 
—the Australian and Neotropical, — which appear to be about 
equal in each case. Next comes that between the Ethiopian 
and Oriental on the one side, and the Ethiopian and Neotropical 
on the other, which also appear about equal. Then follows that 
between the Nearctic and Neotropical regions; and lastly, and far 
the least marked, that between the North Temperate and South 
Temperate regions. That the relation between the Ethiopian 
and Neotropical region should be so comparatively well marked, 
is unexpected ; but we must consider that in such a comparison 
as the pi'esent, we probably get the result, not of any recent 
changes or intermigrationa, but of all the long series of changes 
and opportunities of migration that have occurred during many 
geological epochs, — probably during the whole of the Tertiary 
period, perhaps extending far back into the Secondary age. 

It appears evident that Insects exhibit in a very marked 
degree in their actual distribution, the influence both of very 
ancient and veiy modern conditions of the earth's surface. The 
effects of the ancient geographical features of the earth, are to be 
traced, in the large number of cases of discontinuous and widely 
scattered groups which wc meet with in almost every family, 
and which, to some extent, obscure the broader features of distri- 
bution due to the period during which the barriers which divide 
the several primary regions have contiimed to exist. And this, 
which we may consider as the normal distribution, is still 
further obscured in those cases where the barriers between 
existing regions are of, such a nature as to admit of tlie free 
passage of insects or their larva in a variety of ways, and (what 
is perhaps of more importance) in which the physical features 
on both sides of the barrier are so nearly identicEil, as to admit 
of the ready estabhshment of such immigrants as may occasion- 
ally arrive. These conditions concur, for some families of insects, 
in the case of the Oriental and Austmlian portions of the Malay 
Archipelago; and it is there that the normal distribution has 
been sometimes greatly obscured, but never, as we have suffi- 
ciently shown, by any means obliterated. 

Vol. II.— 33 




The Mollusca being for the most part marine, it does, uot enter 
into the plan of this work to go into much detail as to their 
distribution. The orders and families will, however, be passed 
briefly in review, and all terrestrial and fresh-water groups 
discussed in somewhat more detad ; with the object of snowing 
how far their distribution accords with that of the higher 
animals, and to what extent the anomalies they present can be 
explained by peetdiarities of organisation and habits. If the 
views advocated in our fifth chapter are correct, the regions 
there marked out must apply to all classes of animals ; and it 
will be the task of the students of each group, to work out in 
detail the causes which Lave led to any special features of 
distribution. All I can hope to do here, is to show, generally 
and tentatively, that such a mode of treatment is possible ; and 
that it is not necessary, as it is certainly not convenient or 
instructive, to have a distinct set of "Eegions " established for 
each class or order in the Animal and Vegetable Kingdoms. 

For all the Marine groups I have merely summarised the 
information contained in Mr. Woodward's Manual of the 
Mollusca, but in the case of the Land Shells I have consulted 
the most recent general works, and endeavoured to give an 
accurate, though doubtless a very incomplete, account of the 
most interesting facts in their distribution. As their classifica- 
tion is very unsettled, I have followed that of the two latest 
great works, by Martens and Pfeiffer, 




Family 1.— AUGONATJTID^ , " Paper Nautilus." (1 Genus, 
4 Species). 

Distribution. — Open seas of all ■warm regions. Two species 
fossil in Tertiary deposits. 

Family 2.— OCTOPODID^. "Polypi." (7 Genera, 60 

DiSTEiBUTioN. — Norway to New Zealand, all tropical and 
temperate seas and coasts. 

Family 3.— TEUTHID^. " Squids or Sea-pens." (16 Genera, 
102 Species.) 

Distribution. — Universal, to Greenland ; 2 other genera are 
fossil, in the Lias and Oolite. 

Family 4.~SEPIAD^. "Cuttle Fish." (1 Genus, 30 Species). 

DiSTBiBUTiON. — All seas : 4 other genera are fossil, in Eocene 
and Miocene d 

Family 5— SPIEULID^. (1 Genns, 3 Species). 
Distribution. — All the warmer seas. 



Family 6. — BELEMNITID^. Fossil. (6 Genera, 100 

DisTElBUTlON. — Lias to Chalk in Europe, India and North 


Family 7.— KAUTILIDjE. (1 Genus, 3 Species, Living; 4 
Genera, 300 Species, Fossil). 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — Indian and Pacific Oceans ; and the fossil 
species from the Silurian Period to the Tertiary, in all parts 
of the world. 

Family 8.— OETHOCERATID^. Fossil. (8- Genera, 400 

DiSTKlBUTlON. — Lower Silurian to Lias. 
Family 9.— AMMONITID^. Fossil. (14 Genera, 1100 

Distribution, — Upper Silurian to Chalk. Found at 16,000 
eet elevation in the Himalayas, 




Family 1.— STEOMBIDiE. (4 Genera, ( 

DiSTRiBUTioN.^The Stromtidfe, or Wing-shells, inhabit tropi- 
cal and warm seas from the Mediterranean to New Zealand ; most 
abundant in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. There are nearly 
200 fossil species, from the Lias to Miocene and recent deposits. 

Familt 2.— MUEICIDiE. (12 Genera, 1000 Species.) 

DiSTEiBUTiON. — All seas, most abundant in the Tropics. 
Trickotropis is confined to Northern seas ; Murex and Fttsus are 
cosmopolitan. There are about 700 fossil species, ranging from 
the' Oolite to the Miocene and recent formations. 

Family 3.— BUCCINIDJE. {24 Genera, 1100 Species.) 

Distribution. — The Buccinidte, or " Whelks," range over the 
whole world, hut some of the genera are restricted. Bueoinwni 
inhabits the north and south, temperate seas; Monoceros the 
West Coast of America ; Cassidaria the Mediterranean ; Phos, 
Harpa, Ebiima, and Bidrmla, are confined to the Pacific ; Bol- 
iwm inhabits the Mediterranean as weU as the Pacific, There 
are about 350 fossil species, mostly from the Eocene and J 



Family 4— CONID^. (3 Genera, 8.10 Species.) 

DlSTElBunoN. — T!ie Cones are universally distributed, but 
tills applies only to tiie genus Fleurotoma. Gonus is tropical 
and sub-tropical, and Githara is confined to the Philippine 
Islands. There are about 460 fossil species, from the Chalk 
formation to the most recent deposits. 

Jamily 5.— VOLUTID^ (5 Genera, 670 Species.) 

Distribution. — The Volutes are mostly tropical ; but a small 
species of Milra is found at Greenland, and a Margi'mlla in the 
Mediterranean. Cymba is confined to the West Coast of Africa 
and Portugal. Voluta extends south to Cape Horn. There are 
about 200 fossil species, from the Chalk and Eocene to recent 

Family 6.— CTPE^IDiE. (3 Genera, 200 Species,) 

Distribution.— The well-known Cowries are found all over 
the world, but they are much more abundant in warm regions. 
One small species extends to Greenland, There are nearly 100 
fossil species, from the Chalk to the Miocene and recent forma- 

Family 7.— NATICIDiE. (5 Genera, 270 species,) 

DiSTElEUTiON, — The NaticJdaa, or Sea-snails, though most 
abundant in the Tropics, are found also in temperate seas, and 
far into the Arctic regions. Two other genera are fossil ; and 
there are about 300 extinct species, ranging from the Devonian 
to the Pliocene formations. 


Family 8.— PYEAMIDELLID^. (10 Genera, 220 Species.) 

DiSTBiBUTiOK.— These turreted shells are very widely distri- 
buted both in temperate and tropical seas ; and most of the 
genera have also a wide range. There are about 400 extinct 
species, from so far back as the Lower SUuriaii to the PUocene 

Family 9.— CEHITHIAD^. (5 Genera, 190 Species.) 

Distribution. — These are marine, estuary, or fresh-water 
shells, of an elongated spiral form; they have a world-wide 
distribution, but are most abundant in the Tropics. Potamides 
(41 sp.), is the only freah-water genus, and is found . in the 
rivers of Airioa, India and China, to North Australia . and Cali- 
fornia. Another genus is exclusively fossil, and there are 
about 800 extinct species, ranging from the Trias to the Eocene 
and recent formations. 

Family 10.— MELANIAD^. (3 Genera, 410 Species.) 

Distribution. — Fresh-water only : lakes and rivers in warm 
countries, widely scattered. South Paliearctic and Austrahan 
regions, from Spain to New Zealand ; South Africa, West Africa, 
and Madagascar; United States. There are about 50 fossil 
species, from the Wealden and Eocene to recent formations. 

Family 11.— TURHITELLTD^ (5 Genera, 230 Species.) 

Distribution. — Universal Ccecum is found in nbrth tem- 
perate seas only. The other genera are mostly tropical, but some 
species reach Iceland and Greenland, There are near 300 
species fossil, ranging from the Neocomian to the Pliocene 



Family 12.-— LITTOEINrD.E. (9 Genera, 310 Species.) 

Distribution. — The LittorinidEe are mostly found on the coasts 
in shallow water ; as the common Periwinkle (Littorina littorea). 
They are of world-wide distribution; Taut Solarium and Phorus 
ax6 tropical; while Lacuna, Skenea, and most species of Sissoa 
are Northern, About 180 species are fossil, rangir^ from the 
Permian to the Pliocene formations. 

Family 13.— PALUDINID^. (4 Genera, 217 Species.) 

Distribution. — ^The Paludinidfe, or Eiver-snails, are all fresh- 
water, and range over the whole world. Faludi-na (60 sp.), is 
confined to the Northern Jiemia^ghe'ee ; AmpuUaria (136 sp.), 
is tropical ; Am/phibolci, (3 sp.), inhabits New Zealand and the 
Pacific Islands ; Valmla (18 sp.), North America and Britain. 
There are 72 fossil species of Palvdina and Vahata, in the 
Wealden formation and more recent fresh- water deposits. 

Family 14,— NEEITIDiE. (10 Genera, 320 Species.) 

Distribution. — All warm seas, ranging north to Norway and 
the Caspian Sea. Neritina an^Navicdla inhabit fresh or brack- 
ish waters, the latter confined to the countries bordering the 
Indian Ocean and the islands of the Pacific. There are 80 fossil 
species, from the Trias, Lias, and Eocene formations down to 
recent d 

Family 15.— TUEBINIDiE. (10 Genera, 425 Species). 

Distribution. — The genus Trockvs (200 sp.) has a world-wide 
range, but the other genera are mostly tropical, and are most 
abundant in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. There are more 
than 900 fossil species, found in all parts of the world, from the 
Lower Silurian to the Tertiary formations. 


Family 16.— HALIOTID^. (6 Genera, 106 Species), 

DiSTEiBDTlON, — The Ear-sheUs .are most abundant in the 
Indian and Pacific Oceans ; some are found on the east coasts 
of the Atlantic, hut there are very few in the "West Indies. 
lanthiTM (10 sp.) consists of floating oceanic snails found in the 
■warm parts of the Atlantic. Three other genera are fossil, and 
there are near 500 fossil species of this family ranging from the 
Lower Silurian to the PUocene formations. 

Family 17.— FISSUEELLID^. (5 Genera, 200 Species), 

DiSTRiBUTiotf. — All seas. Pimcturdla {6 sp.) is confined to 
Northern and Antarctic seas ; Simula to the Philippines ; and 
Parmoplwrus (15 sp.) from the Cape of Good Hope to the 
Philippines and New Zealand. There are about 80 fossil 
species, ranging from the Caihoniferous formation to the 
deposits of the Glacial epoch. 

Family 18.— CALYPTR^ID^. (4 Genera, 125 Species). 

DlSTRiBonoN. — The Ca!ptr£eid«, or Bonnet-Limpets, are 
found on the coasts of all seas from Norway to Chili and 
Australia ; but are most abundant within the Tropics. The 
genera are all widely scattered. There are 75 fossil f 
ranging from the Devonian to recent formations. 

Family 19.— PATELLID^. (4 Genera, 254 Species). 

DisTKiBOTiON. — The Patellidffi, or. Limpets, 'are universally 
distributed, and are as abundant in the temperate as in 
tropical seas. There are about 100 fossil species, ranging from 
the Silurian to the Tertiary formations. 



Family 20.—DENTAUA'DM. (1 Genua, 50 Species). 

DlSTEiBtrnotr. — The genus Dmtaliiim ia found in the North 
Atlantic, Mediterranean, "West Indies and India, There are 
125 fossil species, found in vaiious formations as fox hack as 
the Devonian in Europe and in ChUi. 

Family 21.— CHITONID^. (1 Genus, 251) Species). 

Distribution. — On rocky shores in all parts of the world. 
There are 37 fossil species ranging back to the Silurian 

Ord&r II.—PUIMONIFERA. (" Terrestrial Molluscs.") 

The Land and Fresh-water snails are so important and exten- 
sive a group, and their classification has been so carefully 
studied, that their geographical distribution is a subject of much 
interest. The range of the genera wiU therefore be given in 
some detail. For the Helieidai I follow the classical work of 
Albers — Die Selicim, Von Martens' Edition (1860) ; and for 
the Operculate families, Pfeiffer's Monographia Fneumonopo- 
morwm, Viventimn, 2nd Supplement, 1865. The number of 
species is, of course, very considerably increased since these 
works were published (and the probable amount of the increase 
I have in most cases indicated), but this does not materially 
affect the great features of their geographical distribution. 

Family 22.— HELICID^, (33 Genera, 3,332 Species) (1860). 

General DisTBrBUTiON.—Unirersal. 

The Helicidffi, or Snails, are a group of immense extent and 
absolutely cosmopolitan in their range, being found in the most 
barren deserts and on the smallest islands, all over the globe. 
They reach to near the line of perpetual snow on mountains, and 


CHAP, xsii.] MOLLUSCA. 513 

to the limit of trees or even considerably beyond it, in the 
Ai-ctic regions ; but they are comparatively very scarce in all 
cold countries. The Antilles, the Philippine Islands, Equa- 
torial America, and the Mediterranean sub-region are especially 
rich in this family. Comparatively few of the genera, and those 
generally small ones, are restricted to single regions ; but on the 
other hand very few are generally distributed, only bwo—Relix 
and Pupa — occurring in all the six regions, whUe Helix alone is 
truly cosmopolitan, occurring in every sub-region, in every 
country, and perhaps in every island on the glohe. 

The Neotropical region is, on the whole, the richest in this 
family, the continental Equatorial districts producing an abun- 
dance of large and handsome species, whUe the Antilles are 
pre-eminent for the number of their peculiar forms. This 
region possesses 22 of the genera, and 6 of them are peculiar. 

The Palfearctic region seems to come next in productiveness, 
but this may be partly owing to its having been so thoroughly 
explored. It possesses 16 of the genera, and 3 of them are 
confined to it The great mass of the species are found in 
the warm and fertile countries surrounding the Mediterranean 

The Ethiopian region has 13 genera, only one of which is 

The Australian region has 14 genera, 2 of which are confined 
to the Pacific Islands, 

The Oriental has 15 genera and the Nearctic 12, but in 
neither case are there any peculiar generic types. 

The following is the distribution of the several genera taken 
in the order of their magnitude : — 

Relic (1,115 sp.), cosmopolitan. This genus is divided into 
88 sub-genera, a number of which have a limited distribution. 
An immense quantity of species have heen recently described, 
so that the number now exceeds 2,000. 

Nanina (290 sp.) is characteristic of the Oriental and Aus- 
tralian regions, over the whole of which it extends, just entering 
the Palsearctic region ^ far as North China and Japan. 
Isolated from this area is a small group of 4 species occurring 



in West Africa. The nmniber of species in this genus have 
now been increased to about 400. 

ClausUia (272 sp.) is most abundant in Europe, with a few 
species widely scattered in India, Malaya, China, Japan, EcLua- 
torial America, and one in Porto Eico. The described species 
liave been increased to nearly 500. 

BuHmulus (210 sp.) is American, and almost exclusively 
Neotropical, ranging from Montevideo and Chili, to the West 
Indian Islands, California and Texas ; with two sub-genera con- 
fined to the Galapagos Islands. About 100 new species have 
been described since the issue of the second edition of Dr. 
Woodward's Manual 

Pupa (210 sp.) abounds most in Europe and the Arctic 
regions, but has a very wide range, being scattered throughout 
Africa, continental India, Australia, the Pacific Islands, North 
America to Greenland, and the Antilles; but it is absent 
from South America, the Himalayan and Malayan sub-regions, 
China and Japan. An extinct species has occurred abundantly in 
the carboniferous strata of North America. About 160 addi- 
tional species have been described. 

Bulimus (1 72 sp.) abounds most in Tropical South America ; 
it is also found from Burmah eastward through Malaya to the 
Solomon and Fiji Islands ; there are also scattered species in 
Patagonia, St. Vincents, Texas, St. Helena, and New Zealand. 
More than 100 additional species have been described. 

SuHminus (132 sp.) ranges from Central and South Europe 
over the whole Ethiopian and Oriental regions to North Cliina, 
and through the Australian to New Zealand ; there is also a 
single outlying species in the Galapagos Islands, About 50 
more species have been described. 

CocMostylct (127 sp.) is almost peculiar to the Philippine 
Islands, beyond which, are a species in Borneo, one in Java, and 
two in Australia. Very few new species have been added to 
this genus. 

Ackatindla (95 sp.) is absolutely confined to the Sandwich 
Island group. Eecent researches have more than tripled the 
number of described s 


CitAp. XXII.] MOLLUSCA. 515 

Aehatina (87 sp.) is most abundant and finest in the Ethio- 
pian region, over the whole of which it ranges ; but there are 
also species in Florida, the Antilles, the Sandwich Islands, 
Ceylon and India. The described species are now more than 

Hycdina (84 sp.) inhabits all Tropical America and the 
Antilles, North America to Greenland, and Europe to the 
Arctic regions, Comparatively few new species have been 

Oylindrella (83 sp.) inhabits the "West Indian islands and 
Guatemala to Texas, with a sub-genus in the Philippine Islands, 
Species since described have more than trebled the number in 
this genus. 

Gionella (67 sp.) is widely scattered; in India fixim Ceylon to 
the Khasia Mountains, Brazil, New Granada, the West Indian 
islands, Palasarctic, and northern part of Nearctic regions. 
Pacific Islands, New Zealand, and Juan Fernandez. About 20 
new species have since been described. 

Glandina (Q6 sp.), Peru to South Carolina and the Antilles, 
with three species in Central Africa and one in South Europe. 
About 40 species have been added to this genus. 

Stenogyra (49 sp.), widely distributed : Tropical America and 
West Indies to Florida, South and AVeat Africa, the Mediter- 
ranean region, India and the Philippines. About a dozen new 
species have been described. 

SwMnea (41 sp.), widely scattered in all the regions, and in 
St. Helena, Juan Fernandez, Tahiti, Chiloe, Greenland, West 
Africa, Himalayas and Australia. The described species are 
now more than 100. 

Partida (39 sp.), Solomon Islands to Tahiti and Sandwich 
Islands. This genus has also been increased to near 100 

Stnptaxis (34 sp.), most abundant in Tropical South America, 
but occurs in West Africa, the Seychelles and Rodriguez Islands, 
Ceylon and Burmah. It now contains over 100 described species. 

Spi/raxis (33 sp.), Yucatan to Mexico, and less abundant in the 
West Indian Islands. About 20 species have been added. 



Maeroc^amus (27 sp.), Antilles, Florida, and Peru. The 
species have been more than doubled. 

Vitrina (26 sp.), widely scattered through North and Central 
Europe, North-west America and Greenland, Abyssinia, Mada- 
^scar and South Africa, Himalayas to Burmah and Australia. 
Species since described have more than doubled the number in 
this genus. 

(hihalicus (23 sp.), Bolivia to Mexico and Antilles. This genus 
has been increased to about 40 species. 

Sagda. (19 sp.), Antilles only. Very few new species, if any, 
have been described. 

Zonites (12 sp.), South Europe, with one species pf a distinct 
type in Guatemala. The number of species in this genus Baa 
been since about tripled. 

Le^tcochroa (11 sp.), Mediterranean region to Syria and 
Arabia Petrea, 

Simpulopsis (7 sp.), Bahia, Antilles, and far away in the 
Solomon Islands. ■ Two or three have been added. 

Salea (6 sp.). Middle and North Europe, Brazil, and the 
Island of Tristan d'Acunha. 

Dawdehardia. (6 sp.). Central and South Europe ; and a species 
has since been discovered in New Zealand. 

Maerocydes (4 sp.), ChiK, California, Oregon and Central 
North America. 

Columna (3 sp,), West Africa, Princes Islands and Madagascar. 

Stenopus (2 sp.), Island of St. Vincent (West Indies.) 

Pfeifferia (2 sp.), Philippines and Moluccas. 

Testaeella (2 sp.). West Europe and Teneriffe. About 8 species 
have been since described, including one from New Zealand. 

Fossil species of Helix, BuHinus, Achatina, Balea, and Glau- 
silia, are found in all the Tertiary formations ; while a species 
of Fupa (as already stated) occurs in the carboniferous forma- 
tion. For interesting details of the distribution of the sub- 
genera and species of Achatinella in the Sandwich Islands, see a 
paper by Eev, J, T. GuKck in tlie Journal of the Linnean 
Society. (Zoology, vol. xi. p. 496.) 


FiMiLY 23.— LIMACIDiE.— (12 Genera, 116 Species.) 

General Distkieution. 

l.a.3.4- 3- l.a.3.4 

The Limacidfe, or Slugs, are widely distributed, but tbey are 
absent from South America, where they are represented by the 
next family. They also seem to be absent from the greater part 
of Africa. The genera are diatributed as follows: — 

Limax (51 sp.), PalEearctic region, Australia and the Sand- 
wich Islands ; Anadmm (2 sp), Himalayas ; PMlomychus (9 sp.). 
North America, China and Java ; Arion (25 sp.), Norway to 
Spain and South Africa ; Parmacella (7 sp.), South Europe, 
Canary Islands and North India ; Janella (1 sp.). New Zealand ; 
Aneiiea (1 sp.), NewHebrides and New Caledonia; Parmarion 
(4 sp.), India ; Tribonwphorus (3 sp.), Australia ; Testacdla (3 sp.). 
South Europe, Canary Islands, and New Zealand; Hyalvmax 
(2 sp.), Bourbon and Mauritius; Krynichia {8 sp.), Eastern 
Europe and North America, A few species of Limax, Arion, and 
Testacella have been found fossil in Tertiary deposits. 

Family 24— ONCIDIADiE. (2 Genera, 36 Species.) 

Genbkai, DlSl'RIEU- 


£S"™' 1 , ~ 

.BCTIC Pa.i.*:«.sotic E-chio 




1...3... j — 

— j..»— l — 





The OncidiadEe, or Slugs with a coriaceous mantle, inhabit 
the Oriental region, Mauritius, Australia, the Pacific Islands, 
South America and South Europe. The genera are r — 



Oncidmm (16 8p.). South Europe (1 sp. British), Mauritius, 
Australia and Pacific Islands ; Yaginulm (20 ep.}. Neotropical 
and Oriental regions. 

Family 25.— LIMN^IDjE. (7 Genera, 332 Species.) 


I. a. 3. 4 1.2.3 .A 3- jl.a.3.41 

The limnffiidffi, or Fresh-water Snails, inhabit ponds and 
rivers in most parts of the world, but appear to be absent from 
the Austridian region. The genera are distributed as follows : — 

Limncea (95 sp.), Nearctic, Palfearctic, and Oriental regions ; 
Ghownofryphalos (2 sp.). Lake Baikal ; Pompholyx (2 sp.). Western 
America; Chilinia. (18 sp.), South America; I%ysa (20 sp.), 
Nearctic, Palsearetic, Ethiopian and Oriental regions, and extends 
to above 73° North Latitude in Siberia, being the most Arctic of 
land or fresh-water shells; Ancylua (49 sp.), Nearctic and 
Neotropical I'egions, Europe and New Zealand; Planm-bis (145 
sp.), Nearctic, Palffiarctic and Oriental regions. Several genera 
are found fossil, chiefly in the Wealden, Eocene, and Miocene 

Family 26.— AUEICULID^. (3 Oenera, 210 Species.) 


I 1.2 1.2.3— 1.3- 

The Aurieulidaj are chiefly found near the sea in hot countries 
and are most ahundant in the Eastern tropics. They are absent 



from the East coast of South America,. The genera have a 
somewhat restricted distribution as follows: — 

A'wrimila (128 sp.), India, Pacific Islands, Peru and West 
Indies; Mdam^us (56 sp.). West Indies and Europe; Cary- 
chium (9 sp.), Europe and Korth America ; Plectrotrema (14 sp.), 
Australia, Malay Islands, China, Cuba ; Blaiineria (2 sp.). West 
Indian and Sandwich Islands. There are many fossil species 
ranging back to the Eocene foimation. 


■ 27.— ACICTJLID^. (4 Genera, 65 Species.) (186.3.) 



=1 .£=1. 1 issssi 1 ,s=i 1 bS:=s.. 1 .rs=. 

^B.3.4 l.S l.a-4 4- 1 -2-4 12.3- 

The Aciculidfe are small cylbdrical shells chiefly found in 
the West Indian Islands, but with representatives widely 
scattered over the glohe, 

Acimla (5 sp.) is European only; Geomdama (21 sp.), and 
Ghiitya (1 ap.), are confined to the Igland of Jamaica ; Triinca- 
tdla (38 sp.), is most abundant in the Antilles, but is also found 
in some part of each of the six regions, as indicated hy the 
diagram ofthe family. Bitt few new species have been added 
to this group. 

Family 28.— DIPLOMMATINID,^. (3 Genera, 23 Species.) 

Gbsebal Distribution. 

1—3.4 1.3.3 ' 

The Diplommatinidffi are minute shells of the Oriental a 
Australian regions, 
Vol. 11.-34 



Diplommatina (18 sp.) inhabits India to Burmah, and the 
greater part of tte Australian region ; the number of species has 
now been doubled, and one has been discovered in the island 
of Trinidad ; ClostopMs (1 ap.), Moulmein ; FaxUlus (3 sp.), 
Borneo, Hong Kong, and Loo Choo Islands. 

Family 29.~CYOLOSTOMID^. (41 Genera, 1009 Species.) 

General Distribution. 

srZTs': 1 

,. 1 luB-t^™". 1 8^-X.Z«. 1 

s2t'^Zt%. j i^Z'-o 



1 4 1 3 4 

1 2 3 4. 1 



This extensive group, comprising the largest of the opercu- 
lated land-shells, is especially characteristic of the Oriental 
region, which possesses 25 genera, no less than 12 of them being 
wholly coniined to it. The Neotropical region comes, next, with 
15 genera, 9 of which are peculiar; but a large number of 
these are confined to the West Indian Islands bouth America 
itself being very poor in this group. The Pal^orctic region 
has 3 pecuKar genera ; the Ethiopian and Au&tralian 1 eich 
The Wearctic region has but a single "West Indian species m 
Florida. The distribution of the genera i3 as follows — 

Peculiar to or characteristic of the Oriental region are, O^ts- 
tkoporm (11 sp.), Bhiostoma (6 sp.), Alycaeus (39 sp.), Opisthos- 
toma (1 sp.), Hylocisiis (3 sp.), Fterocydos (19 sp.), extendir^ to 
the Moluccas ; Aulopoma (4 sp.), I>ermalocera{i sp.), Zeptopoma 
(54 sp.), extending west to the Seychelles and east to the Mo- 
luccas and New Guinea ; Cydophorus (163 sp.), most abundant 
in the Oriental region, but ranges to Japan, to Chili, and all 
Tropical America, over the whole Australian region, and to 
Natal and Madagascar; Gataulits (15 sp.), confined to Ceylon, 
the Neilgherries and Nicobar Islands ; Bhaphaulws (4 sp.), 
Penang to Ceram ; Strepiaulus (1 sp.), Arinia (3 sp.), Pupinella 
(2 sp.), Fupina (24 sp.), half in North India to Philippines and 



Japan, the other half in Moluccas, New Guinea and Australia ; 
Gyclotopsis (2 sp.), India and Malaya : Eegistoma (9 sp.), Philip- 
piuea and Moluccas, Kew Caledonia and Pacific. 

Characteristic of the Neotropical region are: — Cydotvs {IW 
8p,), half in the Antilles and Tropical America, the rest in the 
Moluccas, China, Malaya, India, Natal, and the Seychelle 
Islands ; Megalomastoma {27 sp.), abundant in Cuba, West 
Indies and South America, others in India, Malaya, and 
Mauritius ; Jamaida (2 sp,), Jamaica ; Lieina. (5 sp.), Antilles ; 
Ckoanopoma (49 sp.), Antilles; Ctenopoma (25 sp.), Antilles; 
Dvplopoma (1 sp.), Gvh^.; Adamsidla {1^ sp.), Jamaica, Cuba, 
Guatemala ; Gydostomits (113 sp.), abundant in Antilles, also 
occurs in Madagascar, Arabia, Syria, Hungary and New Zealand ; 
Tvdora (34 sp.), Antilles, and one species in Algeria ; Cistula 
(40 sp.), Ghondropoma (94 ap.), Bowderia (2 sp,). Tropical 

Peculiar to or characteristic of the Palfearctic region are ; — 
Ora^edopoma (5 sp.), confined to Madeira, the Azores and 
Canaries ; Leonia (1 sp.), Spain and Algeria ; Pomatias (22 sp.), 
Europe and Canaries with a species in the Himalayas ; Gedna 
(1 sp.), Manchuria. 

The Ethiopian region has the peculiar genus Lithodion (5 sp.), 
Madagascar, Socotra and Arabia ; and Otopoma (19 sp.), Mascarene 
Islands and Socotra, with a species in Western India and another 
in New Ireland. 

The AustraKan region is characterised by Ccdlia (3 sp.), in 
Ceram, Australia, and the Philippines respectively ; Eealia {7 
sp.). New Zealand and the Marquesas Islands ; Omphalotropis 
(38 sp.), the Australian region, with some species in India, 
Malaya, and the Mauritius. 

The remaining genus, Hydrocma (27 sp.), has a very 
widely scattered distribution, being found in South Europe, 
Japan, the Cape, China, Malaya, New Zealand, the Pacific 
Islands and Chili. From 10 to 20 per cent, of new species have 
been since described in most of the genera of this family. 



i-AMiLY 30.— HELICINID^ (V Geneia, 4^3 =5peaes) (18C8) 
Gekeeal DI(^TnIBUT^o■^ 

The HelieinidEe are very characteristic of the Antilles, com- 
paratively few being found in any other part of the world 
except the Islands of the Pacific. The genera are : — 

Troehatdla (33 sp.), Antilles with a species in Venezuela, and 
another in Cambodja ; LticideUa (5 ap.), Antilles ; Selieina (274 
sp.), Antilles, Pacific Islands, Tropical America, Southern 
United States, Moluccas, Atistralia, Philippines, Java, Andaman 
Islands and Korth China; Schasicheila (5 sp.), Mexico, Guate- 
mala and Bahamas ; Alcadia (28 sp.), Antilles ; Georisso. (5 sp.) 
Moulmein to Eurmah About 10 per cent of new species 
appeal to ha\e been since described m the larger genera of this 

Gtneral Ohsu-vatwiis on the Ihstnbufion offh Land V Uii-ica 
A consideration ot the dibtiibution of the families inl ^enen 
of land shells shows us that although thty possess some special 
features yet they i^ee m manj respects with the higher animals 
in their hnutatiDu by great natural barners, such as oceans, 
deserts mountim ranges iiid chmital zones A remarkable 
point m the distribution ot the^e animals is the number of 
genera which hive a ^ery hmited iinge and also the prevalence 
of genera having species scitteied ae it weic at nndom all 
over the earth No less thin 1-i genera (or il out one sixth of 
the whole number) are confined to the Antilles, while the 
greater part of the aub-genera of modem authors are restricted to 
limited areas. 

If we first compare the New World with the Old, we find the 
difference as regards genera quite as great as in most of the 



vertebrates. In the HelicidEe, 10 genera are confined to the. 
New, and 7 to the Old World, 16 beii^ common to both. In the 
Operculata the numher of genera of restricted range is greater, — 
the New World having 15, the Old World 32 genera, only 8 being, 
common to both. Of the New World genera 12 out of the 15 do 
not occur at all 'in South America ; and of those of the Old 
World, 22 out of the '62 occur in a single region only. If we 
take the northern and southern division proposed by Professor 
Huxley (the latter comprising the Australian and Neotropical 
regions), we find a much less well-marked diversity. Among 
the HelicidEe only 4 are exclusively northern, 8 southern ; wJiUe 
among the Operculata 22 are northern, 16 southern. The best 
way to compare these two kinds of primary division will be to 
leave out all those genera confined to a single region each, and 
to take account only of those characteristic of two or more of the 
combined regions ; which wiU evidently show which division ia 
the most natural one for this group. The result is as foUows : — 

Genera common to two or more Ekqions in, and cosfinbd to, each 
Primary Division op the Earth. 

( Northern . . . . . . . ' . . ( 

( Southern . . .0. . .0. . .0( 

(Old World . . . 1 . . . 12 . , . 13( 

j New World . .4. . .0. . .4j 

We find then that the northern and southern division of the 
globe is not at all supported by the distribution of the ten'estrial 
molluscs. It is indeed very remarkable, that the connection so 
apparent in many groups between Australia and South America 
is so scantily indicated here. The only facts supporting it seem 
to be, the occurrence of Geotrochns {a sub-genus of Helix) in 
Brazil, as well as in the Austro-Malayan and West Pacific Islands 
and North Australia ; and of BvMmus in the same two parts of 
the globe, but peculiar sub-genera in each. But in neither case 
is there any affinity shown between the temperate portions of the 
two regions, so that we must probably trace this resemblance to 
some more ancient diffusion of types than that which led to the 
similarity of plants and insects. Still more curious is the entire 



e of genera confined to, and charaeteriatic of Africa and 
India. One small sub-genu3 of ITelix, (Machis), and one of Acha- 
Una, {Eomorm), appear to have this distribution, — a fact of but 
little significance when we find another snb-genus of Helix, 
(Hapalus), common and confined to Guinea and the Philippine 
Islands ; and when we consider the many other cases of scattered 
distribution which cannot he held to indicate any real connection 
between the countries implicated. Ko genus is confined to the 
Palsearctic and Nearctic regions as a whole. A large number 
of sub-genera, many of them of considerable extent, are peculiar 
to one or other of these regions, but only 3 sub-genera of Helix 
and 2 of Pupa are common and peculiar to the two combined, 
and these are always such as have an Arctic lange and whose 
distribution therefore oifers no difficulty. 

We find, then, that each of our six regions and almost all of 
our sub-regions are distinctly confirmed by the distribution of the 
terrestrial moUusca ; while the different combinations of them 
which have at various times been suggested, receive little or no 
support whatever. Even those remarkably isolated sub-regions. 
New Zealand and Madagascar, have no strictly peculiar genera of 
land-shells, although they both possess several peculiar sub- 
genera ; being thus inferior in isolation to some single West 
Indian Islands, to the Sandwich Islands, and even to the North 
Atlantic Islands (Canaries, Madeira, ana Azores), each of which 
liave peculiar genera. This of coui&e, only indicates that the 
means by which land moUusca have been dispersed are some- 
what special and peculiar. To determine in what this speciality 
consists we must consider some of the features of the specific 
distribution of this group. 

The range of genera, and even of sub-genera is, as we have 
seen, often wide and erratic, but as a general rule the species 
have a very restricted area. 

Hardly a small island on the globe but has some land-shells 
peculiar to it. Juan Fernandez has 20 species, all peculiar. 
Madeira and Porto Santo have 109 peculiar species out of a total 
of 134. Every little valley, plain, or hill-top, in the Sandwich 
Islands, though only a few sc^uare miles in extent, has its 



peculiar species of Aehatinella. Another striliing feature of tlie 
distribution of land molluscs, is the richness of islands as com- 
pared with continents. The Philippines contain more species 
than all India ; and those of the Antilles according to Mr. Bland 
almost exactly ec[ual the numbers found in the entire American 
continent from Greenland to Patagonia. Taking the "whole world, 
it appears that many more species of land-shells are found in the 
islands than on the continents of the globe, a peculiarity that 
obt-ains in no other extensive group of animals. 

Looking at these facts it seems probable, that the air-breathing 
molluscs have been chiefly distributed by air- or water-carri^e, 
rather than by voluntary dispersal on the land. Even seas and 
oceans have not formed impassable barriers to their diffusion ; 
whereas they only spread on dry land with excessive slowness and 
difficulty. The exact mode in which their diflusion is effected isnot 
known, and it may depend on rare and exceptional circumstances ; 
but it seems likely to occur in two ways. Snails frequently 
conceal themselves in crevices of trees or under bark, or attach 
themselves to stems or fohage, and either by their operculum or 
mucous diaphragm, are able to protect themselves from the in- 
jurious effects ot salt water for long periods. They might there- 
fore, under favourable conditions, he drifted across arms of the 
sea or from island to island ; while whei'over there are large 
rivers and occasional floods, they would by similar means be 
widely scattered over land areas. Another possible mode of dis- 
tribution is by means of storms and hurricanes, which would 
carry the smaller species for long distances, and might occasionally 
transport the eggs of the larger forma. Aquatic birds might 
occasionally get both shells and eggs attached to their feet or 
their plumage, and convey them across a wide extent of sea. 
But whether these, or some other unknown agency h^ acted, the 
faults of distribution clearly imply that some means of transport 
over water is, and has been, the chief agent in the distribution of 
these animals ; but that its action is very rare or intermittent, so 
that its effects are hardly perceptible in the distribution of single 

Another important factor in enabhng us to account for the 



distribution of these animals is the geological aiitic[«ity of the 
group, and the amount of change exhihited in time, by species 
and genera. Now we find that most of the genera of land-shells 
range back to the Eocene period, while those inhabiting fresh 
water are found almost unchanged in the Wealdea In North 
America a apeeiea of Pwjsa and one of Zonites, have been dis- 
covered in the coal measures, along with Lahyrinthodonts ; and 
this fe.ct seems to imply, that many more terrestrial molluscs 
would be discovered, if fresh-water deposits, made under favour- 
able conditions, were more frequently met with in the older 
rocks. If then the existing groups of land-mollusce are of such 
vast antiquity, and possess some means, however rarely occurring, 
of crossing seas and oceans, we need not wonder at the wide and 
erratic distribution now presented by so many of the groups ; 
■and we must not expect them to conform very closely to those 
regions which limit the range of animals of higher organizatioa 
and less antiquity. 

The total number of species of pulmoniferous molhisca is about 
7,000, according to the estimate of Sir. Woodward, brought down 
to 1868 by Mr. Tate. But this numher would be largely in- 
creased if the estimates of speciahsts werp taken, Mr. Woodward 
for example, gives 760 as the number of species in the West 
Indian Islands ; whereas Mr, Thomas Bland, who has made the 
shells of these islands a special study, considers that there were 
1,340 species in 1866, So, the land-shells of the Sandwich 
Islands are given at 267; but Mr. Gulick has added 120 species 
of Achatinellidfe, bringing the numbers up to nearly 400,— but 
no doubt several of these are so closely related that many con- 
chologists would class them as varieties. The land-shell fauna 
of the Antilles is undoubtedly the most remarkable in the world, 
and it has been made the subject of much interesting discussion 
by Mr, Bland and others. This fauna differs from that of all 
other parts of the globe in the proportions of the operculate to 
the inoperculate shells. The Opereulata of the globe are about 
one-seventh, the Inoperculata about six-sevenths of the whole ; 
and some general approximation to this proportiori (or a much 
smaller one) exists in almost all the continents, islands, and 


CHAP, ssil] MOLLUSCA. 527 

arehipelagoea. In the Philippines, for example, the proportion 
of the Operculata is a little more than one-seventh ; in the 
Mauritius, between one-third and one-fourth ; in Madeira, one- 
fourteenth ; in the whole American continent about one-eighth ; 
but when we come to the Antilles we find them to amount to 
nearly five-sixths, about half the Operculata of the globe being 
found there ! 

Mr. Bland endeavours to ascertain the source of some of the 
chief genera found in the West Indian Islands, on the principle 
that " each genus has had its origin where the greatest number 
of species is found ;" and then proceeds to determine that some 
have had an African, some an Asiatic, and some an American 
origin, while others are truly indigenous. But we fear there is 
no such simple way of arriving at so important a result ; and in 
the ease of groups of extreme antiq^uity hke the genera of mol- 
lusea, it would seem quite as possible that the origin of a genus 
is generally noi where the greatest number of species are now 
found. For during the repeated changes of physical conditions 
that have everywhere occurred since the Eocene period (to go 
no further bach) every genus must have made extensive migra- 
tions, and have often become largely developed in some other 
district than that in which it lirst appeared. As a proof of this, 
we not unfrequently find fossil shells where the species and even 
the genus now no longer exists ; as Auricula, found fossil in 
Europe, but only living in the Malay and Pacific Islands ; Anas- 
t&ma and Mega^ira, now peculiar to Brazil, but fossil in the 
Eocene of France ; and Proserpina of the "Wrat Indies, found in 
the Eocene formation of the Isle of Wight. The only means by 
which tbe origin of a genus can satisfactorily he arrived at, is by 
tracing back its fossil remains step by step to an earlier form ; 
and this we have at present no means of doing in the case of 
the land-shells. Taking existing species as our guide we should 
certainly have imagined that the genus Egwas 
Africa or Centiut Asia ; but recent discoveries of i 
extinct species and of less specialized forms of the same type, 
seem to indicate that it originated in Morth America, and that 
the whole tribe of " horses " may be, for anything we yet know 



to the contrary, i^cent immigraats into tte Old World ! This 
example alone must convince us, that it is impossible to form 
any conclusion as to the origin of a genus, from the distribution 
of existing species only. 

The general conclusion we arrive at, therefore, is, that the 
causes that have led to the existing distribution of the genera 
and higher groups of the terrestrial moUusca are so complex, and 
have acted through such long periods, that most of the barriers 
which limit the range of other terrestrial animals do not apply to 
them, although the species are, in most cases, strictly limited 
by them. Some means of diffusion — which, though probably 
acting very slowly and at long intervals, and more powerfully 
on continents than between islands, is yet highly efficient when 
we consider the long duration of genera — has, to a considerable 
extent, dispersed them across continents, seas, and oceans. On 
the other hand, those mountain barriers which separate many 
groups of the h^her vertebrates, are generally less ancient than 
the genera of land-shells, which are thus often distributed inde- 
pendently of them. In order to compare the distribution of the 
terrestrial mollusca on equal terms with those of land animals 
generally, we must take genera of the former as equivalent to 
tamily groups of the latter ; and we shall, I believe, then find 
that the distribution of the sub-genera and smaller groups of 
species do accord mainly with those divisions of the earth into 
regions and sub-regions which we have here indicated Mr. 
Harper Pease, in a communication on Polynesian Land Shells 
in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1871 (p- 449), 
marks out the limits of the Polynesian sub-region, so as exactly 
to agree with that arrived at here from a consideration of the 
distribution of vertebrata ; and he says that this sub-region, (or 
region, as he terms it) is distinctly characterised by its land- 
shells from all the surrounding regions. The genera (or sub- 
genera) Partula, Fitys, Aohalinella, Falaina, Omphalolropis, 
and many others, are either wholly confined to this sub-region 
or highly characteristic of it. Mr. Btnney, in his Catalogue of 
the Air-breathing Molluscs of North America, marks out oar 
Nearctic region (with almost identical limits) as most clearly 


CHAP, xxii-j MOLLUSOA. 529 

characterised. He also arrives at a series of sub- divisions, 
which generally (though not exactly) agree with the sub-regions 
which I have here adopted. The Palfeaictic, the Ethiopian, and 
the Oriental regions, are also generally admitted to be well 
characterised by their terrestrial molluscs. There only remain 
the Australian and the Neotropical regions, in which some want 
of homogeneity is apparent, owing to the vast development and 
specialisation of certain groups in the islands which belong to 
these regions. The Antilles, on the one hand, and the Polyne- 
sian Islands, on the other, are so rich in land-shells saiA 
possess so many peculiar forms, that, judged by these alone, 
they must form primary instead of secondary divisions. We 
have, however, already pointed out the inconvenience of any 
such pai'tial systems of zoological geography, and the causes 
have been sufficiently indicated which have, in the case of 
land-shells as of insects, produced certain special features of 

We therefore venture to hope, that conehologists will give us 
the advantage of their more full and accurate knowledge both of 
the classification and distribution of this interesting group of 
animals, not to map out new sets of regions for themselves, but 
to show what kind of barriers have been most efficient in 
limiting the range of species, and how their distribution is 
actually effected, so as to be able to explain whatever dis- 
crepancies exist between the actual distribution of land-shells 
and that of the higher animals. 


There are ten families in this order, all of which, as fa^ as 
known, are widely or universally distributed. Some of them 
ai* found fossil, ranging back to the Carboniferous epoch. They 
are commonly tenned Sea-slugs, and have either a thin small 
shell or none. We shall therefore simply enumerate the families, 
with the number of genera and species as given by Mr. Wood- 



Family 31.— TOKNATELLID^. (7 Genera, 62 Species living, 
166 fossil) 

Family 32.—BULLIDzE. (12 Genera, 168 Species living, 
88 fossil.)' 

Family 33.— APHYSIADiE. (8 Genera, 84 Species living, 
4 fossil) 

Family 34,— PLEUEOBEANCHID^. (7 Genera, 28 Species 
living, 5 fossil.) 

Family 35.— PliYLLIDIADiE. (4 Genera, 14 Species living, 

i-AMiLY 36.— BOKID^. (23 Genera, 160 Species living, 

Family 37.— TEITONIAD^ (9 Genera, 88 Species living, 

Family ZS.—JEO'LIDM. (14 Genera, 101 Species living, 

Family 39.— PHYLLYEHOID.^. (1 Genus, 6 Species living, 

Family 40.— ELYSIAD^. (5 Genera, 13 Species living, 



These are oceanic, swimming molluscs, of a delicate texture. 
They are found in all warm seas, and range back to the Lower 
Silurian epoch. There are only two families. 

Family 41.— FIROLIDiE. (2 Genera, 33 Species living, 1 

Family 42.— ATLANTID^ (5 Genera, 22 Species living, 
159 fossil.) 


These are swimming, oceanic mollusca, inhabiting both Arctic, 
Temperate, and Tropical seas. The three families have each a 
wide distribution in all the great oceans. They range back to 
the Silurian period. 

Family 1.---HYALEID^. (9 Genera, 52 Species living, 
95 fossil.) 

Family 2.— LIMACINID^. (4 Genera, 19 Species living, 

Family 3.— CLIONID.^. (4 Genera, 14 Species living, 




These are sedentary, bivalve, marine molluaca, having laterally 
symmetrical shells, but with unequal valves. Both in space and 
time they are the most widely distributed molluscs. They are 
found in all seas, and at all depths ; and when any of the families 
or genera have a restricted range, it seems to be due to our im- 
perfect knowledge, rather than to any real geogi'aphical limita- 
tions. In time they range back to the Cambrian formation, and 
seem to have had their maximum development in the Silurian 
period. It is not, therefore, necessary for our purpose, to do 
more than give the names of the famiHes with the numbers of 
the genera and species, as before. 

Family 1.— TEEEBEATULID^. (5 Genera, 67 Species 
living, 340 fossil.) 

Family 2.--SPIEIFERIDiE. (4 Genera, Species living, 
380 fossil) 

Family 3.— EHYNCHONELLID^. (3 Genera, 4 Species 
living, 422 fossil.) 

Family 4.— OETHTD^. (4 Genera, Species living, 328 

Family 5.— PEODUCTID^. (3 Genera, Species living, 14ti 

Family 6.— CEANIAD^. (1 Genus, 5 Species living, 37 

Family 7.— DISCINID^. (2 Genera, 10 Species living, 90 

Family 8,— LTNGULTD^. (2 Genera, 1 6 Species living, 99 



The Gonchifera, or ordinary Bivalve Mollusc